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individual units which make the nation. All Americans are optimists. There may There is no one-man power, no ministerial be a few stopping with us who are not, power, no money power, no specious but but they are not Americans. The expectafallacious philosophy, going to rule this tions of the nation are not to be measured. country. This is a democracy-discussion Our expectations are not gross. They are and native energy will point that way. genuine and sincere, moral and high

The educational purpose of America is minded. They are to be realized through sharply distinguished from that of other the universal, popular enlightenment. The lands. The essential factor in the differ- nation believes implicitly in the essential entiation is our democracy.

principles established in the great charters

of English and American liberty. It is AMERICANS AS OPTIMISTS

using its money and its political power for We have got hold of all that and more. the fullest development of those great prinWe may learn from all other systems, but ciples. It is doing it with judgment, with there is an essential educational purpose in confidence and without apprehension. With America which distinguishes our system

fearless self-initiative, with self-conscious from all others. We know nothing about

rectitude, with ready acceptance of the logiclasses. We stand for the equal opportun

cal consequences of its own progress, with

malice toward none and charity for all, ity for all. Even more—much more. It is

with no thought of conquest, with no purthe natural belief that the greatness of the

pose but liberty, security and intellectual nation and the progress of mankind depend

and moral progress in its mind, with knowlupon encouraging and aiding every child

edge that all real progress must come of the people to make the most of himself, through work and all real growth must without fear of consequences, and without

come through service, the nation once more doubt of results of the very highest mo- pays its respects to the past and gives ment to the nation and to the world.

itself anew for the future.

THE IMMIGRANT CHILD

OLR

MISS JULIA RICHMAN, DISTRICT SUPT. OF SCHOOLS NEW YORK CITY URS is a nation of immigrants. The about nine per cent. of immigrant arrivals

citizen voter of to-day was the im- are of school age. That there has never migrant child of yesterday. He may be been any coördination between the imthe political leader of to-morrow. Be- migration and the school authorities is a tween the voter of to-day and the im- governmental blunder which needs immigrant child of yesterday stands the mediate correction. school. The school alone can make of The immigrant child of prior schooling the immigrant the material upon which should be properly graded, not according the future welfare of the state and the to his knowledge of English, but accordnation is based. Careful examination of ing to his mentality. Special classes for the statistics of the bureau of immigra- foreigners, as a means to an end, not as tion shows, first, that no census of chil- an end in itself, must be established in all dren of school age among the arriving communities where foreigners congreimmigrants is taken; second, that thous- gate. ands of immigrant children of school age The Americanization of the child, never enter our schools; and, third, that while the parents remain foreign in thought, language, and custom, means trace.. In the removal of these causes domestic shipwreck. The school must the school will find its chief function, its give to the parents correct American chief obligation to the community. Sostandards. In order to acquaint parents ciology and pedagogy must be harmonias well as children with a respect for ously blended would we truly serve the the law, we must change our methods state and the nation. With this ideal beof teaching civics. A community needs fore them, the training schools for teachknowledge of local ordinances before it ers must revise their methods. needs to know the divisions of the na- A teacher's life, if viewed with the tional government. Foreigners should be eyes of the optimist, is one of glorious taught the laws which were made for opportunity; to the pessimist it is one of their protection. It is far more essen- hopeless drudgery. With you it still tial that they should be taught to obey rests either to make your teaching a work tenement house laws, to keep fire escapes of hopeless drudgery or of unlimited opclear, and to separate ashes from garbage portunity. Nowhere is that opportunity than to memorize the qualifications of a so rich, so fruitful, and so soul-satisfying United States senator or to name the as in a community of aliens. In all inembers of the President's cabinet. classes of the community there is much

We must recognize that pedagogy of God's work to be done. In the large based solely upon theory has outlived its immigrant communities this is especially usefulness. Abstract educational theories true. Let us give ourselves to the task must stand aside to make room for socio- of serving the state, humanity, and God. logical experiences. The sociological Ours is the great opportunity of renderneeds of a community must be examined ing the rare and holy services of making and closely studied by educators and the a true American citizen out of an imcauses thereof must be scientifically migrant child.

THE SCHOOL ASPECT OF COMPULSORY EDUCATION

G. H. MARTIN, SECRETARY MASSACHUSETTS STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

IN
N all ages and among all peoples is found that the motive of the parent is

men have talked much of their own to relieve himself from labor. There is rights and of children's duties; we are evidence that as the proportion of the beginning to reverse the terms and assert family income derived from the labor of children's rights and men's duties. It is children increases the earnings of the not creditable to modern civilization or father decrease. modern Christianity that, after seventy- Whatever may be true in the country five years of fighting the wholesale ex- and on the farms, it is certain that in ploitation of child labor in mines and factory towns where child labor is demills, we should still find the enemy in pended upon for family support race suipossession of so many entrenched posi- eide is delayed. To this crime against tions and defending them so successfully. childhood the parent is tempted by the

Wherever we find children denied pre- greed of employers. They furnish the maturely their right to time and instruc- opportunity which in the North has tion we find the primary cause the igno- drawn as by magnet attraction the poor rance and the selfishness of the parents. and ignorant peasants of Canada and In every investigation into child labor it Southern Europe, and in the South the equally poor and ignorant mountain combine to raise it. In fourteen years 2 whites. Against this conspiracy between child of even moderate ability in a comemployer and parent the child is help- munity which furnishes adequate school less. Only society, by means of laws facilities should have acquired a good carefully drawn and rigidly enforced, can elementary education, broad enough and secure him his rights. To such legisla- thorough enough for him to build upon tion and to such enforcement society is by voluntary effort such superstructure drawn by its own interest and compelled of more advanced culture as he is inby its highest obligation. Mercantile in- clined to. This may easily be shown by terests can look out for themselves, but a brief analysis of the modern elethe children must be protected by the mentary school course. State.

The child has a right to be taught how The time given to children to call their to be useful and to be increasingly useown in which to equip themselves for the ful as he grows in strength and intellibattle of life in the most advanced com- gence. He has a right to know the pleasmunities has reached a maximum of four- ure of service and to feel the obligation teen years. This is low enough for any of service. He has a right to have some community, and wherever there is a place made for him in the industrial life lower limit all the social forces should of the family.

THE

THE LEGAL ASPECT OF COMPULSORY EDUCATION

F. H. GIDDINGS, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY HE educational problem and the in- perience has shown that compulsory at

dustrial problem of child labor can- tendance is itself the best enforcement of not be separated. Child labor itself is a the laws against child labor; but this is kind of education, which, according to its difficult where school accommodations nature and extent, may be consistent or are inadequate and where population is altogether inconsistent with other kinds. either dense and heterogeneous, as in the The labor that American boys and girls tenement house quarters of our great had to perform on the farm a generation cities, or sparse and indifferent to eduand more ago was often an invaluable cational interests, as in the mountain discipline of mind and character, fitting regions of the South. them for self-reliant and useful careers A very special difficulty, and one that quite as effectively as their meagre school puts all our theories and our devices to training did. Such labor did not neces- the severest test, is that which is presarily unfit the child for the enjoyment sented by destitute families. The practiof the highest educational advantages. cal question which has to be answered Exhausting confinement in stores, sweat over and over is: Is it right to take a shops and factories is child labor of an strong, overgrown boy thirteen years of altogether different sort.

It is antago- age from money earning employment nistic to the child's mental and physical and force laim to attend school when by, development and it cannot be combined so doing we compel a widowed mother to with any sound educational policy. apply to private or public relief agencies

It is not easy to maintain the adminis- for help, thereby making her, and pertrative machinery to enforce child labor haps the boy also, a pauper? restrictions and the truancy laws. Ex- The only answer to this question consistent with the policy of compulsory families also are desirable; the state must education itself is the proposition that in make up to the family at least some part such cases adequate public assistance of the income that children could earn if should be given, not as charity, but as a they were permitted freely to enter upon right.

industrial employments. The question, A final and deeper difficulty exists, therefore, that we shall have to face and which has received curiously little atten- to answer, is this: Shall the state pay tion. We hear a great deal lately about parents for keeping their children in "race suicide.” Large families are no school, between the ages of ten and fourlonger seen, especially in the so-called teen? This would be a policy of socialmiddle class. It is strange that no one ism, undoubtedly. I do not pretend to has pointed out the connection between say whether the American people will or the increased demand upon parents to will not adopt it. I only say that as a maintain their children in school, fore- matter of social causation they will be going the earnings that children might compelled to adopt it, if they try to mainadd to the family income, and the dimin- tain both large families and compulsory ishing size of the average family. The education, while prohibiting child labor connection, however, is undoubtedly a in department stores and factories. It is real one, and the practical inference is not my intention to advocate the measobvious. If the restriction of child labor ure, or to argue against it. My purpose is desirable; if compulsory education is is served in calling your attention to the desirable; and if at the same time large logic of facts.

MANUAL TRAINING IN THE GRADES

SUPT. L. D. HARVEY, MENOMONIE, WIS.

belief that nature has made so great a mitted in the educational world under mistake as to bring children into the the name of correlation without still further world at any given stage of the developextending the list in attempting to corre- ment of civilization lacking the capacity late every form of motor training with

to

enter into that civilization without some phase of the text book of the school going through all the preliminary proroom.

cesses and steps through which it has been Correlation in educational work should evolved. be natural and not forced. Indeed, it can- I am not undertaking to argue the not be forced ; and much of what goes question as to whether the child in his under the name of correlation would unfolding must live over again in his debetter be called a conglomeration of dis- velopment the development of the race, jointed and unrelated fragments of knowl- and must begin where the race began; edge with a resulting habit of mind of but I do undertake to express my belief little value in effective and concentrated that if this be true, he is at the time he effort.

enters the public school advanced far I believe the children being trained to- enough in this process of development so day are far more concerned with the in- that some systematic effort may be underdustrial processes of to-day than they are taken for his training through the utilizawith the industrial processes of primitive tion of his immediate environment, and peoples, and I cannot bring myself to the that it is unnecessary to attempt the difficult task of reconstructing the environ- public schools is fewer rather than more ment of primitive peoples which finds no subjects, and that manual training would proper place in the environment of to-day. only add to the burdens of teachers and

We have been making the mistake in pupils, and would detract from the quality our public school work of assuming that and quantity of knowledge and kind of the child can be taken from the home, training to be derived from the study of where its activities before entering school the traditional three R's in the course irave been concerned chiefly with things, of study. and that during the school period each The remarkable thing about these day we may entirely change the form of claims is that they are made just as frehis activities and invoke the activities quently and with just as much truth which come from the use of books.

where no work in manual training or He should have during these early The trouble is not that we have too years just such scope for motor activity other of the so-called "fads" is found. and systematic training as a well organized many subjects, but that we attempt to course in manual training will provide. teach too many things in these subjects

And many of those who make these which are not worth teaching, and are complaints, doubtless with more or less wasteful in time, method, and effort with of truth, argue that what is needed in the correspondingly poor results.

WHY DO SO MANY PUPILS LEAVE THE HIGH SCHOOL?

REUBEN POST HALLECK, PRINCIPAL BOYS' HIGH SCHOOL, LOUISVILLE, KY. I THINK secondary schools do their An average of less than twenty per

work as well as any other depart- cent. of the boys entering the high ment of education. In some of our large schools of the United States remain to cities fifty per cent. of all enrolled pupils graduate, although naturally the average do not get beyond the fourth grade. This for girls and for most smaller cities and is an appalling fact which ought to alarm towns is larger. The Boys' High School any nation whose foundation rests on of Louisville has by improving its teacheducation. Those of us who are en- ing force graduated during the last six trusted with secondary education must in years an average of nearly thirty-eight the future try to make two blades of grass per cent. of all boys entering. It is not grow in the high school where one has so much the subject as the teacher that grown before.

causes pupils to lose interest and withHigh school teaching is not a profes- draw. Something more is needed than sion. In some states the average length enrichment of the course to prevent withof a high school teacher's continuance in drawals. Enrichment of the high school the business of teaching is not over four course does not always enrich the pupil. years. No profession can secure good re- In high schools with utilitarian courses sults on such an average of length of the percentage of pupils leaving is often service, no matter whether it is the medi- higher than in classical high schools. cal, engineering, chemical, or teaching There will be fewer withdrawals of profession. Under existing conditions teachers will give sympathetic outside atwe must expect withdrawals from school tention to a pupil the moment he begins and untold misdirected and wasted hu- to fall behind; if they will remember that man effort.

incoming pupils are very immature, that

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