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they have not yet learned how to study," has given them. The oldest already know and that it is no time to teach the abstruse something of the world, and judge their metaphysics of any subject. The deplor-' teachers most severely if they show igable break between the eighth grade and norance of it. The mere man of books, the high school is due more to an emphatic the pedant schoolmaster, has been for ages difference in the kind and amount of the butt of satire and caricature. This too mental activity required in the high school common literary personage should be supthan to mere difference in subject matter. planted by the schoolmaster in his true
High school teachers should be chosen part as "guide, counsellor, and friend." largely in terms of their personality with The schoolmaster's influence depends more the main emphasis on the power to stimu- upon what he is than upon what he knows. late and inspire. I have seen such teachers He should be like those pilots who not develop what is known as the "school only know every reef, but whose barks spirit” and a desire on the part of pupils have never been wrecked. He should be to look after the delinquents in their class the master, not a slave of the world. He and help them in the same way that an can attain this mastery only by mingling altruistic city looks after its unfortunates. with men of the world and by learning It should be the chief aim of teachers to from them. His acquaintances and some develop moral stamina. The high school of his close friends should be men of very "quitter" is usually inore of a moral than different life from his own. In this way an intellectual failure.
the schoolmaster can learn to understand better the parents of his pupils and so
understand better the pupils who are modelHOW CAN PUPILS BE INDUCED TO ling themselves upon their parents. For REMAIN IN THE HIGH SCHOOL ?
all his book learning, all his skill in pre
sentation will be of little avail unless his WILLIAM SCHUYLER, MCKINLEY HIGH SCHOOL,
pupils understand him and sympathize with ST. LOUIS, MO.
him and vice versa. The schoolmaster POR years schoolmasters have gathered
must endeavor to be like. St. Paul, and together and discussed what they
"become all things to all men, that he should do for the children committed
may by all means save some.” to their charge. They have accomplished much by these discussions, but they should remember that “Charity begins at home,"
CORRELATION OF MATHEMATICS AND and should sometimes consider the ever
| SCIENCE present question, What shall they do for C. E. MC CORMICK, BRADLEY POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, themselves ? For the success of the school
PEORIA, ILL. depends mainly upon the schoolmaster, Mathematics is a method of science; the schoolmaster as a man—not only as it is a language used in the expression of a man of learning or of executive ability, scientific thought. It is therefore esbut more especially as a man of the world. sential to the study of those sciences As his aim is to fit his charges for life which have attained the greatest degree in the world—the world as it is, not as of perfection, such as physics, astronomy it ought to be he must know this world and chemistry. A mathematical training thoroughly. Especially is this true for which does not fit a student for his subteachers in secondary schools, many of sequent work in science is a misdirected whose pupils are soon to make their way training. It is often a far cry from the in the world equipped with what the school mathematics of the schools to the mathematics of serious life. In school and col- PHYSICAL TRAINING IN THE GRAMlege the emphasis should be placed upon
MAR SCHOOL the efficiency of mathematics, yet even
MISS REBECCA STONEWOOD, WASHINGTON, D. C. keeping in mind that only through logical reasoning can truth be found. In the The true educational value of physicollege of a hundred years ago mathe- cal training is that it is a training for matics had but little bearing upon the life. The department of plays and games future work of the student. With the holds a higher place in this connection, development of the study of science there for in no other form of physical exercise has arisen a field which demands the use can we get in so short a time those qualiof mathematics not only in the college but ties of quick observation, reasoning, dein the multitudinous pursuits requiring cision, nerve and muscular control. The technical training. A knowledge of mathe- constant playing of a game secures acmatics, then, becomes essential within curacy and quickness of execution genera large realm of human activities. There ally termed skill, which enables one not has not been a corresponding change in only to do this thing well, but all allied the courses of mathematics sufficient to movements, thus relating them to the great meet the new demands that have arisen purpose of education which is the power How can courses in mathematics be or- to do. ganized to better meet the needs of science, It is by means of the class exercise pure and applied ?
that we are enabled to influence each and 1. By stripping them of artificial scho all of the hundreds of children in a gramlastic methods and giving a common sense mar school. The opportunity is given for mathematics.
a personal inspection and individual train2. By an early introduction of the re- ing in posture and habit. School gymsults and methods of higher mathematics, nastics, although an artificial system of especially of analytic geometry and cal- exercise, have the advantage over plays culus.
and games in our educational scheme on 3. By the consideration of real scien- account of their practicability. We can tific problems instead of the manufactured give daily to large masses of children in riddles of the books.
a short space of time in all seasons and 4. By the actual handling of physical under all conditions of weather, without phenomena through observation and ex- play-grounds, a certain amount of all periment.
round physical exercise based upon physioThe position of mathematics as a men logical principles, calling into play all the tal tonic would be strengthened rather muscles of the body and so planned and than weakened in thus replacing the cold executed as to be of the greatest educaformality of pure mathematical study by tional value. the invigorating study of a live mathe- It must be distinctly understood that matics which is seen to be a power. The school gymnastics are not recreation. student who has a taste for pure mathe- They are school work. I would never atmatics will receive inspiration, for, as tempt to substitute such work for the play Fourier says: “The deeper study of na- of recess. Both departments of physical ture is the most fruitful source of mathe- education, the plays and games, and the matical study.”
formal gymnastics are necessary and should
go hand in hand in a perfect system of . Work well done is in itself the amplest reward
! and the amplest prize.-President Roosevelt.
While retaining the educational pur
pose and value of physical training the Clay is the little child's own medium method of teaching can be one which for representing form because he can exarouses interest, delight and pleasure. So press it as it appeals to him from his tactile let us introduce more of the recreative knowledge of it. element into what by its very nature could Only such mediums should be used as resolve itself into a dreary monotonous are sufficiently plastic to call for little phydrill. The more recreative the educational sical effort. gymnastics, and the more educational the The brush, with water-color or ink, play, the better will be the system of phy- charcoal, clay are the mediums for the litsical training adapted to grammar schools. tle ones.
The smaller the child the larger he should work and he will naturally work
large if he has not been taught to write THE AIMS OF DRAWING IN THE
too young; in which case, he will pinch PRIMARY GRADES
his brush as he does his pencil, close to MISS EMMA M. CHURCH, DIRECTOR NORMAL ART DEPT. the point and fairly write his pictures with CHICAGO ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS
his fingers. The tendencies that characterize the So much of the primary drawing and primary child are those of restless, bodily industrial work, in our exhibitions, as well and mental activity; the latter being of as writing and arithmetic and other studies the subjective imaginative kind. It is the in these grades, is pitifully the work of the time of symbolism and spontaneous play; teachers—done more for the sake of rethe time of all times to inculcate the love sult, than for the sake of the child, and of artistic creation which will blossom at done at the expense of over-wrought nerves a later period.
and body. He is intensely interested in action. In the primary grades, there should be in human and animal life; but not in much less teaching and instruction—much landscape except as a conventional back more and better stimulus to live this ground for some kind of action.
precious period in a natural way and to The sources from which we may de express it in a manner that is truly childish. rive interesting material for illustration Drawing teachers must know much are his games which are the most inti- more than how to draw and to criticize mately interesting phase of life because drawings; they must know children and they afford him a chance to live them know how to learn from them how to through acting. He will love nature the teach. more for having been introduced to it through nature myths and fairy tales, because he can through them approach CORRELATION OF MUSIC WITH OTHER nature with a human interest. If he is
BRANCHES OF STUDY allowed to dramatize them, so much the
MISS ELIZABETH CASTERTON, BAY CITY, MICH. better, for he has made them his very own by living them. He will revel in symbolic THERE is nothing that touches hunature stories of his own, told first in words manity on as many sides—to develop, to and then in pictures; stories of home life, intensify, and to modify—as music. A industries among which he lives often be proper adjustment of the school curricome true poetry in his hands; if we can culum calls for a recognition of the spirit, but see them from his point of view rather purposes, and interests that music has in than our own.
common with other branches. A close relationship between music and each of the READING IN THE FIRST SCHOOL YEAR other branches would enhance the value MRS. ALICE WOOD WORTH COOLEY, UNIVERSITY OF of both. This correlation should be only
NORTH DAKOTA such as exists in the very nature of the I. THE vital question of this critical subjects.
period, the first school year, is, What ideas The subjects that offer the most im- have become ideals? What habits has the mediate opportunity for correlation are na- child formed ? ture study, geography, history (including II. Of the various means used by the biography), and literature.
teacher, the teaching of reading may be Nature study and music should start made to exert the most potent influences, hand-in-hand in the kindergarten, and con- the most vital, the most permanent. But tinue throughout the school course. The reading and teaching reading must be given songs should be planned as the nature work their full legitimate meaning. is planned, according to the season, and III. Reading always and everywhere should relate to the various phenomena has its two-fold phase: It is imaging of nature as they appear.
and thinking, with joy in these activities; In connection with geography or his- it is also mastery of the symbols, with tory, what could be more interesting than joy in this also. Oral reading is always a few folk or national songs of the country and everywhere (1) seeing, thinking and being studied ? Side by side with the feeling incited by written words; (2) givpolitical history of a country runs collateral ing to another in the same words spoken music, dealing with the home-life, science, the pictures found in the words written, ethics, history, literature, or some one of
for the purpose of arousing sympathetic the many things that go to make up its
thought and feeling in the listener. The general civilization.
first steps in teaching reading should So, a song properly
leave this abiding impression in the mind studied should give to the child interest
of the listener. His attitude toward words, and information in regard to some one of
toward reading, is more important than the many features of a nation's life.
the number of words learned per month. History is closely interwoven with IV. To teach oral reading to pupils music. How little does the Marseillaise of any age is: to develop literary taste hymn mean to a pupil if he knows noth- from its germ, bud or flower; to cultiing of the political history of France, and vate the imagination and power of the circumstances surrounding the com centrate attention to lead to clearer and position of that famous song!
more definite thinking; to increase the Music can be correlated with litera pleasure in reading; to give increased ture. The song that embodies great ideals facility in quick recognition of word forms; and noble sentiments is an effective means
to train to distinct, correct pronunciation in
well modulated tones. toward storing the child's mind with the
V. The first steps in learning to read great thoughts of other souls. The child
must then be: Getting vivid pictures of should obtain through the medium of mu
objects and events worth thinking and sic, if in no other way, an extensive knowl
reading about; larger, clearer, more defiedge of the best poems.
nite thoughts; and higher ideals of beauty There should be developed an order of form and sound. This can only be of music material related to the experience done by (1) contact with real things worth of the child in each stage of his school while to know; (2) enlarged experience; life.
(3) expression in word and by hand; (4)
ear familiarity with literature; (5) increasingly accurate and distinct pronunciation with ever better voice modulation; (6) association of mental pictures with written forms and their sound; (7) increasing ability to instantly, at sight of the written form, give its meaning to others in spoken words.
VI. We have often swung too far away from the fundamental first principles of simplicity and naturalness. We have too often built up an elaborate system that is artificial, belittling and smothering.
VII. A number of direct practical questions are offered for discussion. All relate to teaching reading in the first school year. The theses stated, hold in solution the key to the answers.
These questions relate to essential con ditions; the teacher's preparation; the character of the lessons in subject matter and phraseology; their relation to expression by word and hand; phonics; worddrills; independent study by the child; conduct of reading exercises; criticisms; mental discipline; ethical training.
of application and review through the study of the scientific phases of typical business organizations.
Science should be so taught as to yield its customary power and training.
The commercial school, not being limited by college entrance requirements or by the necessity of preparing for the professions, should aim to make the student broadly intelligent along scientific lines.
General and commercial geography in their scientific aspects afford an excellent introduction and aid to the teaching of science.
I n addition to the ordinary laboratory equipment, an exhibit of products and processes should parallel and illustrate the work of the classes.
Election of subjects by pupils should be limited so that a general rather than a special or partial view of the scientific field is obtained.
Science work should be carried on with a clear understanding of its relation to other subjects of the commercial course, and by instructors who are in sympathy with the aims of the school.
THE SCIENCE WORK OF A FOUR YEAR THE TEACHING OF APPLIED DESIGN COMMERCIAL COURSE
JAMES P. HANEY, DIRECTOR OF ART AND MANUAL PRIN. ALLAN DAVIS, BUSINESS H. S., WASHINGTON,
TRAINING, NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS D. C.
THE moment any space is divided by A KNOWLEDGE of the natural sciences a line or has introduced into it a spot, is essential to a good general education masses are formed within it. That moand should be a prescribed part of a com- ment it becomes a design. Applied demercial course.
sign concerns itself with a given space One hour a day throughout the four so divided; the term defines the relayears, or approximately one-fifth of the tion which exists between the masses student's time, is perhaps an allotment formed. The more harmonious this rewhich is sufficient for science and which látion, the better the design. does not encroach upon the needs of other As an element in determining mass, studies. This would permit elementary line is of greatest importance. All debiology, combined with the study of com- signs have more or less action or movemercial products, to be pursued in the first ment. Primarily it is the power which year, followed by chemistry in the second resides in line which controls this and physics in the third, with a final year movement, which makes it fast or slow,