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and turns it in one direction or another. The earlier steps in teaching should No line in a pattern may be ignored, nor be confined to instruction in what is any one to be added without careful makes for good structural relations beconsideration of the part it is going to tween masses. Later the student may be play in conditioning the rhythm of the permitted to make elaborate patterns design. No spot even is quiescent. The in which the structural elements are eye travels to each spot in turn, that it disguised by details, but at first he must may establish rhythmic relations be- be limited to the development of masses tween such spot or mass and other alone. masses.
Following these principles, pupils The designer thus has it in his may be led to make designs simple and power to make the observer look where structurally sound, varied and well rehe will in his pattern. He can lead the lated and sowing a pleasing repose eye from one line to another and from through well balanced interests. one mass to another, he can give For such results it is worth while to strength and simplicity by emphasizing strive. the elements that bind together and support the form and can give interest THE PROFESSIONAL CULTURE OF by felicitous rhythms and smooth transi
TEACHERS tions. Conversely, he can cause discomfort by forcing the eye to make abrupt
J. M. GREENWOOD, KANSAS CITY changes, and positive dissatisfaction by This paper is tentative and it is deleaving it to wander aimlessly in a maze signed to call attention to the mental of unrelated forms.
attitude of a large class of teachers after A problem in design may be stated they have been regularly employed in with the precision of a problem in school work, and have practically ceased geometry. The secret of successful to study educational problems seriously, class-room teaching lies in this specific or to widen their spheres of knowledge definition and in the systematic devel- by systematic methods of culture. It is opment of the steps to the problem's so- assumed that teachers who cease to strive lution. These steps should include after higher ideals in self-improvement, first, the introduction of the decorating are moving with an accelerated velocity mass into the space; second, the di- down an intellectual incline. This furvision of this mass into elements; third, nishes the background for submitting the refinement of these elements, and some reflections on the composition of fourth, their translation into “subject the teaching force of the United States. matter” or conventionalized forms.
In his last report the Commissioner of Good illustrative matter must be Education gives the whole number ut presented to pupils if they are to evolve public school teachers employed as 449,good designs. Example counts for 287. Of this number 117,035 are men, much in such practice. The illustra- and 332,252 are women. The same table tions offered must relate specifically to shows that during the last twenty-two the problem to be solved. These ex- years the percentage of male teachers amples should be analyzed by the pupils had steadily decreased throughout the under the teacher's direction, that their country from 42.8 per cent. to 26 per structural and decorative features may cent, and that the annual decrement of be understood, seen and the limits of male teachers in the five great divisions desirable variations determined.
into which our country is geographically
subdivided, is about 5,000, and the annual generally believed that a plan had been increment of female teachers is 15,000. hit upon that would materially raise the In 467 cities included in the report of the general level of the professional efficommittee on salaries, tenure, and pen- ciency of the teaching force of the counsions of public school teachers in the try, and thus widen their spheres of United States, page 53, it is shown that knowledge in many directions. In the the number of teachers employed was practical application of this elaborate 84,042 exclusive of supervisors, and that scheme, it soon became apparent that only 8.6 per cent. of the entire number those who should have accepted it most employed in high and elementary schools enthusiastically, rejected it or were inwere men, but deducting 2,921, who are different, while the younger and more principals, from the total, leaves 5.6 per enthusiastic teachers were incalculably cent. of male teachers in these high and benefited. elementary schools. These partial sta- There is another class not so numerous tistics are introduced for the purpose of as the first, that had their minds set in calling attention to the character of the another direction. They are the “degreeteaching force to be influenced by any hunters” who are specializing. They are system that may be devised for their pro- high school and elementary teachers who fessional improvement. It is my con- are looking forward to something better viction that there is no marked difference than they now have and are striving each between the sexes in regard to any innate summer at normal schools, colleges and or acquired disposition to study thor- universities to improve themselves in oughly educational problems, or to strike certain branches of study in order to reout on new lines of investigation. In a ceive higher salaries. Work of this kind rough sort of a way, I am inclined to the has great value academically, but in genbelief that not more than twenty per eral it does not lead very far in the direccent. of either sex now engaged in edu- tion of professional study, and consecational work, is willing to do much in quently contributes little expert teaching. the direction of either persistent study The knowledge acquired is chiefly techalong special lines or professional read- nical and narrow, and it leads into closed ing. By this I do not affirm that eighty alleys rather than out into the open. Yet per cent. of the teachers do not read, but there are some exceptions. My observathat their reading is of that patchy, tion in watching high school teachers scrappy, miscellaneous species that con- who have taken work along special lines tains neither information nor much is, that it narrows rather than broadens literary culture. The disinclination of a their vision of educational questions genmajority of teachers to engage seriously erally. As a class these teachers give in new channels of thought, unless under much less thought to scientific methods pressure of a present, powerful stimulus, of study pertaining to the acquisition of is well known. Consequently this nega- knowledge than any other class of teachtive factor has to be reckoned with in allers. They are drill-masters who concalculations connected with an investi- tinue to fit subjects to boys and girls, gation of this kind.
rather than fit boys and girls to subjects. When “Teachers' Reading Circles" Their methods are in an advanced microwere first outlined in several of the states scopic stage. In hardly any sense can and courses of study rather formidable they be classified as students of educawere recommended, covering three or tion, but they are excellent drill sergeants. four different lines of work, it was very If eighty per cent. of teachers cease to read systematically after they have been in some cities. Frequently one enthuonce thoroughly installed as teachers, siastic teacher in a school of twenty or the question is, How can they be induced thirty teachers will inspire from one-half to fall into studious habits of reading and to three-fourths of the entire body. investigating educational problems? A Sporadic efforts are generally shorttemporary stimulus may be imparted by lived. Enthusiasm is contagious, but it having a graduated course of study, the is not equal to well-directed, persistent pressure of which is in some manner con- discipline. A disciplined mind counts nected with an advance in salary. A everywhere. purely financial stimulus is a low motive I f the superintendent of a system of for real teaching. But there is a ten- schools, or the principal of a school, is dency inherent in some minds, while studiously inclined, the teachers, as a working at a project that is irksome at body, can be put in the right attitude first, to become interested in the kind of toward professional advancement. The work which was so distasteful at the be- superintendent or principal' must be a ginning. This change is produced by a leader, one who can persuade others to different viewpoint. However, there enlist under his banner. The organizashould be nothing compulsory connected tion of the workers, first into a compact with any scheme for the professional ad body of those who really mean to improve, vancement of teachers, but it should be will produce a marked effect on the lagof such a nature as would enable one to gards. pull himself upward by self-exertion. I have made it a point whenever I
A danger to be guarded against in the read a new book, or an old one that i use of all factitious stimuli, is the short- found to be helpful, to call the attention ness of the time occupied in preparation of principals and teachers to it publicly, for advancement. Many never look and to speak briefly of the leading ahead very far. The near and the present thoughts it presented. I have tried to they see. In general, the minimum sal- create a desire for knowledge first ary should he large enough to allow those which some of the teachers would enwho reach it and feel inadequate to fur deavor to gratify. In all that is done, the ther exertion, to rest there and vegetate, taste of each individual must, to some exhaving their thoughts undisturbed by tent, be consulted. He should be urged visions of future examinations; but for to go out and browse in such pastures those progressive spirits, actuated by a as seem most inviting to him. Next to great desire to do much better work and one's professional reading, after thorto cultivate their minds to the greatest oughly informing himself in regard to possible extent, a way should be left wide the subject matter which must be taught open through which to advance in pro- and its connection with other related ficiency each year.
subjects, he should study most thoroughBy a well-known law in operation ly the principles of education and the among skilled laborers, it is a recognized history of the processes by which each fact that the best workers always lift up mind made its discoveries. To secure to a certain level those who have not will the best results each one should pursue power enough to lift themselves. The some subjects that are quite remote from strong workers help the weak ones to his daily routine of work. The mind that better salaries. A method of dividing is not continually making some new acteachers into groups for the study of quisitions is decreasing in power as wel special subjects has been quite successful as in mental alertness.
THE CHILD'S PHYSICAL DEVELOP minimuin of sources of worry (such as MENT
examinations, tests, marks, rules and STUART H. ROWE, BROOKLYN, N. y.
regulations, and arbitrariness or nervous
ness in teachers), provision in the proSo much progress has been made in gram for rest periods and alternation of lighting, heating, ventilating, and seat- work, preparation of teachers to detect ing schools that these former scapegoa's symptoms of eye and ear defect, spinal for the mistakes of teachers and super. curvature or indications of disease, tɔ visors no longer serve their ancient use. test where it is desirable, and to aclapi ful purpose. There is a decline in the method to such physical defects as canphysical condition of children from Sep not be removed, and, finally, positive tember to June even in the best built gymnastic exercises. and equipped schools.
The following are submitted explanations as possible causes : 1. Failure to make proper use of schoo!
FIGHTING THE SCHOOL DESK equipment.
LUTHER HALSEY GULICK, DIRECTOR OF PHYSICAL 2. Faulty postures in sitting (espe.
TRAINING, PUBLIC SCHOOLS, NEW YORK CITY cially while writing) and in standing and I RECENTLY visited public school 3, walking (especially while carrying Brooklyn, and with the principal walked books).
rapidly through almost every priinary 3. Lack of provision for out-of-door classroom in the building. My presence play.
had not been announced to the teachers 4. Lack of freedom from restraint in- so far as I know. The object of the visidoors.
tation was to observe the carriage of the 5. Methods productive of worry and pupils at the desk, and the way in which confusion.
they walked and stood. I also saw the 6. Over-stimulation due to failure to pupils come in and out of the assembly. provide rest periods or proper alterna. I have seen many schools in which great tion of the harder and the easier work. attention was paid to posture. My visit
7. Failure to adapt method to indi- to this school was unique, because I viduals lacking normal physical develop- failed to observe a single child sitting or ment.
standing in a distinctly bad position. I Important suggestions are: Abundant did not observe a single child rea liny time for free play in the open air winter with the book flat on the desk and the and summer and in daylight, more short head bowed over it. . The books were vacations rather than one long vacaticn, held up, the necks were straight, the better knowledge of school equipment by carriage of the bodies was erect and teachers, more attention to postures (sit- manly, clistinctly military in its characting, standing, and writing), plays, ter. The carriage of the girls was gracegames, out-of-door observation, free con- ful and gracious. This shows that the structive work, adaptation of the child's physical effects of the school desk can instinctive forms of expression, necessity be successfully fought, even under the of making important forms of reaction tiying conditions of large city schools, habitual and not merely suggested, es without further teaching of physical sential healthfulness of clear and definite training than that which can be given by method and straightforward discipline in the regular grade teachers, and even avoiding confusion, the reduction to the without an adequate gymnasium. It is accomplished in this school through the Because they are unnecessary in intelligent and constant activity of the high schools; because they are factional principal and the heads of the depart and stir up strife and contention; bements, who recognize the fact that the cause they form premature and unnatural children are in the formative period in friendships; because they are selfish; life, that the roundness of the chest and because they are snobbish; because they the erectness of the spine maintained dissipate energy and proper ambition; during school life will be carried through because they set wrong standards of exout life; who understand that boys and cellence; because they are narrow; begirls will not only be healthier and more cause rewards are not based on merit effective all through life if the effects but on fraternity vows; because they of the school desk are counteracted than inculcate a feeling of self-sufficiency in if they are not, and who intelligently the members; because they lessen frankapply their physical training to this end. ness and cordiality toward teachers; be
Mere physical exercise will not secure cause they are hidden and inculcate dark good carriage. Constant and intelligent lantern methods; because they foster a watchfulness, plus physical exercise, will feeling of self-importance; because high alone accomplish the result. School gym- school boys are too young for club life; nastics must be aimed at this one thing because they foster the tobacco habit; --the school desk.
because they are expensive and foster In fighting the school desk two things habits of extravagance; because of the are to be kept in mind: the sitting still, changing membership from year to year and the tendency to bad position. The making them liable to bring discredit and other general results in physical training disgrace to the school; because they ought to be largely secured through plays weaken the efficiency of, and bring poliand games.
tics into the legitimate organizations of If the physical training in the schools the school; and because they detract inshould so result that a large fraction if terest from study. all the boys graduating and becoming Secret fraternities are especially conmen shall be strong in body, erect and demned in public schools, which are esvigorous in carriage, and all the girls sentially democratic, and should not be shall be vigorous, graceful, and gracious, breeding places for social differentiation. it will be a great service in solving one The committee believes that all legitiof tlie most difficult problems of oar mate elements for good, both social, age, namely the adjustment of city con- moral and intellectual, which these soditions so that they shall be favorable cieties claim to possess can be better to child life.
supplied to the pupils through the school at large in the form of literary societies
and clubs under the sanction of the facSECRET SOCIETIES IN SECONDARY
ulties of the schools. SCHOOLS GILBERT B. MORRISON, PRINCIPAL WILLIAM MC KINLEY
HIGH SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS The committee, after carefully review. The service you render is incalculable, because ing former investigations on secret so- of the very fact that by your lives you show that cieties in secondary schools, report that you believe ideals to be worth sacrifice, and that
you are splendidly eager to do non-remunerative these societies should be discouraged for
work if this work is of good to your fellow men. the following reasons :