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tions of a high school to do college prepara- tion among several topics. Pupils, theretory work.
fore, should be guarded against half year It is a function of a high school to give subjects and directed rather to subjects boys and girls who do not desire to enter extending over two, three or even four college an education in every respect years of study. equivalent to that given to those who do so I t is a function of the high school to take desire. Otherwise, the link will be doing all pupils who have satisfactorily coma partial work and will bestow favors upon pleted a properly constructed elementary a special class to the detriment of many course and who are capable of entering who are as deserving and as capable. upon the work of secondary school studies Courses of study should be as broad, as and adjust them to the point of view recomprehensive, yea, even more so, for quired to successfully prosecute the new pupils who expect to finish their educa- work. Great skill is here required; nevertion in the secondary schools as for those theless, this is one of the functions and who expect to continue in advanced should be accepted and performed. schools. The quality of teaching should It is the function of a high school to be just as good and just as masterly admit all who are prepared, find the work teachers should be assigned to such they can do and carry them just as far as classes. No sympathy should be given their capabilities will warrant, within its no toleration should be extended to those prescribed limits so that no boy or girl may schools which put all the stress upon those be deprived of the benefits arising from pupils or classes which are to be tried by the associations to be found in a well some authority in advance and let those ordered high school. who are not to be tried “catch as catch It is the function of the high school to they can."
give every child who may come within its It is the function of a high school to influence an education which shall fit him work out and apply a course of study or her to fulfill intelligently the duties of which will fulfill the above conditions and life, whether in pursuing a college course give every pupil who may enter of study or in preparing to follow some equal opportunities for equal degrees of activity of the business world. advancement. These equal degrees may I t is a function of the high school to ennot be along the same lines, one line may courage, stimulate and direct, proper and be college preparatory, other lines may be systematic physical training with a due in science, in history, in English, in com regard for games, sports and proper social mercial branches, in manual training, or relations. A high school which is alive in technical science or it may be a com- to its true mission will make its pupils bination of two or more as will best fit realize that their chief business at school the needs or choice of individual pupils. is not athletic contests with other school
In these days of free electives, it is the organizations or societies, that it is not to function of the high school to guard found and maintain secret societies and pupils against the danger of dissipating fraternities which keep club rooms, have their powers in mere acquisition of infor- smokers, give banquets and hold social mation. The following of many subjects dances. Sports and games within the which is liable to happen under a free body of students are excellent and desirelective system, may give information, able but out-of-town games are, to say the but power results from an accurate, com- least, undesirable, and are to be discouraged. prehensive knowledge of a few great sub- A social life which includes the whole jects rather than from a division of atten- student body is commendable but a social
life which divides the students up into for encouragement to every teacher and “cliques," separates them into factions, every pupil in all grades below. It should is to be condemned and, as far as possible, have no spirit of superiority or loftiness corrected. Pupils should be led to see but should realize that "unto whom much that their chief business is study and that is given, much is expected.” It should their courses result in high scholarship, realize that it is a part of the whole system sound characters and in a self directive of schools, that it draws its support from force known as the power of taking the a common fund, that it must not ask nor initiative, and whatever · good thing else expect more than its share and that when there may be will be added thereunto. some other part of the work requires
1 royon. THE RETURN TO THE FARM. From the Webster-Cooley Two-Book
Published by Houghton, Mifflin & Course in Language, Grammar and
Company, Boston New York Composition.
It is the function of a high school to unusual outlay that it in its turn will restand at the head of a local school system, trench, economize, but still cheerfully do the crowning stone as it were. Therefore, its very best because retrenchment can not it should stand as a model school for all be helped or because it is for the good of the other schools in the district. Its the whole system. records should show the least number of It is a function of the high school to cases of tardiness, among its teachers and lend its hand in creating and maintaining pupils, and it should show the highest per- a public sentiment in favor of every legiticentage of attendance. It should stand mate form of education, whether in its
own sphere or out of it. High schools which it is established and maintained are should co-operate, not antagonize; should accomplished. If the functions of a school uplift, not put down, and on all occasions are all fulfilled, who cares about the supershould blaze the way for better things yet vision. I, for one, do not. But, for one, to come.
I am reasonably confident that no high Such are some of the functions which school can rise to the highest degree of we think belong to every high school. efficiency which does not have a principal There may be and undoubtedly are others. broad enough, skilful enough, resourceful Surely these functions are diversified, they enough and with power enough to comare onerous. The whole school system prehend the functions, to formulate and and all the people are interested in making execute all necessary decrees within its the high school as efficient as possible and prescribed sphere and to be in the real in furnishing it with the right supervision. sense of the word master of the situation. We have already stated that the super- An ideal high school principal is one who vision and final authority resides in the has the power of a Czar, the wisdom of a Board of Education, but a wise Board will Solomon and the heart qualities of the delegate that authority to others. First Man of Nazareth. The best supervision and foremost the power will be delegated in the world for a high school is the superto the superintendent for he it is who vision which will provide such a man for must bear the responsibility for unifying its principal, a man who knows the needs the entire system, of equalizing the ex- of the young, who can see the relative pense of harmonizing and co-ordinating relationship which exists between educathe various departments.
tion and life, who has scholarship and exBut a wise superintendent will delegate tended culture, who can easily lead and his authority to a wide extent to the direct a faculty of high minded men and principal of the school. This authority women, a man who sympathizes with will be a delegated one only, and the pupils, rejoices with them in their success, principal who receives his authority from feels for them in their misfortune, can be the Board of Education through the unyielding when firmness is necessary and superintendent will transact his business all sympathy, all encouragement to the with the Board through the superintend- vast number of individual students who ent as other teachers and principals are constantly need the outstretched hand of accustomed to do. When the high school assistance. When the principal has these principal has this authority he should be qualities of mind and heart, then make charged with the responsibility of so con- his power commensurate with his duties ducting that school that its functions will and hold him responsible for results. be performed and that the purposes for This, in my mind, is the ideal supervision.
The Secret of Success
GEORGE C. ROWELL
Don't go mopin round all day
Cause the world won't use you well;
And find where joy and gladness dwell.
Keep knockin till they let you in,
With these for friends, success you'll win.
F. R. PARKER, CORTLAND, N. Y.
AS to the purpose of Latin composition, is a tough subject, and it initiates them
there can be little difference of opin- into the process of disentangling the real ion. There is substantial agreement that it sense of the English copy." is a means and not an end ; that the aim is The syllabus of 1905 issued by the deto strengthen the student's grasp of syn- partment of education will presumably be tax and incidentally to impress vocabulary; a guide for the schools of the State during to give a keener insight into the structure the next five years. We believe the direcof the language, a surer hold on the mean- tions in regard to composition there given ings of case, mood and tense. While we are well-considered and reasonable. And do not urge that discipline is the motive, if these are followed faithfully, under reastill we believe that the best kind of mental sonably good instruction, the students who discipline is got by the practice of compo- enter the universities ought to be free from sition, more particularly in continuous pas- the criticism, heard almost everywhere, of sages, if proper selection is made and the inadequate preparation. task assigned is not a more or less servile O f the work of the first year little need imitation. To take a piece of English- be said. The lessons in beginner's books more or less figurative and abstract in ex- call for a sufficient amount of Latin writing pression — to ponder over it till one has each day. Whatever fault is found with resolved it into simple concrete terms, and these books lies in the fact that they emphato express it in its Latin equivalent, is an size other features to the neglect of forms, exercise which brings into play judgment, or that they present the facts of grammar reflection, nice discrimination — an exer- in a scrappy and incoherent way. In marked cise tonic in its effect on minds unduly contrast to this procedure is the practice given to purely memory work. It will not in the German gymnasien, a practice to be contended that composition in itself will which we might well pay more heed, alenable one to read rapidly and accurately, though of course the conditions are quite but certainly one who has faithfully pur- different. sued a three or four years' course will feel A t the end of the second year, according himself on firmer ground when he attacks to the syllabus, the student should show an author, and will be saved from grievous “the ability to translate simple English and ridiculous errors in interpretation, sentences into Latin, illustrating any of the though he may not be able to express him- forms or rules required for this year.” self in literary English or to seize upon the Presumably this ability will be secured by finer shades of meaning in Vergil. But to giving one period a week entirely to combe able to express even a simple English position, and by following the advice of the sentence in Latin, one must have a surer syllabus that “a fractional part of each grasp of forms, syntax and vocabulary recitation period should be given to oral than is required to make a fair translation and written exercises wherein sentences of from Latin into English. The author of gradually increasing length and complexthe "Upton Letters ” says: “I would ity shall be translated from English into teach boys to write Latin prose because it Latin.” This is sound advice. Regular daily practice is the one thing that will give A valuable exercise for occasional use is anything like facility.
the assignment of a special chapter of In the first part of the year these exer- Caesar for careful study of the Latin, to cises should consist of simple drill on indi- be written in class, phrase by phrase, senvidual verb forms, for we know how easily tence by sentence as the English is dictated. these slip from the memory, especially dur. Students like this exercise and do it well. ing the long vacation. Moreover, constant Of course, this is practically simple memopractice for a considerable period of time is rization; but, besides being a drill in voneeded to fix meanings, and to enable the cabulary and syntax, it gives a good opporstudent to give promptly and accurately tunity of studying Latin word order and the Latin for the English or the English for the use of connectives. Chapters should be the Latin equivalent. Since the forms com- selected in which the vocabulary is of a monly occurring in Caesar constitute so general character. I believe this exercise small a part of the whole system of inflec- is much better than the translation of the tion, one ought to select these as a basis for connected passages found in some text drill work. All the first and second per- books—passages resembling the original sons may be eliminated (leaving these for so closely that little independent effort is the end of this year or the beginning of the called for. third year) and the stress put on the third In the third year the requirements are: person of indicatives and subjunctives, the “The ability to write simple and connected particles, infinitives, gerund and supines. Latin prose with a fair degree of ease and No amount of practice in merely reciting accuracy. The writing of Latin should be paradigms will give the desired command carried on throughout the year concurof the verb. The drill should consist of rently with the study of the text.” This translation, from English into Latin and last remark is aimed evidently at a practice, Latin into English. After some weeks' which was too common in the schools undrill on the verb alone, regular practice in der the former syllabus, of getting through short sentences should be begun. The oral the Cicero in the first thirty weeks of the work at first should be of a very simple year, without doing any composition, and character, as turning ablative absolutes into of spending the remaining weeks entirely clauses, cum clauses into ablative absolute, on prose writing in .preparation for the Reand abundant exercises on the accusative gents' June examination in that subject. and infinitive construction, in which all the Such a practice exalts composition from a infinitives, active and passive, of a given means to an end, and that not a very lofty verb should be used — verbs that occur one. Besides, students resent t
one. Besides, students resent this method most commonly being selected. The writ- and regard it as a bore. They enjoy a ten work should provide as many examples weekly exercise on prose quite as much as as possible of a given construction. For reading an author; they see its application instance, in an exercise of a dozen or more to the work of translation. sentences on the dative case two examples During the first part of this year the of the dative with compounds are not suffi- work may very well consist of detached cient to impress this idiom. Those case sentences, continuous passages being reconstructions which occur but seldom or served for the latter part. These sentences, not at all in Caesar should be omitted from besides being more difficult than those of practice at this stage, likewise the more the second year and involving the use of a difficult features of indirect discourse, and richer vocabulary, should give practice in possibly conditional sentences. These may idioms which were not treated fully enough with advantage be reserved till later.
or were omitted altogether in the previous