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year. Some of these topics are: gerundive larly appeared on the Vergil paper. If the constructions, conditional clauses, quin and authorities were afraid that a student might quominus, first and second persons of the earn a 48-count certificate without getting verb, the imperative, the future tense, the any practice in composition, why not refuse hortatory, jussive, deliberative and poten- credit in Vergil till the separate prose extial subjunctive; use of licet, debeo and amination should be passed ? aportet; certain uses of the ablative, the The work of this year might with adgenitive and dative with adjectives, intran- vantage be based in part on Caesar. Many sitive verbs with dative, dative with com- of the more difficult chapters in indirect pounds, demonstrative and indefinite pro- discourse in the first book might be used
nouns, the use of tantus quartus and talis for practice in changing from indirect to qualis, the Roman calendar, the study of direct, as these present too many difficulties synonyms.
for the second year, when also the time During the last year of the course, while may be more profitably employed. During Vergil is being read, the syllabus requires this year some of the connected passages regular exercises in prose, based still on may be selected from Mommsen's Rome Cicero's orations. Certainly this is more or such works as Parkman's histories. A sensible than under the former syllabus certain amount of direction and help, prinwhen some schools actually used the Æneid cipally by questioning, should precede the as a basis for prose writing, being led to writing. There are plenty of passages that do so probably by the fact that one or two can be rendered in the vocabulary and questions on translation into Latin regu- idioms of Caesar or Cicero, without using
words outside the student's range of read- There are three others that are well ing. The following is a passage, taken thought of and widely used in this State, almost haphazard, from the Conspiracy of each differing in detail, but all following Pontiac, vol. II, p. 212:
the same general plan, a systematic pre"Bouquet was in the heart of the enemy's coun sentation of the chief construction, with try. Their villages, except some remoter settlements of the Shawanoes, all lay within a few
model sentences and exercises consisting days' march, and no other choice was left them of short sentences. than to sue for peace, or risk the desperate
The first, published in 1896, presents the chances of battle against a commander who, a year before, with a third of his present force, subject in forty-four chapters. It has a had routed them at the fight of Bushy Run The
great many model sentences—fifteen to vigorous and active among them, might, it is true, escape by flight; but in doing so, they must aban- twenty with each exercise—excellent as a don to the victors their dwellings, and their table of idioms, and has special vocabularies secret hordes of corn."
for memorization. It is a very useful book The following passage is from Mommsen's Rome, vol. IV, p. 216:
for third year work, being based largely on
Cicero's vocabulary. If it has a defect, it "On the following day (8 Nov.) Cicero convoked the senate. Even now Catiline ventured tu
is the postponement of the treatment of appear and to attempt a defense against the in participles, infinitives, gerund and gerunddignant attacks of the consul, who unveiled before his face the events of the last few days, but
ive till the last four or five chapters. men no longer listened to him, and in the neigh Topics so important should be presented borhood of the place where he sat the benches became empty. He left the sitting, and proceeded,
much earlier, so that they may recur again as he doubtless would have done even apart from and again through succeeding exercises. this incident, in accordance with the agre-ment, to Etruria. Here he proclaimed himself consul,
A second text, published in 1903, consists and assumed a position of readiness to put his · of three parts. The first presents the whole troops in motion against the capital at the first announcement of the outbreak of the insurrec- syntax of noun, pronoun and verb in tion.'
twenty-three chapters, some of which are What kind of text book shall be used ? reviews. It gives a statement of syntactiIf we judge by what the publishers offer, cal rules, so that no reference to the gramwe have gone back to the older idea of a mar is imperative, although references are systematic presentation of principles. A given. The objection to this part is that few years ago, employing the same too much matter is crowded into a single criterion, we might suppose that the texts chapter, and the sentences for practice are in which topics were presented in no par- too few, though of course these can easily ticular order, but taken up as the model be supplemented by the teacher. The secchapter of Caesar or Cicero might suggest, ond section gives short sentences based on were what teachers of Latin desired. The each chapter of three books of Caesar, prewhole matter is fully and ably discussed in faced by a few model sentences, and a Bennett and Bristol's “The Teaching of series of connected passages on the fourth Latin and Greek.” I judge that this sort book. The third section is based on Cicero's of text represented only a passing phase, an orations, those on the first two Catiline experiment, and time has decided against speeches being short sentences, on the reit. The publishers of Jones' Latin Com- maining speeches continuous passages. The position, arranged on the topical plan, first latter are rather close imitations of the published in 1879, claim a wider use of original. The book is finding much favor. their text than ever. The book has defects; The third text under consideration was it exaggerates the importance of some issued in 1904-5, in two small volumes, topics and does not treat others fully three sections in all. In this an effort is enough; yet it is on the whole a very good made to combine the two methods; for text.
while there is a systematic presentation of topics, the exercises are based on successive vember School Review: Eight hundred chapters of Caesar and Cicero. Each ex- and fifty-seven (857) tried the elementary ercise is preceded by syntactical notes and paper; 5.8% reached a standing of go or the most useful and carefully prepared over; 29% had over 75; 58% had over tables of idioms we have ever seen. The 60; . nearly 25% of the candidates fell below book contains more material than can be 40. In the advanced examination, of the 'used in most schools, but this is not an five hundred and seventy-six (576) who evil.
tried, 12% got 90 or over; 9% over 75; Any one of these three books, which you 36% 60 or over; while 46% fell below 40. will easily identify although I have not The editorial comment is: “ Latin prose named them, ought to be sufficient fully composition had its usual large number of to satisfy our needs. Individual tastes will victims.” Those who desire comfort may govern the choice.
perhaps find it in the fact that in English. What should be the character of the ex- French, advanced German and advanced aminations in composition given by the de algebra the number of failures was still partment? It would seem that those pre- greater, the editorial comment on these pared by the college entrance board in June, being “slaughter," "greatest disaster,” etc. 1905, set a reasonable standard. The ele- These results are not encouraging, but mentary paper is a short connected passage the cause would probably turn out to be of less than six lines, for which thirty min- that insufficient time was devoted to the utes are allowed. The constructions and work, for there is a feeling more or less vocabulary are every-day affairs for stu- prevalent that it is a side issue. It is not dents reading Caesar.
a side issue. The student who cannot turn This is the selection :
simple English into Latin cannot do accu“Caesar would have learned nothing about the
rate work in translation. Nervii, if he had not inquired. When he was
In conclusion, let me quote a passage marching through their territory, he was in- from the “Upton Letters," written by a formed by his scouts that the Nervii were waiting classical teacher in one of the great Engfor him on the further side of the river, and lish public schools; one, however, who is that they were not more than ten miles away. Learning this, he sent forward centurions to pick
inclined to be cynical as to the value of out a place fit for a camp."
classical education, at least in its extreme The advanced composition paper is based
place. It offers a little encouragement to on the Manilian law, ten lines in length,
those who sometimes doubt the value of time allowed one hour. It is as follows:
their handiwork. He says, in speaking of
Herbert Spencer's Autobiography: “He "Do you not think, fellow citizens, that Pompey
criticizes the classics from the standpoint ought to be choosen commander by you? Where can you find a man more experienced in military
of a fourth form boy. He sits like a dry affairs? Whom have we seen at Rome in these
old spider, spinning his philosophical web,
old spider, spinning nis philosop last twenty years in whom the people had more with a dozen avenues of the soul closed to confidence? Besides this our allies declare that him, and denying that such avenues exist." there is no one who surpasses him in manliness, * * * “ The book is the strongest arguhonor or self-restraint. You know that this war, which the King is
ment I have ever yet read against a rawaging against the Roman people, is full of tional” (as opposed to the traditional) dangers. You know that Mithridates himself “education. I, who despair of the public has very great resources, innumerable troops, school classical system, am reluctantly and prompt allies."
forced to confess that it can sow the seeds · The following are some statistics relative of fairer flowers than ever blossomed in the to these examinations, taken from the No- soul of Herbert Spencer.”
Supervision from the Teacher's Standpoint
MISS MARY F. BLACK, HUDSON, N. v.
THERE is no other device in our school teachers are more efficient under favorable
1 system, that has done so much for external conditions and pupils advance the improvement of our schools, in methods more rapidly when their comfort in the of instruction and discipline as supervision. school-room is promotive of good health. Packard tells us that as early as 1839 Nevertheless, supervisors do not spend all Providence, R. I., appointed a city super- your money on the above. Let us recall visor with duties similar to those that are what Dr. Sheldon has written: “The key now given to a city superintendent, and of an efficient school is not the system nor 12 years later Boston established a similar the school property nor the appropriation officer.
necessary for its maintenance, indispenA fact well established in the industrial sable as they are. Reason, experience and world is that the omission of a superintend the common consent of all great thinkers ent in any industry would be regarded as and authorities upon the subject agree, sheer folly. School work furnishes no ex- that the teacher is the school.” ception to this general rule. For manual The true superintendent will care less to labor there is a rapidly growing substitu- be seen than to be felt. It is his character tion of machinery and therefore less super. and his judgment which are of importance. vision and more invention are needed, but He will give the attention due to each of for the teacher's work there is no possible the relations he sustains—to the board, the substitution of machinery.
people, the patrons, the teachers, the pupils A supervisor is valuable chiefly for what in self-forgetfulness. I do not mention he accomplishes through his influence on the pupils last because I think they are of the his corps of teachers. Hence it is better least importance-“The last shall be first." that he be chosen from the ranks of pro- “For the child the school exists. The need fessional teachers. He should be first of of the child enforces its right to exist." all a "teacher of teachers." This implies We teachers expect a supervisor to enter three things-scholarship, professional our rooms quietly and to be a sympathetic training and experience in teaching. and interested spectator. To give teachers
We teachers believe the professional su- not only an outline of the work of the grade pervisor is to gather excellent methods as but also an outline of what he considers he observes them and transfer them to soil good school etiquette. We like him to in which they are quite sure to grow; that remain and listen to a recitation or to inhe is an adviser as well as a supervisor—he spect the work of the pupils either at their must not content himself with seeing that desks or upon the blackboard, correcting the work is properly done, but he must be faults by passing them by, that he may prepared to guide the doer; that he is to be have time to commend their good work; well versed in school appliances; in school giving unfavorable comments to the teacher architecture; with the best style of school privately. seats and desks; with the best text-books Little children are intensely partisan. and with the most effective methods of They love warmly; they hate bitterly. ventilation. All these items have a direct Rarely are they indifferent to their teachers. connection with his chief work, since Hearty approval of the teacher by the
superintendent, where it can be given, will against inaccuracy. We should send pupils quicken the child's confidence and will out into the world equipped with the habit make the teacher's influence over them a of doing things carefully and correctly. molding power for good. On the other "The child who learns to do small things hand a supervisor should not betray by well when he is small will do big things well word or look any dissatisfaction with the when he is big." He is not one of the teacher in the presence of the children, lest multitude who has an abundance of inthrough their keen eyes and acute hearing, accurate knowledge. they come to distrust one whose life and At another time I was told I exhibited work are so large factors in the building too much work, and I have lived to see the of their character.
day when I think the teacher should call
I can remember several years ago of the attention of all to the special excellence showing a set of papers to the superin- of the work of a few. tendent that I thought were well written. Recently my attention was called to the He told me there was a misspelled word on fact that my pupils did not pronounce one of the papers. To excuse my own Arctic correctly. Just criticism is always carelessness, I quickly responded, “This helpful because it brings to one's attention is a writing lesson, not a spelling lesson." errors and mistakes of which he was not (You remember we have the departmental conscious and helps him to correct them. system here and I did not teach the spell- A critic who wants to help will commend ing). But that one suggestion taught me wherever possible and criticise by pointing to appreciate the worth of accuracy. How out the mistakes and suggesting a remedy. many miserable failures might be recorded The friendly critic should be encouraged.