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London Magazine:

A JOURNAL OF ENTERTAINMENT AND INSTRUCTION

FOR GENERAL READING.

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On the green banks of Shannon, when Sheelah was nigh, | When the road was so dark, and the night was so cold,
No blithe Irish lad was so happy as I;

And Pat and his dog were grown weary and old,
No harp like my own could so cheerily play ;

How snugly we slept in my old coat of gray!
And wherever I went was my poor dog Tray.

And he licked me for kindness, my poor dog Tray!
When at last I was forced from my Sheelah to part, Though my wallet was scant I remembered his case,
She said, (while the sorrow was big at her heart,) Nor refused my last crust to his pitiful face;
Oh, remember your Sheelah, when far, far away, But he died at my feet on a cold winter day,
And be kind, my dear Pat, to our poor dog Tray. And I played a sad lament for my poor dog Tray.
Poor dog! he was faithful and kind, to be sure, Where now shall I go, poor, forsaken, and blind ?
And he constantly loved me, although I was poor; Can I find one to guide me so faithful and kind ?
When the sour-looking folks sent me heartless away, To my sweet native village, so far, far away,
I had always a friend in my poor dog Tray.

I can never more return with my poor dog Tray.

Campbell.

VOL. IV.

CATCHING SIGHT OF AN OLD FLAME.

FRANK FAIRLEGH;

Here I took the liberty of interrupting the speaker, OR, OLD COMPANIONS IN NEW SCENES.

whom I had long since recognised as Coleman,-though what could have brought him to Cambridge I was at a

loss to conceive-by coming behind him, and saying, in CHAP. IV.

a gruff voice,

"I am sorry you keep such low company, young

man." UTTERLY worn out, both in mind and body, by And pray who may you be that are so ready with hard reading and confinement, I determined to return your 'young man,' I should like to know? I shall have to Heathfield forth with, with “all my blushing honours to teach you something your tutors and dons seem to thick upon me,” and enjoy a few weeks' idleness before have forgotten, and that is

, manners, fellow!"exclaimed again engaging in any active course of study which and not recognising me at first in my cap and gown: then

Freddy, turning round with a face as red as a turkey-cock, might be necessary to fit me for my future profession. looking at me steadily for a moment he continued, When the post came in, however, I received a couple of “The very man himself, by all that's comical ! This is letters which rather militated against my intention of the way you read for your degree, is it?” Then with a an immediate return home. A note from Harry Oak- glance towards Lizzie Maurice, he sang, lands informed me that having some weeks ago been

“My only books ordered to a milder air, he and Sir John had chosen

Were woman's looks, Clifton, their decision being influenced by the fact

And folly all they taught me.' of an old and valued friend of Sir John's residing “It's a Master of He-arts you're striving to become, I there. He begged me to let him hear all the Cambridge suppose ?” news, and hoped I should join him as soon as Mrs. Fair- "Nonsense," replied I quickly, for I saw poor Lizzie legh and my sister would consent to part with me. For coloured and looked uncomfortable ; "we don't allow himself, he said, be felt somewhat stronger, but still bad puns to be made at Cambridge." suffered much from the wound in his side. The second * Then, faith, unless the genius loci inspires me with letter was from my mother, saying she had received an good ones." returned Freddy, as we left the shop toinvitation from an old lady, a cousin of my father's, gether," the sooner I'm out of it the better." who resided in London, and, as she thought change of

Ton minutes' conversation served to inform me that scene would do Fanny good, she had accepted it. She Freddy, having been down to Bury St. Edmunds on had been there already one week, and proposed return business, had stopped at Cambridge on his way back, ing at the end of the next, which she hoped would be in order to find me out, and, if possible, induce me to soon enough to welcome me after the conclusion of my accompany him home to Hillingford, and spend a few labours at the University. Unable to make up my mind days there. This arrangement suited my case exactly, whether to remain where I was for a week longer, or to as it nearly filled up the space of time which must return and await my mother's arrival at the cottage, I elapse before my mother's return, and I gladly accepted threw on my gown and cap, and strolled out, the fresh his invitation. In turn, I pressed him to remain a day air appearing quite a luxury to me after having been or two with me, and see the lions of Cambridge ; but shut up so long. As I passed throngh the street where it appeared that the mission on which he had been deold Maurice the pastry-cook lived, I thought I would spatched was an important one, and would not brook call and ask how Lizzie was going on, as I knew Harry delay; he must therefore return at once to report prowould be anxious for information on this point. On gress, As he could not stay with me, the most adentering the shop, I was most cordially received by the visable thing seemed to be that I shonld go back with young lady herself, who had by this time quite recovered him. Returning, therefore, to my rooms, I set Freddy her good looks, and on the present occasion appeared to work on some bread and cheese and ale, whilst Í unusually gay and animated, which was soon accounted hastened to cram a portmanteau and carpet-bag with for when her father, drawing me on one side, informed various indispensables. I then ran to the Hoop, and me that she was going to be married to a highly re

took an affectionate farewell of Mr. Frampton, making spectable young baker, who had long ago fallen a victim him promise to pay me a visit at Ticathfield Cottage; to her charms, and on whom she had of late deigned to and, in less than two hours from the time Coleman had take pity; the severe lessoa she had been tanght having first made his appearance, we were seated together on induced her to overlook his intense respectability, high | the roof of a stage.coach, and bowling along merrily moral excellence, and round, good-natured face-three towards Hillingford. strong disqualifications, which had stood dreadfully in adventures in scarch of Cumberland, on the day pre

During our drive, Coleman recounted to me his his way when striving to render himself agreeable to the romantic Fornarina. I was answering their in. ceding the duel, and gave me a more minute descripquiries after Oaklands, of whom they spoke in terms of tion than I had yet heard of the disreputable nature the deepest gratitude, when a young man, wrapped up

of his pursuits. From what Coleman could Icarn, in a rough pea-jacket, bustled into the shop, and, with Cumberland, after having lost at the gaming-table large out perceiving me, accosted Lizzie as follows :

sums of money, of which he had by some means conPray, young lady, can you inform mc-what glorious trived to gain possession, had become connected with a buns !--- where Mr.--that is to say, which of these funny gambling-house not far from St. James's-street, and old edifices may happen to be Trinity College?” was supposed to be one of ite proprietors. Just before On receiving the desired information, he continued,

Coleman left town, there had been an exposé of some “Much obliged. I really must trouble you for another shameful proceedings which had taken place at this bun. Made by your own fair hands, I presume? You house, --windows had been broken, and the police see, I'm quite a stranger to this quaint old town of obliged to make a forcible entrance; but Cumberland yours, where half the houses look like churches, and all had as yet contrived to keep his name from appearing, the men like the parsons and clerks belonging to them, although it was known that he was concerned in the taking a walk in their canonicals, with four-cornered affair, and would be obliged to keep out of the way at hats on their heads, -abortive attempts to square the present. cirele, I conclude ! wonderful things, very: But, when notion," said Freddy, as the coach set us down within

“We shall take the old lady by surprise, I've a I get to 'Trinity, how am I to find the man I want, one Mr. Frank Fairlegh?"

ten minutes' walk of Elm Lodge. “I did not think I

should have got the Bury St. Edmund's job over till (1) Continued from p. 130.

to-morrow, and wrote her word not to expect me till

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your mother.”

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she saw me; but she'll be glad enough to have some- | Mrs. Coleman to allow her niece, Lucy Markham, to stay body to enliven her, for the Governor's in town, and with her friend at Barstone Priory till his return, and Lucy Markham is gone to stay with one of her married so save her from the horrors of solitude. This plan sisters."

being rendered impracticable by reason of Lucy's “I hope I shall not cause any inconvenience, or annoy absence, Mrs. Coleman proposed that Miss Saville

should remain with her till Mr. Vernon's return, which, Annoy my grandmother ! and she was dead before she added, would be conferring a benefit on her; as her I was born !" exclaimed Freddy disdainfully, “Why, husband and son being both from home, she was sadly bless your sensitive heart, nothing that I can do annoys dull without a companion. This plan having removed my mother: if I chose to bring home a mad bull in fits, all difficulties, Mr. Vernon proceeded on his journey or half-a-dozen young elephants with the hooping-cough, without further delay. Good Mrs. Coleman's agitation she would not be annoyed." Thus assured, nothing on our arrival had been produced by the consciousness remained for me but silent acquiescence, and in a few that Mr. Vernon would by no means approve of the minutes we reached the house.

addition of two dangerous young men to the party ; "Where's your mistress ?" inquired Freddy of the however Freddy consoled her by the ingenious sophism, man-servant who showed us into the drawing-room. that it was much better for us to have arrived together,

• Upstairs, Sir, I believe; I'll send to let her know than for him to have returned alone, as we should now that you are arrived."

neutralize each other's attractions; and, while the " Do so," replied Coleman, making a vigorous attack young lady's pleasure in our society would be doubled,

she would be effectually guarded against falling in love Why, Freddy, I thought you said your cousin was with either of us, by reason of the impossibility of her away from home?” inquired I.

overlooking the equal merits of what Mrs. Coleman “So she is; and what's more, she won't be back for would probably have termed “the survivor.” a fortnight," was the answer.

Having settled this knotty point to his own satisfacHere's a young lady's bonnet, however,” said I. tion, and perplexed his mother into the belief that our

"Nonsense,” replied he; "it must be one of my arrival was rather a fortunate circumstance than othermother's.”

wise, Freddy despatched her to break the glorious “Does Mrs. Coleman wear such spicy affairs as this?” tidings, as he called it, to the young lady, cautioning said I, holding up for his inspection a most piquant her to do so carefully, and by degrees, for that joy was little velvet bonnet, lined with pink.

very often quite as dangerous in its effects as sorrow. “ By Jove, no !” was the reply; "a mysterious Having closed the door after her, he relieved his young lady! I say, Frank, this is interesting."

feelings by a slight extempore hornpipe, and then slapAs he spoke, the door flew open, and Mrs. Coleman ping me on the back, exclaimed, “ Here's a transcendent bustled in, in a great state of maternal affection, and go ! if this ain't taking the change out of old Vernon, fuss, and confusion, and agitation.

I'm a Dutchman. Frank, you villain, you lucky dog, Why, Freddy, my dear boy, I'm delighted to see you've got it all your own way this time; not a chance you, only I wish you hadn't come just now ;-and you, for me; I may as well shut up shop at once, and buy too, Mr. Fairlegh, ---and such a small loin of mutton for myself a pair of pumps to dance in at your wedding.” dinner ; but I'm so glad to see you-looking like a “My dear fellow, how can you talk such utter nonghost, so pale and thin,” she added, shaking me warmly sense ?" returned I, trying to persuade myself that I was by the hand; "but what I am to do about it, or to say not pleased, but annoyed, at his insinuations. to him when he comes back-only I'm not a prophet to

“ It's no nonsense, Master Frank, but, as I consider it, guess things before they happen-and if I did, I should a very melancholy statement of facts. Why, even putting always be wrong, so what use would that be, I should aside your 'antecedents,' as the French have it, the like to know?"

roasted wrist, the burnt ball-dress, and all the rest of it, “Why, what's the row, ch, mother ? the cat hasn't look at your present advantages ; here you are, just rekittened, has she?" asked Freddy.

turned from the University, covered with academical “No, my dear, no, it's not that; but, your father honours, your cheeks paled by deep and abstruse study being in town, it has all come upon me so unexpectedly; over the midnight lamp; your eyes flashing with an poor thing! and she looking so pretty, too; oh, dear! unnatural lustre, indicative of an overwrought mind; a when I said I was all alone, I never thought of it; and graceful languor softening the nervous energy of your so he left her here."

manner, and imparting additional tenderness to the fas"Well, if it isn't the cat, what is it?" persisted cination of your address; in fact, till you begin to get Freddy.

into condition again, you are the very beau ideal of what Why, my love, it's very unlucky-very awkward, the women consider interesting and romantic.” indeed; but one comfort is, we're told, it's all for the “Well done, Freddy,” replied I, “ we shall discover a best when every thing goes wrong-a very great com- hidden vein of poetry in you some of these fine days; fort that, if one could but believe it; but poor Mr. but, talking of condition, leads me to ask what time Vernon, you see, he was quite unhappy, I'm sure, he your good mother intends us to dine?”. looked so cross, and no wonder, having to go up to • There, now you have spoilt it all," was the reLondon all in a hurry, and such a cold day too." joinder ; " however, viewed abstractedly, and without

At the mention of this name, my attention, which reference to the romantic, its not such a bad notion had been gradually dying a natural death, suddenly either. I'll ring and inquire.” revived, and it was with a degree of impatience, which He accordingly did so, and, finding we had not above I could scarcely restrain, that I awaited the conclusion half an hour to wait, he proposed that we should go to of Mrs. Coleman's rambling account. After a great our dressing-rooms and adorn, before we attempted to deal of circumlocution, of which I will mercifully spare face“ the enemy,” as he rudely designated Miss Saville. the reader the infliction, the following facts were eli. It was not without a feeling of trepidation for which I cited :- About an hour before our arrival, Mr. Vernon, should have been at a loss to account, that I ventured to accompanied by his ward, had called to see Mr. turn the handle of the drawing room door, where I exColeman, and, finding he was from home, had asked pected to find the party assembled before dinner. for a few minutes' conversation with the lady of the Miss Saville, who was seated on a low chair by Mrs. house--his reason for so doing soon appeared, -he bad Coleman's side, rose quietly on my entrançe, and adreceived letters requiring his immediate presence in vanced a step or two to meet me, holding out her London on business, which might probably detain him hand with the unembarrassed familiarity of an old acfor a day or two, and, not liking to leave Miss Saville quaintance. The graceful ease of her manner at once quite alone, he had called with the intention of begging I restored my self-possession, and, taking her proffered

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hand, I expressed my pleasure at thus unexpectedly, the latter is, however, more likely, for there seems little meeting her again.

probability that any man should have deliberately comYou might have come a hundred times without menced a search for the discovery of glass. No natural finding me, although Mrs. Coleman is kind enough to phenomenon gives a hint that so beautiful a substance invite me very often. But I seldom leave home; Mr. was producible from the sands on the sea-shore. Long Vernon always appears to dislike parting with me.” might an inquisitive ancient philosopher have paced

“I can easily conceive that,” replied I; “nay, although the smooth beach, and examined the forms and multiin common with your other friends, I am a sufferer by tudes its sandy elements, without suspecting the his monopoly, I can almost pardon him for yielding to so possibility of transforming such bodies into a material strong a temptation."

bright as the dew-drops when glittering on the soft “I wish I could flatter myself that the very compli- grass in a summer's morning. mentary construction you put upon it were the true Accident, the mother of so many arts, was, therefore, one,” replied Miss Saville, blushing slightly ;“ but I am most likely the first teacher of the glass manufacture : afraid I should be deceiving myself if I were to imagine and to such a source do the traditions of antiquity my society were at all indispensable to him. I believe point. Most readers have probably heard the story, as if you were to question him on the subject, you would given by Pliny, the Roman naturalist, eighteen hunlearn that his system is based rather on the Turkish dred years ago, and which, if we could take the writer notion, that, in order to keep a woman out of mischief, for an authority, would show the exact beginning of you must shut her up."

this branch of human art. Pliny makes accident the “Really, Miss Saville,” exclaimed Coleman, who had source, the Holy Land the region, and merchants the entered the room in time to overhear her speech, “I agents of the discovery. Some navigators steered their am shocked to find you comparing your respectable ship, laden with nitre, into the Bay of Acre, and up a and revered guardian to a heathen Turk, and Frank small river named the Belus, on the banks of which Fairlegh, instead of reproving you for it, aiding, abet- they rested, and lighted a fire to dress their food. The ting, encouraging, and, to speak figuratively, patting cooking vessels were placed upon some blocks of the you on the back.'

nitre, between which the fuel was laid. The heat “ I'm sure, Freddy,” interrupted Mrs. Coleman, who melted the nitre, and fused it with the sands of the had been aroused from one of her customary fits of ab- beach, upon which a stream of transparent matter was sence by the last few words, “Mr. Fairlegh was doing observed to flow: to this simple occurrence the disnothing of the sort; he knows better than to think of covery of glass is ascribed. such a thing. And if he didn't, do you suppose I should Now it must be confessed there is no high degree of sit here, and allow him to take such 'liberties ?' But I improbability in the account; all seems natural enough; believe it's all your nonsense,--and where you got such and this has, no doubt, induced many to acquiesce in strange ideas, I'm sure I can't tell ; not out of Mrs. the story, as giving a satisfactory account of the first Trimmer's Sacred History, I'm certain, though you used production of glass. We are naturally disposed to to read it with me every Sunday when you were a good receive those traditions for truths which supply us with little boy, trying to look out of the window all the time, a plausible explanation of some obscure fact. It is not instead of paying proper attention to your books.” here intended to impugn the story of Pliny, for that

During the burst of laughter which followed this would require more knowledge than that naturalist speech, and in which Miss Šaville, after an ineffectual himself possessed; but, on the other hand, we must not struggle to repress the inclination out of respect to Mrs. rest on the above statement as presenting the actual Coleman, was fain to join, dinner was announced, and facts of the case. Pliny does but say what others had Coleman pairing off with the young lady, whilst I gave told him; and such reports may have been received my arm to the old one, we proceeded to the dining without any sufficient authority; for be it remembered,

that Pliny, with all his various knowledge, was a credulous man, ever on the look-out for marvellous reports,

and not overburdened with the critical faculty. After THE GLASS MANUFACTURE.

this statement each reader must be left to admit or

reject the account given by the old Italian naturalist. Some of the numerous substances employed by man

But, if we are unable to ascertain the mode in which to lighten his labours, or advance his control over the glass was discovered, we are sure that the manufacture

has existed from the remotest ages. Amongst the material world, are so little altered by art as to retain ancient ruined cities of Egypt, articles made from glass their original and native lineaments. Thus, the timber have been found; thus the eras which beheld the erecin a ship of war is little changed from the wood of the tion of the pyramids, may also have witnessed the less trunk once standing in the recesses of the New Forest. astonishing but more useful operations of glass-making. But, with other materials, every characteristic of the The manufacturers of ancient Tyre were not ignorant original disappears, so that to trace the new production of this beautiful substance, which they probably distrito its first state requires the knowledge of many dis- buted to distant regions of the world, by their widely.

extended commerce. Even amongst the ancient Chinese tinct processes.

we find traces of this art, and a diminutive vase, of a Amongst such instances glass must be classed, for in bluish-white colour, made from this ancient Chinese no substance is the change from the rude element to glass, may be seen in the British Museum. It is well the transparent and refined material so remarkable. known that the Romans possessed glass vessels, as urns A heap of sand and ashes may to-day lie unnoticed in of this substance have been found in Herculaneum, and the stores of a glass-house, and to-morrow the same

some of these are deposited amongst the antiquities of

the Museum. The beautiful Portland Vase is formed mass may have assumed the transparent and crystal- of dark blue glass, and is supposed to have been the like forms, from which the resplendent mirror, or the work of an ancient Greek artist, who must have been star inquiring telescope, are produced.

versed in the manufacture of the substance from which When the mode of extracting glass from the earth the vase is formed. Thus, in all the more important was discovered, is amongst the doubtful events in human and civilized countries of the ancient world, we find a history, for neither the region in which it happened, knowledge of the art, so adapted to delight the elegant, nor the name of the discoverer, is clearly known. Thus, and interest the philosophical. whether the result was the reward of long studies, pur- The production of such a substance is less important, sued by some ancient experimenter in the ante-historical doubtless, than the discovery of some of the more useful period, or the bappy fruit of some accident, is unknown: /metals, such as iron and copper; but its uses were,

room.

nevertheless, sufficiently appreciated to preserve the art | Colbert, therefore, directed their attention to the glassfrom extinction during the night of confusion which houses of Italy; but all their attempts to acquire the fell upon Europe in the earlier portion of the middle desired knowledge were, for a long time, baffled by the ages.

jealousy of the Italian manufacturers, who kept their Venice ranked this manufacture amongst the sources various processes most vigilantly concealed from the of her wealth, and guarded the secrets of the process knowledge of foreigners. After many devices, the with as much jealousy as she watched the actions of her French succeeded in their attempts : a number of doges. Some remains of this

art are still preserved in operatives became possessed of the principles adopted Murano, a town about a mile north of Venice. In by the Italians, and, soon after, in 1665, a manufactory England some large manufactories were fixed in Lon. was erected at Tourbeville, near the port of Cher. don, at Crutched Friars and the Strand, about the bourg. middle of the 16th century. How little the art had Since this period the progress of the manufacture in been previously practised in this country, may be under- France has been constant, and glass is now produced in stood from the high value and rarity of glass windows that country equal, or nearly so, in all its qualities, to in English houses. Few circumstances illustrate this the finest made in England or Germany. more strongly than the custom of removing such win- Let us now describe the different processes by which dows from the casements, and packing the frames in this sparkling and transparent substance is produced boxes, whenever the family removed from one habitation from sand and ashes. Previously to entering upon an to another, as from a country to a town residence. But, account of the various kinds of glass, and the different if glass was rare and costly in the time of Elizabeth, operations pursued in their production, it may be useful the tastes of the people were not such as to encourage to give a general statement of the materials used in the a great increase of the production from the few manu-manufacture, after which the reader will more readily facturers; indeed, the skill of these could as little be apprehend the ensuing descriptions. compared with that of our glass makers in the 19th Glass in general consists of two bodies united by the century, as the knowledge of a middle-age alchemist agency of a third : these two being sand, and some with the attainments of Sir Humphrey Davy. This alkaline substance; and the uniting matter, or the flux, slow advance of the art did not solely arise from the is usually lime. Suppose a quantity of Alinty sand is absence of patronage on the part of the government, mingled with soda or potash; these will not be fused for James 1. gave a patent for the manufacture to Sir without the aid of a flux, which effects that singular Robert Mansell; and the Duke of Buckingham, intro- union between the two substances, from which another, ducing skilful workmen from Venice in 1670, esta- so totally distinct from each, arises. Other materials are blished a manufactory at Lambeth, where the traveller sometimes used to perform this friendly office for the may now see the furnaces of the glass-houses burning. silicous and alkaline bodies; thus, borax, and a pecuThe existing manufactories are not the direct successors liar compound of lead and oxygen called litharge, are of those supported by the duke, who was too deeply employed for such a purpose. Let us glance for a involved in political intrigue at that time, to give moment at the nature of the two substances, the flint much attention to the useful arts : his works at Lam- and the alkali, which enter so largely into the combeth, were, therefore, neglected, and, after a short period, position of the ornamental and useful material which wholly abandoned. The manufacture continued, never combines the extremes of the elegant and the useful, theless, to advance, though slowly, and glass became a contributing to the luxury of the palace, whilst it taxable article in the time of William III. ; whilst, in secures from the blast the peasant in his moorside the reign of George II., the raw materials were made cottage. The man who observes the long line of flint in subject to a higher excise duty. The first large manu- the chalk cliffs near Dover, may not perhaps think of factory was established in Lancashire, a county so re- proposing two curious and interesting questions for his nowned in the history of the practical, near Prescot, thoughts to work upon, whilst the eye is gazing on the where the “Governor and Company of the British cast bold scene of that historic coast. These questions are, plate-glass manufacturers,” gave a decided impulse to “What were those flints?" and “What may they yet bethe production of the material in Britain. This society come ?" To the former query science would answer obtained a royal charter, and the sanction of parliament, thus :—those globules and plates of flint, though now for its operations in 1773. Thus, at the very period so hard, were once most probably in a fluid state, and when Hargreaves and Arkwright were developing the assumed their present form under the influence of capabilities of cotton machines in one part of Lanca- that natural chemistry which works on all sides in the shire, the capital of this company was, in another part visible world. of the same county, giving the necessary stimulus to Some of these flints are, in fact, but the sepulchres of the production of glass.

numerous shell fish, around the bodies of which the once But how was the manufacture faring, meanwhile, in fluid substance has formed a solid casing. Thus he who other European countries? The French government picks up a nodule of this common material holds in his had early taken so strong an interest in this depart- hand a memorial of the ancient earth, when some ment of art, that persons of noble birth were allowed causes, now long hushed to rest, poured over the ocean to exercise it without the loss of social position, to beds those flinty streams which are now, by the subwhich a pursuit of trade or commerce generally led. siding of the sea, or the elevation of the land, made So far the glass manufacture had no cause for complaint, visible. It is a singular contrast in the history of the in a time when foreign and civil wars were desolating world, that so curious a memento of its early ages should France, and retarding the pursuit of all arts, save those be employed by men in creating additional means for of attack and defence. But the gentlemen of France diffusing elegance and comfort through the present were neither willing nor able to avail themselves of this population of the globe. This reflection will answer the allowance, so that little was done till the 17th cen- supposed inquirer's second question, "What may fint tury, when the financial genius of the minister, Colbert, become?" Thus the sight of a bit of glass leads the included the art of glass-making amongst the commer- gazer's thoughts into two great fields of human know. cial improvements to the development of which his ledge,--the geology of the earth, and the civilization of labours were devoted

its inhabitants. One of the ements therefore of glass As one cause of the previously slow progress of the is flint; the other, or the alkaline, may either be soda, manufacture had been ignorance respecting the proper potash, or pearlash, the two latter being the sediment materials, and the best modes of working, so, before deposited by water in which the ashes of certain plants much advance could be made, it was necessary to gain have been soaked; the principal difference being that an insight into the usual methods pursued in countries pearlash is more refined by roasting, which frees it where the art had been long practised. The agents of | from foreign substances. Soda is also procured from

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