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ribbons with it, as she pleased, for not a farthing of it | gulated by the most consummate tact and cunning, would I ever touch on any consideration. No one should allowing the deep interest he pretends to feel in me to be able to say, that it was for the sake of her money appear in every look and action, yet never going far 1 sought to win her.

enough to afford me an excuse for repulsing him. This Well, all this was very simple, straight-forward work; morning, however, I have had an interview with Mr. --where, then, were the difficulties which had alarmed | Vernon, in which I stated my repugnance to the marme so greatly? Let me see-Mr. Vernon might choose riage as strongly as possible ; he was fearfully irritated, to fancy that it would take some years to add to the and, at length, on my repeating my refusal, plainly told 901. 148. 6 d. sufficiently to enable me to support a me that it was useless for me to resist his will, that wife, and might disapprove of his ward's engaging her. I was in his power, and if I continued obstinate, I self to me on that account-what if he did ? I wished must be made to feel it. Oh! that man's anger is for no engagement--let her remain free as air, her own terrible to witness; it is not that he is so violenttrue affection would stand my friend, and on that I he never seems to lose his self-control-but says the could rely, content if it failed me, to-to-well, it did | most cutting things in a tone of calm, sarcastic bitnot signify what I might do in an emergency which terness, which lends double force to all he utters. I never could arise.-Not only let him promise not to feel that it is useless for us to contend against fate : force her inclinations—to give up his monstrous project you cannot help me, and would only embroil yourself of wedding her to Cumberland, and to leave her free to with these men, were you to attempt to do so. I shall bestow her hand on whom she would, and I should be ever look back upon the few days we spent together, perfectly satisfied. But, suppose, as Clara seemed to as a bright spot in the dark void of my life,—that life fear, he should refuse to break off the engagement with which you preserved at the risk of your own. Alas! his nephew-suppose he should forbid me the house, you little knew the cruel nature of the gift you were and, taking advantage of my absence, use his authority bestowing. And now, farewell for ever! That you to force on this hateful marriage! All that would be may find all the happiness your kindness and geneextremely disagreeable, and I could not say I exactly rosity deserve, is the earnest prayer of one, whom, for saw at the moment, what means I should be able to her sake, as well as your own, you must strive to employ, effectually to prevent it;-still it was only a forget." remote contingency-an old man like him, with one "If I do forget her,” exclaimed I, as I pressed the foot, as you might say, in the grave, (he could not have note to my lips, "may I well, never mind, I'll go been above sixty, and his constitution, like everything over and have it out with that old brute this very else about him, appeared of cast iron,) must have some morning, and we'll see if he can frighten me;" and so conscience, must pay some little regard to right and saying, I set to work to finish dressing, in a great state wrong : it would only be necessary to open his eyes to of virtuous indignation. the enormity of wedding beauty and innocence such as "Freddy,” inquired I, when breakfast was at length Clara's to a scoundrel like Cumberland—a man destitute concluded, “where can I get a horse ?" of every honourable feeling-oh! he must see that the “Get a horse ?" was the reply.

“Oh! there are a great thing is impossible, and, as the thought passed through many places,-it depends upon what kind of horse you my mind, I longed for the moment when I should be want:--for race-horses, steeple-chasers, and hunters, I confronted with him, and able to tell him so.

would recommend Tattersall's; for hacks or machiners, And Clara, too ! sweet, bewitching, unhappy Clara! there's Aldridge's, in St. Martin's-lane; while Dixon's, what must not she have gone through, ere a mind in the Barbican, is the place to pick up a fine young naturally buoyant and elastic as hers, could have been cart-horse—is it a young cart-horse you want?” crushed into a state of such utter dejection, such calm, “My dear fellow, don't worry me," returned I, feeling spiritless despair! her only wish, to die-her only hope, very cross, and trying to look amiable ; "you know to find in the grave a place " where the wicked cease what I mean; is there any thing rideable to be hired from troubling, and where the weary are at rest!" But in Hillingford ?-I have a call to make which is beyond brighter days were in store for her,-it should be my a walk.” ambition to render her married life so happy, that, if “Let me see,” replied Freddy, musing; "you wouldn't

. possible, the recollection of all she had suffered having like a very little poney, with a rat-tail, I suppose-it passed away, her mind should recover its proper tone, might look absurd with your long legs, I'm afraid-or and even her lightness of heart, which the chill else Mrs. Meek, the undertaker's widow, has got a very atmosphere of unkindness for a time had blighted, quiet one, that poor Meek used to ride--a child could should revive again in the warm sunshine of affection. manage it:-there's the butcher's fat mare, but she won't

Thus meditating, I arrived at Elm Lodge, in a state stir a step without the basket, and it would be so of feeling containing about equal parts of the intensely troublesome for you to carry that all the way. Tompoetical, and the very decidedly hungry.

kins, the sweep, has got a little horse he'd let you have, On the second morning after the events I have I dare say, but it always comes off black on one's trowdescribed, a note was brought to me whilst I was sers; and the miller's cob is just as bad the other way dressing ;-with trembling fingers I tore open the with the flour. I know a donkeyenvelope, and read as follows :

“So do I," was my answer, as, laughing in spite of “ I promised to inform you of what occurred on my myself, I turned to leave the room. return here, and I must therefore do so, though what “Here, stop a minute !" cried Freddy, following me, I have to communicate will only give you pain :-"you are so dreadfully impetuous; there's nothing all that my fears pointed at has come to pass, and my morally wrong in being acquainted with a donkey, is doom appears irrevocably sealed. Late on the evening there? I assure you I did not mean any thing perof my return to Barstone, Mr. Vernon and his nephew sonal—and now for a word of sense. Bumpus, at the arrived; I never shall forget the feeling of agony that Green Man, has got a tremendous horse, which nearly shot through my brain, as Richard Cumberland's foot- frightened (me into fits the only time I ever mounted step sounded in the hall, knowing, as I too well did, the him, so that it will just suit you ; nobody but a green purpose with which he was come; I fancied grief had man, or a knight errant, which I consider much the same in great measure deadened my feelings, but that moment sort of thing, would patronize such an animal-still, served to undeceive me—the mixture of horror, aversion, he's the only one I know of.” and fear, combined with a sense of utter helplessness Coleman's tremendous horse, which proved to be a and desolation, seemed as it were to paralyse me. tall, pig-headed, bard-mouthed brute, with a very de

“But I know not why I am writing all this,-the cided will of his own, condescended, after sundry evening passed off without any thing particular taking skirmishes, and one pitched battle, occasioned by his place, - Mr. Cumberland's manner towards me was re- positive refusal to pass a windmill, to go the road I

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wished, and about an hour's ride brought me to the of the meeting- I trust our friend Oaklands feels no gate of Barston Park.

ill effects from his wound ?". So completely had I been hurried on by feeling in "Mr. Oaklands, I am sorry to say, recovers but slowly; every stage of the affair, and so entirely had all ininor the wound was a very severe one," returned I coldly. considerations given way to the paramount object of “Well, I will not detain you any longer, it is a lovely securing Clara's happiness, with which, as I now felt, morning for a ride," resumed Cumberland ;

can I be my own was indissolubly linked, that it was not until of any assistance in directing you the lanes in this my eye rested on the cold grey stone of Barstone neighbourhood are somewhat intricate,--you are not Priory, and wandered over the straight walks and for perhaps aware that the road you are now following is a mal lawns of the garden, that I became fully aware of private one." the extremely awkward and embarrassing nature of “Scarcely so private that those who have business the interview I was about to seek. To force myself into with Mr. Vernon may not make use of it, I presume," the presence of a man, more than double my own age, rejoined I. and, from all I had seen or heard of him, one of the “ Oh! of course not,” was the reply, “I did not last people in the world to take a liberty with, for the know that you were acquainted with my unele; though purpose of informing him that his nephew, the only now I come to think of it, I do recollect his saying creature on earth that he was supposed to love, was a that he had met you somewhere; he seldom receives low swindler, the associate of gamblers and blacklegs, visitors in tile morning ;-in fact, when I came ont, I did not appear a line of conduct exactly calculated to left him particularly engaged :-perhaps I can save you induce him, at my request, to give up a scheme on the trouble of going up to the house; is there any meswhich he had set his heart, or to look with a favourable sage I can deliver for you?" eye on my pretensions to the hand of his ward. Still “ I thank you,” replied I, “but I do not think the there was no help for it; the happiness of her I loved business which has brought me here could be well was at stake, and, had it been to face a fiend, instead transacted through a third person ; at all events I will of a man, I should not have hesitated.

take my chance of being admitted :-"I paused, but My reflections were here interrupted by a cock could not refrain from adding, “ besides, if my memory pheasant, which, alarmed at my approach, rose imme- fails not, you were a somewhat heedless messenger in diately under my horse's nose; an unexpected inci- days of yore." dent, which caused that brute to shy violently, and This allusion to his embezzlement of Oakland's letter turn short round, thereby nearly unseating me. Hav- stung him to the quick; he turned as white as ashes, and ing by this manoeuvre got his head towards home, he asked in a voice that trembled with passion, “ Whether not only refused to turn back again, but showed very | I meant to insult him?'' unmistakeable symptoms of a desire to run away. " I spoke heedlessly, and without deliberate inten-1 Fortunately, however, since the days of “ Mad Bess,” tion," I replied, “ but perhaps it is only fair to tell you, my arms had grown considerably stronger, and, by dint that for the future there can be no friendly communiof pulling and sawing the creature's apology for a cation between us; we must either avoid each other mouth with the bit, I was enabled to frustrate his bene altogether, which would be the most desirable arrangevolent intentions, and even succeeded in turning him ment, or meet as strangers. The disgraceful conduct round again—but here my power ceased-for in the of the boy I could bare forgiven and forgotten, had direction of the Priory by no possibility could I induce not its memory been revived by the evil deeds of the ! him to move a step. I whipped and spurred, but in man. Richard Cumberland, I know you thoroughly; it vain; the only result was a series of kicks and plunges, is needless for me to add more." accompanied by a retrograde movement, and a shake of As I spoke, his cheek flushed, then grew pale again the head, as if he were saying, No! I next attempted with shame and anger, while he bit his under lip so the soothing system, and lavished sundry caresses and severely, that a red line remained where his teeth bad endearing expressions upon him, of which he was ut. pressed it. When I concluded, he advanced towards terly undeserving, but my attentions were quite thrown me with a threatening gesture, but, unable to meet the away, and might as well, for any good they produced, stedfast look with which I confronted him, he turned have been bestowed upon a rocking-horse. At length, abruptly on his heel, and muttering, “ You shall repent after a final struggle, in which we were both within an this," disappeared among the shrubs. ace of falling into a water-course, or brook, which crossed the park in that direction, I gave the matter up as hopeless; and, with a sigh (for I love not to be foiled in anything I have attempted, and moreover I could not ERAS OF ENGLISH CIVILIZATION.I help lookiny upon it as an unlucky omen) dismounted, and leading my rebellious steed by the rein, advanced

WHATEVER has imparted beauty, or secured strength on foot towards the house. As I did so, a figure to the British constitution, must, directly or indirectly, abruptly turned the corner of a shrubbery walk, which be traced to the influence of our parliament, in which ran at right angles to the road, and I found myself king, lords, and commons, concur in the work of dis face to face with Richard Cumberland !

ciplining a nation for the struggles to which it may be For a moment he remained staring at me, as if he summoned. The civilization of England has naturally scarcely recognised me, or was unwilling to trust the arisen out of the peculiar principle of that constitution, evidence of his senses, so confounded was he at my un

which has saved us from despotism, on the one hand, expected apparition ; but, as I met his gaze with a cold and from anarchy, on the other. Wide, therefore, must stern look, he seemed to doubt no longer, and advancing his survey be, who takes into one field of view all the a step towards me, said, in a tone of ironical politeness, vast results of the era we are now contemplating, with"Is it possible that I have the pleasure of seeing little to the real prosperity of the land. When, there

out which all other periods would have contributed Mr. Fairlegh?"

“ None other, Mr. Cumberland,” returned I, “ though fore, we look on the busy past, or contemplate the I could hardly have flattered myself that my appearance coming ages, and ponder over the undeveloped epochs of would have recalled any very pleasurable associations, the world's civilization, let us remember that one considering the last two occasions on which we met.”

marked era, the famous thirteenth century, when the great "Ab! you refer to that unfortunate affair with preservative principle in the politics of England first Wilford,” replied Cumberland, purposely misunder

rose into action. Colonies, in all regions of the globe, standing my allusion to Dr. Wildman's. _“I had have sown, and are sowing, the seeds of other civilizahoped to have been able to prevent the mischief tions over the wastes of savage nature; and thus, at which occurred, but I was misinformed as to the time

(1) Continued from p. 228.


some future period, the historian of the South Sea | lable aid rendered to civilization by these great corIsles, or some Australian legislator, may look back to porations. Without them nothing like a compacted the origin of our parliament as the cause of prosperity system of national law could have arisen, and we must and happiness to more than one-half the inhabitants have suffered all the checks to civilization arising from of the globe.

the absence of a code suited to the peculiar requireWhen we consider the extensive regions of the East, ments of the country, or from the presence of a foreign the South, and the West, over which the English lan system, which, though excellent in parts, must have guage is spoken, it is evident that the civilization of seriously modified the character of the people of the whole world must be shaped, to a great extent, by England. The feeling of independence, and of rethe peculiarities of English life and customs. The plain sistance to wrong, which characterize Englishmen, must conclusion is, that the era of the rise of our parliament be traced to the operation during many ages of the must be viewed as operating not only within the four national laws on the habits of the people. Deference to seas of Britain, but over the length and breadth of the authority is one sure mcans of securing the advance of Old and New Worlds. The civilization of the greater a nation in prosperity; and Ireland is at this moment part of Asia will, probably, be modified by that of a terrible illustration of the prostration which may India ; whilst the progress of the latter in arts and laws befall a people who feel the workings of no such must be directed by the agencies of the English consti- principle. But to produce and support this feeling, the tution. America, again, will probably follow, at no laws themselves must be interpreted and administered distant time, the spirit of the systems, exhibited in on principles suited to the wants of the nation; and this Canada and the United States; in either of which cases England had secured in ages past by the constitution English civilization must be regarded as the parent of her courts, and the organization of ler bar. If the stream from which the fertilizing agencies flow over long line of statutes and the legion of reports terrify the earth. What an ever verdant wreath of glory is the student who is ambitious of grasping the whole of all time thus preparing for the name which must re- the vast system, the spectacle may, on the other hand, main connected with the era of English parliaments ! delight the poorest member of the community whose What avails it that the body of the great De Montfort rights are defined and guarded by the provisions of was once brutally mutilated by his savage fucs on the those ponderous tomes. It is the system of English field of Evesham, when many nations will preserve his law which has delivered us from the tyranny of a hunundying memorials in the principles and forms of their dred petty codes; which has saved us from the operanational existence?

tions of the wager by battle, and the trial by ordeal; 4. THE ERA OF THE ENGLISI LEGAL SYSTEY.

whilst no imperious prince can again sport with the

liberties and rights of Englishmen, by setting up his The last section brought before us an era relating proclamations above the laws. The beggar sleeps to the primary elements of civilization; this claims securely in his poor hut through which the storm may our attention to a series of details subsidiary to the beat, but where not even the sovereign of the land has causes just described. If a well-balanced represen- a right to enter save at the bidding of the law; and it tative system be compared to some deep spring, ever is this firm security for the weak which has made pouring forth the riches of intelligence and liberty; England the refuge of industry, arts, and wealth, and law may be likened to the channels and dykes which therefore the home of a most vigorous civilization. preserve the accumulated waters within their desired To trace the growth of our vast legal system, since the

What would a nicely adapted representative period when the inns of court were incorporated, is imsystem have accomplished in presence of a feeble, con possible in this place ; our object is not a history of law, fused, or corrupt jurisprudence? Acts of Parliament but a survey of the causes which have promoted the are but waste paper until impressed by the seal of the growth of the British empire in all the essentials of judge, and the decisions of a court. Trial by jury-national greatness. open courts of justice--the co-ordinate jurisdiction of several independent courts—the constant watchfulness

5. ERA OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. of a trained body of lawyers--and the numerous secu- If the fourteenth century was distinguished by the rities provided for the protection of the subject, ---are the formation of the legal corporations, by which our defences thrown up in past ages against the encroach- liberties have been asserted and maintained, the next ments of arbitrary power or the excesses of an undis- age was characterised by the uprising of that mighty ciplined democracy. How much the civilization of the art which has given power and perpetuity to all the land has been promoted by fixed laws, administered by rest. Caxton was born in the beginning of this censupreme courts, can only be fully estimated by those tury, 1410, or 1412, and, having set up on one mewho have witnessed the disorganization flowing from a morable day his world-famed press in Westminster contrary system. Time was when right was at the Abbey, began to teach his country another great lesson in merey of an ignorant or malicious baron, who required civilization. The mind of England was thus prepared all disputes within his domain to be tried in his own to take advantage of the light shed over Europe by the

In such places the will of the lord was law; | downfall of Constantinople, and the dispersion of the and thus the feudal baron was absolute within his Grecian scholars through every state and kingdom. estate, and mimicked within his petty court the terrors Whatever come may think of the works actually puband majesty of the imperial sceptre. All this it was lished by Caxton, and howerer lightly the student may necessary to supersede by the great tribunals of the estimate their importance, let it not be forgotten, that kingdom, before civilization could dwell securely in the his books were the pioneers of those which now enrich land. But the workings of such courts required the co- our noblest libraries, and speak to the soul in the elooperation of a large body of men, trained to the con quent accents of ancient and modern wisdom. Sonie sideration of legal subjects, and versed in the national who smile at his books on the Game of Chess," his laws. The rise of such a body, and its confederation in Noble IIistory of King Arthur,” the “book of the regular societies, must be regarded as the commence whole Life of Jason," must admit that the old printer ment of the era now under consideration.

did nevertheless good service, by directing the public This happened in the fourteenth century, when the inns mind to the important studies suggested by such a of court were formed in the metropolis, under the patron- work as “ The Chronicles of England," and the more age of the first and second Edwards. The Englishman general narrative entitled “ Polychronicon,” the rude who walks through the great square of Livcoln's Inn, style of which Caxion popularised. Great also was and passes thence to the Inner and Middle Temple, the impulse given to the national thoughts by the pub. ending with the Inn named from the Lords Gray of Wilton, would do well to reflect on the almost incalcu

(1) Such as the Roman law,


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lication of French translations from the classics, by | lating wars can proceed. To have had the beginnings which Englishmen were early familiarised with the bold of such an era, and still to possess its fruits, are the ideas and elevating sentiments which once fired the surest omens of a long and triumphant progress uphearts of Rome's noblest sons.

wards, till that point is gained where something reBut we do not regard Caxton so much for his own sembling the bright visions of the golden age may visit doings, as for the results produced in all succeeding the homes of men. ages by his labours. The beginnings of literature in Amidst these reflections on the past, and anticipations his time may seem 'small; and there were doubtless of the future, some observer of things as they are may many who listened with sneers to the crank of the look down into the dark abyss of modern society, and solitary press in the old abbey as it toiled on slowly inquire whether civilization is there ; there, where unproducing works which seemed, to prejudiced eyes, far tutored thousands crouch in pestilential corners of poless beautiful than the old illuminated MSS., elaborated | pulous human hives, and over whom so little of the by the handicraft of patient monk and scribe. But that pure breczes from a better land has breathed ? But stop, simple press is the honoured father of the steam-print and reflect upon the causes of this misery, ere you give ing machine, which now dispenses the intellectual up, gloomy observer, all hopes of amelioration for those food of inillions in a few hours every morning.

beings. Has not literature, with all its purifying, lifeWere Caxton's machine placed by the side of The rejoicing truths, been to them a thing unknown ? and Times' press, how little notice would it attract, save has not their poverty been thus deepened into a fearful from those who can trace the spreading glories which gloom and wretchedness by the thick shadow of ignofrom his age diffused over the mental firmament the rance? If this could be removed ; if for them an era of light and warmth of knowledge. From the establish- knowledge were to arise, the results would be as favourment of that machine in the abbey, knowledge was able in the dwellings of our mechanics and peasants as furnished with wings, not for the purpose of eluding upon the surface of England in general. Civilization but seeking men. Thoughts long pent up in the form will not, cannot penetrate through the recesses of society, of costly and rare manuscripts emerged from the gloom until knowledge prepares the minds of all to appreciate of their ancient cells, and rose into the pure heavens, aright their position, and judge aright of their duties. where, for ages, they have blazed sun-like before men. Four centuries of stirring events have passed away since

Wynkyn-de-Worde and Richard Pynson, the devoted Caxton originated the era of English literature, and yet friends and companions of the first English printer, much remains to be done for the mass of the lower took up the holy work when Caxton died, and sent, in orders. But let us hope this era will go on increasing more than six hundred distinct books, bright forms of in brightness and power until the humble and lowly truth into the halls of nobles, the parsonage of the are brought within its lasting influence. priest, and the burgher's home; training up that generation for the great struggle so soon to startle Europe.

6. ERA OF THE REFORMATION. Then printers and authors began to multiply, and so The character of a people must partake of the pecunumerous did the former become that the names of liarities of their religious systems, for it is impossible three hundred and fifty are given by Bibliographers that themes so commanding in their nature should fail between the time of Caxton and the end of the ensuing to impress the minds of men. This remark will be century, whilst above ten thousand works were pub-confirmed and illustrated by a reference to the religious lished in the same period, attesting the awakening of systems of ancient or modern states, of civilized or the nation, and the rapid advance towards civilization, savage tribes, and is peculiarly exemplified in the his. produced by the development of a literary spirit tory of European nations. The most remarkable reliamongst the people. As we proceed to later times, and gious era in England was undoubtedly that of our find ourselves surrounded by the struggles attendant Reformation, whether we consider the circumstances upon the Reformation, and the bitter contests of the attending its birth, the vast results produced by its civil wars, we see thoughts and books multiplying, as if, operations, and their extensive influence on the most amidst the perplexities and shakings of the nations, distant nations which have been connected with the lights rose up from the trembling earth, or descended commerce or politics of England. One of the most from the troubled heavens, to guide bewildered men decided peculiarities imparted to the English mind by into paths of peace and homes of rest. It is to be this great epoch is an intense religious earnestness regretted, that so much of this literature should have developed individually, but limited by the church sysbeen devoted to theological and secular strife, and that tem of the people, which links them by many of its 30,000 tracts upon such subjects should have been pub- forms and services with the ancient ages of Christianity. lished during the short space of twenty years, from This stern individuality which leads men to set up 1640 to 1660. But all this effort was not lost work; some power within the heart as the final arbiter of all something was gained from such an incessant collision debates, and for which they will zealously do battle as for of minds by which subsequent times were extensively their liege sovereign, marks the puritanical element so affected; so that many of our present national habits strongly developed in the English character. As this may be traced to the feelings excited during these long moral peculiarity must be noted when reviewing the contests. But, amidst the din raised by meaner spirits, nature of our civilization, so it is forced upon our attenthree bright forms had risen far above the dusty clouds tion by some of the most momentous events in our into the regions of a loftier literature. The stars of history. The civil wars and the ultimate fall of the Spenser, Shakespear, and Milton, beamed with a reful. Stuart princes, our relations with the Protestant powers gent splendour over the troubled waters, and guided by of Europe, and the system of foreign policy introduced their gentle influence the spirits of men to nobler by William III., are all direct results of the uncomproobjects.

mising religious element infused by the Reformation. To pursue the course of our literary progress, and its And how important have been the consequences of this varied operations on our complicated civilization, will feeling within the country itself can be fully comprebe deemed needless. It is enough to have indicated the hended only by those who survey with a careful and fountain head whence such waters of life flowed, and by dispassionate mind the changes in our history since the the taste of which a host of ardent spirits, in these ages, time of Elizabeth, and the present energies at work have been impelled in the pursuit of a higher good than amongst the people. their fathers knew. Amongst all the eras named in The attitude of conflict ever kept up towards Rome, this article none are more important than this concern- has modified in a remarkable manner the character of ing which we now treat; for a nation without a literary English civilization, and stamped upon our laws and era must ever remain amongst the rude communities manners some of those deeply graven principles and from whose barbarous seats of power little save deso-1 peculiarities which aniaze the foreigner. It is difficult to say how much of the present complication of Irish phers, or even the views of our infidels, will observe a politics has been caused by the incessant actings of marked difference between their reasonings and those puritanical sternness, but it is evident that the con. of the continental speculators. Amongst the latter the dition of that country has been affected in most im- mind seems released from all respect for authority, and portant particulars by laws and regulations dictated by the theorist advances from one delusion to another with this feeling. That such should have been the case was the feeling that all things are wrong, and he is born to perfectly natural; for it was not in the nature of things set them right. Something of this spirit is often seen for a reflective and determined people to pass through in our dissenting communities; but in general a consuch critical events as the Marian burnings, the attack siderable degree of caution is exercised by the English of the Spanish Armada, the gunpowder plot, the mind when treating of the mysterious subjects pertain. tempest of the great rebellion, the change in the royal ing to religion and morals. This reining in of our succession, when adherence to Rome cost James II. a fiercest spirits, and the consequent effects upon the crown, and the struggles against the partisans of the national mind, must be ascribed to the peculiarly mixed excited Stuarts, without feeling their whole nature principles of our Reformation. When we consider the steeled into hardihood towards the system of the important consequences often produced by unrestrained papacy. Hence the restrictive laws against the Roman speculation, and the fierce excitement to which the Catholics in England, but especially in Ireland, from ferocity of a Voltaire, or the theories of a D'Holbach which, at the present day, such fruits have been pro- or a Helvetius, may lead a nation, we cannot refrain duced as few can contemplate with undisturbed minds. from rejoicing over the more practical character imThis hostile spirit towards the power of the Italian parted to our metaphysicians by the religious character hierarch was forced, be it remembered, upon the country stamped upon the land during the era of which we are by events which arose as clearly from the agency of now treating ; therefore it is that we have hitherto Providence as any phenomena ever developed upon the escaped the wildness of the German, and the freezing face of the earth, and by the unwise, if not wicked, coldness of the French philosophy. Our adherence to machinations of the men, who in those times directed records, and reverence for primitive practices, have been the workings of Romanism. Whatever evils, there the restraining agencies which have given to the freest fore, may have followed the unchecked action of the nation upon earth a moderation so rarely exercised, and puritanical principle, the feeling itself is not to be so hardly learned by men. The influence of the Refor. classed with the errors, but numbered amongst the mation must, therefore, be highly prized by those who characteristics, of our civilization. Much of the practical have learned to estimate national progress aright, and earnestness, distinguishing the English as a people, who can note the difference between the feverish movemust be traced to the spirit roused into such action by ments of a false, and the steady advance of a genuine, the Reformation, and its direct consequences. And for civilization. ages to come this same principle will continue to work

(To be continued.) powerfully in the politics of the nation; for, whatever modifications may result from the eclecticism now pervading a large section of our public men, and so likely to become predominant in some states of Europe, we

BERTHA'S WALK. cannot expect the people of England to abandon views which have become a part of their

moral constitution, and are interwoven with the most stirring periods of their annals. The present contests prevailing amongst us Once upon a time there lived near the borders of an indicate the vigour of that determined Protestantism extensive forest in the southern part of Germany, a poor which has survived unbroken amidst the changes and widow named Gertrude Hauff, and her little daughter shocks of parties.

The mild and comprehensive theology of the Anglican
Church, ever seeking to develope the principles of

Gertrude supported herself and her child by her Catholicism without Romanism, has modified the one spinning, and four times every year she and Bertha sidedness of the mere reformer, and given to the went to a small town about two leagues distant, to Englishman a sympathy with the principles of primitive dispose of the produce of her industry, and to purchase times. English civilization has, therefore, received from the few articles of food and clothing which their simple the Reformation a mixed character, uniting opposition habits rendered necessary. These periodical visits were to Rome with a considerable degree of respect for the always looked forward to with eager delight by the practices and teachings of the early church. We are; little girl; they were the great events of her life, the notwithstanding all our self-reliance, a people disposed to rest upon tradition to a very considerable extent,-a bright stars in her calm and cloudless sky. tendency abundantly developed in the practice of our It was the evening of a beautiful day in October, the courts of law, and the deliberations of parliament; in setting sun shone brightly through the lattice, and both of which precedent is ever held up to view; and rested on the glowing cheek and glossy golden curls woe betide the lawyer or the statesman who should of the fair child, as if to set forth, if possible more wholly despise the lessons taught by our ancient records : strongly, the striking contrast between their brilliant not the genius of a Follett in the one case, nor the com- beauty, and the dark mourning dress and careworn manding energies of a Pitt in the other, would secure features of her mother, who sat gazing with all a such an one from being borne down by the indignation mother's fondness upon the elastic form and the bright of his countrymen. This spirit has been to some ex. laughing eye of the little maiden, as she busied herself tent preserved by the formularies of our church; and it in tying up, and arranging in large bundles, the skeins is not, therefore, probable that England will ever suffer of homespun thread, which Gertrude produced from herself to be carried away either by the violence of ab- a press that stood in one corner of her neat little stract puritanism, or the errors of Rome. We are thus kitchen. placed by the Reformation between two extremes, and "I hope we shall have a fine day for our walk our civilizatio.. has unquestionably been materially to-morrow, mother,” said Bertha, as she finished unmodified by the results of the great religious change ravelling a tangled mass of thread, and laid it in through which we passed in the sixteenth century. triumph on the table. “ We shall have a large basket

Freedom of speculation, limited by practical con- full to take this time, but I can carry it all the way; you siderations, is another characteristic of English civiliza know, mother, the last time we went, you were tired, tion traceable to the influence of the Reformation. He and I was not.”. She stopped abruptly, for as she who considers the speculations of the English philoso- looked up into her mother's face she observed the


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