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and used by him as a kitchen. There are tables, safes, rendered obsolete. There the steam-engine, a machine &c. said to have formed part of the original furniture with appliances and powers which defy both time and of the Boleyn family. The tables are very long, and of distance. somewhat more massive construction than those of the The album that is kept in a parlour in one of the inpresent day. They were possibly intended for the baron, habited rooms, boasts amongst the list of its visitors and those whose privilege it was to sit above the salt; whose names are recorded, the autograph of her most for smaller tables placed crosswise were the proper gracious majesty Queen Victoria, who, with the Duchess place of the humble retainers.

of Kent and suite, rode over from Tunbridge Wells on The hall is parted from the entrance door by a screen the 13th of September, 1834, and minutely inspected of old oak.

the residence of two former queens of England. Adjoining this apartment is the staircase; on the The manor and castle of Hever were purchased from walls are many pictures, of most indifferent execution. the Cobhams of Kent, in the year 1458, by Geoffrey The visitor will be startled in his recollections of Rapin Boleyn, who was at that time lord mayor of London, and Hume, if the same amount of historical information About the same time he bought Blickling-hall and is accorded to him as fell to the lot of the writer, who manor, in Norfolk, from Sir John Fastolf. Both was gravely assured by the attendant cicerone, that a Blickling and Hever have contended for the honour of portrait of Edward VI. was Queen Anne Boleyn's having been the birth-place of the fair Anne, but the son's likeness ; and that a veritable resemblance of general opinions, founded on various authenticated Garrick as Richard III. was that Protector-man facts, appear to concur in favour of Blickling. Certain Oliver Cromwell. There are many rooms and sleeping it is, that upon the death of her mother, Anne resided chambers on this first floor.

and was educated at Hever. Letters are still extant, One of them is shown as the bed-chamber of the dated from thence, and addressed to her father at court. unfortunate queen; it is panelled, and contains a bed When the love-match between her and Percy was broken with old damask hangings; this is, of course, said to be off, she retired to Hever, having left it some few years the couch of poor Anne. There are several chairs, before to become maid of honour to the queen Katharine, tables, trunks, all of which certainly look antique whom she had the great misfortune to supplant in the enough to pass muster as having been used by her. In affections of the king. a corner of the room is a dark closet, the window of It was at Hever where Henry renewed the acquaintwhich is closed up; there is also a sinall trap, fastened ance with his lovely subject. It was at Hever where down.

she rejected his proffered admiration, and it was from It is rumoured that Sir Thomas Boleyn confined his Hever she departed to a court where she met with her daughter in this dismal looking place, when the king tragical and undeserved end. It is a curious circumpaid Hever a visit, as he did not wish his amorous stance, and one which may be reckoned as a mystery inajesty to see her; and, by means of this trap, victuals of history, that her birth.place, the church where she were conveyed to her from the outside. This is one of was married, and her last earthly resting abode, are all those old-time tales, which seem to cling to the walls of matters of doubt. castles and strong-holds that are famous in story. What Sopewell nunnery in Hertfordshire, Dover, Blickling. is a castle without its legend !-a mere crest without a hall, and Whitehall, are mentioned by historians, as motto. The top of the building is occupied by a gallery the spot where she became a wife and a queen. Again, more than a hundred feet long; it has a curiously Salle church in Norfolk, Thornden-on-the-hill in Essex, vaulted roof, is panelled with oak, and the flooring, and the Tower church, claim to be the sacred repository which is laid down in a very rude manner, is formed of of her remains. the same species of timber. There are many recesses There are two rival traditions, which affirm that her here, and in one of them a flight of steps, with rough body was secretly conveyed from the Tower to Salle on elbowed benches, for the lord of the domain to use on the one hand, or to Thornden on the other. Her resioccasions of state. At the end opposite is a trap-door, dence at Hever, and the king's visits to her whilst there, leading to a chamber, in which fugitives sought a are beyond all doubt, and give to the old castle a temporary retreat. This is, in all probability, another veritable interest. On the death of Sir Thomas Boleyn, of the traditions belonging as part and parcel to Hever. Ilever and its appurtenances were seized by Henry, and

In one of the lower windows of a room on the hall. became crown property. When the ruthless monarch floor, the family arms of the Bullens appear in stained was determined to divorce himself from his fourth glass.

wife, Anne of Cleves, it was Hever he selected as her After crossing the court-yard, the keep is entered by residence, amongst many others. Accordingly we find a winding staircase in one of the towers. There is a that ill-used and repudiated lady writing to her stepsmall ante-room, which leads from these stairs into the daughter Queen Mary, in the year 1554. great state hall. This has been restored within the last “ From iny poor house at lever, the 4th of August. few years. It is panelled in handsomely carved ma

Your Highness' to command, hogany, and contains many family portraits; there are

Anne the daughter of Cleves." none of any interest, save one of no particular merit,-a In sweet and calm retirement, in the small cares and likeness of Anne Boleyn. A music gallery and a library occupations of domestic life, she passed her pleasant are attached to this room. In the former are some days, alternating her residence at Hever, with Bletscreens of needlework, of a most venerable and faded chingly and Penshurst. aspect.

She died at Chelsea, in the middle of the month of The hall is decorated with some armorial bearings, July, 1557, and her death was as tranquil and patient as whose only fault consists in their looking too clean and her blameless life had been. What a forcible contrast new; time will remedy this defect. There is egress to the first Anne! Her excellent sound sense, and the from the turret stairs on to the leads of the tower; the happy tenour of her disposition, found at Hever a conview is not of an extensive nature; everywhere a fruit- genial home, whilst the restless nature and offended ful smiling country. There are no habitations to be dignity of Anne Boleyn, aided by unfortunate circumseen, and but one symptom of man's vicinity; that one, stances, induced her to quit its peaceful shades, for a though, is a formidable evidence of his existence. city where she met with a fate whose horrors cannot be Between a belt of umbrageous elms, a column of smoke dwelt upon here. The Waldo family are the present posmay be seen running, so to speak, past at a miraculous sessors of this property, and kindly allow every possible pace. This is the line of the Dover railway. What a facility to tourists and historiographers, who wish to contrast !--the past! and the present ! Here the strong examine and explore the castle. It is to be hoped that hold of a feudal baron, one of those castles of security | the rage of the day for modern improvements will not that an improved and improving state of society has find its way to this village, and destroy so interesting a

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If aught be in those memories fair,

Aught that 'tis well we should recall, When saddened by some present care,

These cherished records hold it all!

relic of the past. Associated as it is, and ever must be, with the histories of two of the queens of England, it will be ever worthy a visit. The charming scenery, too, which surrounds it on all sides, renders it doubly attractive.

The meanderings of the little Eden, with its mossy banks, the magnificent oaks, and the fertile appearance of the fields and pastures, combine to form landscapes of the most sylvan and gentle character, so that the first glance of the castle is quite startling. This gives additional effect to it, and helps the imagination to invest it with charms, that are the fitting inheritance of localities such as Hever.

They hold it all,-I read, and swift

As light, my heart with peace is filled; I read, and feel that Heaven's rich gift,

Our early love, has ne'er been chilled, Dear! let us to ourselves be truc,

That, as we thread life's winding maze, No bitterness may cloud our view

Of those beloved and liappy days!

Poetry.

Miscellaneous.

[In Original Poetry, the Name, real or assumed, of the Author, is printed in Small Capitals under the title; in Selections, it is printed in Italics at the end.)

"I have here made only a nosegay of culled flowers, and have brought nothing of my own, but the string that ties them."- Montaigne.

THE OLD CLERK'S VANITY.

W. BRAILSFORD.

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“AMEN,” said the clerk, as he closed his book,

With a heavy sigh and groan, “In Nature's sweet pages I'll try to look

For feelings like my own. The mavis sings to his young on the bough, The linnet to its gentle mate I trow,

But I seem all alone. “Ah! dear my child, in the merry greenwood

Thy form was fair to see;
Full inany a prayer in its solitude

Have I offered up for thee.
Full many a prayer, for thou wert so young,
Such a halo of beauty o'er thee hung-

Yet, 'tis all--all vavity! “My life seems parted from all gentle things,

No joys to me will come,
The thought that ever to my old heart clings,

Is my lone vacant home.
It is as though all kindly natures fed
With the dim shadow of that lovely dead-

So wearily I roam. “ Sweet music have these aged oaks, sweet lays

Are filling earth and air; Sweet meetings in these pleasant leafy ways,

Sweet thoughts for love to share. Ah! all too beautiful, ye flowers that secm As mocking to my sense as some new dreain

That wakes me to my care. “Unclasp, old book, I may not see those trecs;

I may not list again The rich-toned melodies that swell the breeze,

For aye it gives me pain. Still, all is vanity, the Preacher saith, Even that gentle life, that saint-like death,

The grave where she is lain.”

It is the prerogative of genius to confer a measure of itself upon inferior intelligences. In reading the works of Milton, Bacon, and Newton, thoughts greater than the growth of our own minds are transplanted into them;

and feelings more profound, sublime, or comprehensive, are insinuated amidst our ordinary train ; while, in the eloquence with which they are clothed, we learn a new language, worthy of the new ideas created in us ... By habitual communion with superior spirits, we not only are enabled to think their thoughts, speak their dialect, feel their emotions, but our own thoughts are refined, our scanty language is enriched, our common feelings are elevated; and though we may never attain their standard, yet by keeping company with them, we shall rise above our own; as trees growing in the society of a forest are said to draw each other up into sbapely and stately proportion, while field and hedge-row strag. glers, exposed to all weathers, never reach their full stature, luxuriance, or beauty.---James Montgomery.

CLEVERNESS is like good nature, a point always brought forward when there are others which it is desirable to keep in the back ground.-Margaret Perciral.

I Have observed one ingredient, somewhat necessary in a man's composition towards happiness, which people of feeling would do well to acquire; a certain respect for the follies of mankind; for there are so many fools whom the opinion of the world entitles to regard, whom accident has placed in heights of which they are un. worthy, that he who cannot restrain his contempt or indignation at the sight, will be too often quarrelling with the disposal of things to relish that share which is allotted to himself.- Mackenzie's Man of Feeling.

The time for reasoning is before we have approached near enough to the forbidden fruit to look at it and admire.- Margaret Percival.

He who is catching opportunities because they seldom occur, would suffer those to pass by upregarded, wbich he expects hourly to return. -Johnson.

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TO --, ON READING SOME OF HIER FORMER

LETTERS.

BY GRACE.
'Tis not with vain regret I view

These records of our earlier time, -
Unfading violets, with the dew

Still on them, as in morning's prime.
In morning's prime, when future fate

Without its darker shades appeared ;
When anger, jealousy, and hate,

Were names we rather shunned thian feared.
When all that to our eyes seemed bright

We loved, and never questioned wly;
And the quick current of delight

In glad transparency flowed by.

CONTENTS.

Page Italian Herd-Boy sleeping, Bertha's Walk, a Tale.. 249

(Illustration by Weigall) 241 Nuremberg, (continued)...... 951 The Drama in the Middle Country Sketches, No. II.Ages........

242 A Summer's Morning at Frank Fairlegh; or, Old

Hever.

254 Companions in New POETRY:-Scenes, Chap. IX.- The The Old Clerk's Vanity... 256 Forlorn Hope

214 To on reading some Eras of English Civiliza.

of her former Letters... 256 tion, (continued) 216 Miscellaneous

236

PRINTED br RiCHARD CLAY, of Nos. 7 and 8, Bread Street Hill, in the

Parish of St Nicholas Olave, in the City of London, at his Printing Office at the same place, and published by Thomas BowvLEN SKARPK, of Nois Skinner Street, in the Parish of St. Sepulchre, in the City of London.Saturday, August 14th, 1617.

London Magazine:

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THE LIAGH FAIL, OR CORONATION posterity! but we have no record in history that it STONE.

added its groans to the stings which must have assailed

Richard III., whether he were a murderer of children or “ Hail to the crown by Freedom shap d—to gird

not; nor have we ever read that it lent a sigh to the foreAn English sovereign's brow! and to the throne boding pangs of Lady Jane Grey. In the worthy House of Whereon she sits! Whose deep foundations lie Stuart it would, of course, acknowledge the “true line;" In veneration, and the people's love,

although, at the period of its removal from Scotland, Whose steps are equity, whose seat is law.”

the founder of that unhappy family had not yet deserted

his original occupation for the less peaceful task of We suppose that the greater part, if not all, of our governing an unruly people. But was it fear of inreaders have visited Westminster Abbey,—that place harmonious music from the stone which led Cromwell dedicated to the great, the good, and the gifted, among to refuse the proffered crown? After the danger of such England's children ;-we suppose they have felt the an indignity, how must the Liagh Fail have exulted in

the coronation of Charles II.! But what was its bepower and strength of human intellect while gazing on haviour at the Revolution of 1688? We must suppose the bust of Newton, and called to mind the cutting either that it had left its faculty of distinguishing moral irony of him who asked his country for bread, right from wrong at its old abode of Scone, or that its and received a stone.

virtues had worn out;-virtues do wear out, sometimes; We tear ourselves away from this holy spot; and, that is, we take so much credit for what we have done, after admiring that most elegant of female statues, that we think it needless to do more. How exquisitely

absurd is the whole story! Lady Walpole, and giving a sigh to the memory of the

We have brought the Stone of Destiny to London, young and royal exile of Twickenham, our attention is and introduced its present form and office ; let us now requested to an antique, and somewhat clumsy, oaken look back to its earlier history. Shall we alarm our chair, which our guide, in a tone of mock-heroic dignity, readers if we refer to the traditions of Ireland, going informs us is that in which“ all the kings and queens back far, very far, beyond the period of accredited facts,

into the darkness, or, as the Irish would say, the brightof England have been crowned.” He then points to a

ness of the earliest ages after the deluge? Hollinshed, large misshapen stone under the seat of the chair, and following these legends, says, that Gathelus, the son of almost hidden by thick old ornaments, acquainting us Cecrops, brought the Liagh Fail to Egypt, thence to with the fact that, wherever that stone forms part of Spain, where he "sat upon his marble stone in Brithe coronation ceremonial, there one of the true race gantia,” now Compostellà. He then passed over to shall reign. We will not question this at present, but Ireland, bringing the stone with him. Another tradiassure our readers that the history of this stone, of its tion is, that it was brought by giants from Africa, which

touches thus nearly upon modern fact. Some years adventures and journeyings, is by no means uninteresting, since, a piece of stone from Stonehenge, highly polished, especially to such as love to dive into the dark waters was shown to an eminent geologist, and he was asked of antiquarian lore.

whence he imagined it came : he replied that it looked Toland, in his History of the Druids, calls this Liagh like African stone, but that, if it were British, it came Fail, or Stone of Destiny; “ the ancientest respected from Anglesey : the bit of stone was presented to the monument in the world ; for, though some others may arrival of our stone to the sea-kings, or to the Phæni

Geological Society. Other traditions attribute the be more ancient as to duration, yet thus superstitiously cians, who had settlements in the southern part of regarded they are not.” The stone is, therefore, an Ireland: each of these tales becomes probable when object of no ordinary interest.

we remember that many colonies settled in that country, When Edward I. wasted life and treasure in vainly distinct in their characters, approaching to each other endeavouring to conquer the Scottish nation, (for the language. We do not except the African giants in this,

in their religious observances, and almost identical in country he overran, the houses he destroyed, but the as we know that the northern coast of that continent people he could not subdue,) he found in the ancient was inhabited by a race proceeding from a very different palace of Scone a chair, in which was embedded a stock to the Égyptians; and that the habits and sacred block of stone, to which tradition ascribed customs of the Berbers show them to be of Celtic marvellous virtues. According to Wintown's Chronicle, the band who recorded on the pillar at Tangier,

origin, nearly related to our Cornishmen. Might not

We the Scotch shall reign wherever that stone stands; but flee from Joshua the robber,” have been those African the more ancient legend asserts that the stone has the giants, wlio, driven out of Palestine, fled to their virtue of discerning a prince “ of the true line" from brethren, the people great, and many, and tall,”. of a usurper; and that it gives notice of this by a parti- the Scriptures? If

, pressing westward, as population cular sound. Here is a contradiction at once; as the has always done, these outcasts reached the Sacred Isle usurper having been crowned, the mere presence of the of the West, their previous customs would lead them to stone makes him of the true line, although, perhaps, do we read this apparently absurd legend.

erect a stone as a memorial of their deliverance. Thus his legitimate right may not be traceable. However,

As to Hollinshed's derivation of the Liagh Fail, we the same subtlety which dictated Edward's conduct are scarcely intimate enough with the family of Cecrops towards the Welsh induced him to remove the Liagh to decide upon its truth, but we have evidence that Fail to London; perhaps in the hope of thereby Spain and Ireland had some connexion in early times; acquiring some power over the minds of the Scotch,

we see the foot-steps of the Druids among the recesses perhaps in the expectation of renovating the ardour of of the mountains of Estremadura,--this word carries his almost wearied soldiers. Thus was the Stone of remnant of Celtic population in the Basque pro

us very far eastward,—and we find an important Destiny brought to London, and placed at the shrine vinces. of Edward the Confessor. Its miraculous virtues we Mr. Moore, quoting the Book of Hoath, says, that the must suppose to have been left in Scotland, or surely Stone of Destiny was brought to Ireland by the they would have displayed themselves during the dis

Tuath-de-Danaans, a colony of people famed for neastrous contests of York and Lancaster; by its aid how cromancy, which they had learned in Greece.” This many disputed points might have been cleared up to I taught necromancy to the Greeks, as that people bad

name is suggestive, and we should rather say that they

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not yet perfected the arts which they borrowed from under the same debasing yoke. The island became Egypt; and on other grounds we must hesitate as to the stronghold of the Druidical religion, and most the probability of truth in Mr. Moore's quotation. wonderful are the existing remains of it; indeed it apBuchanan says, that Simon Brech, a Scythian, brought pears to be one of the characteristics of Druidism, that the stone to Ireland, “ amongst other princelie iewells its remembrance shall never be lost to the world. The and regall monuments ;" and that he was crowned Parthenon is a ruin,--the Cromlech remains entire. upon it, 700 B. C. In all these tales, one thing is cer. We may imagine, that, under the Scythians, inauguratain, that all traditions, however differing from each tion at the sacred stone was still necessary to render other in minor points, agree in mentioning the Liagh valid the election of the monarch ; in all cases of conFail as a foreign importation, and this is a matter of quest it is the policy of the victor to respect the some importance. Upon the whole, we imagine that religious prejudices of the conquered; and instances it might be either an altar-stone or sacred pillar be are frequent, in which the customs of the vanquished longing to one of the many Druidical temples, whose have, in a short time, become those of the victors. The remains are still visible in Ireland; and, consequently, ceremony of inauguration at the Liagh Fail is by some cotemporary with the first influx of Celts, or whatever writers referred to the Scythic colony, which is called else we may call them, who left their common home the Milesian, from Milesius, king of Spain, whose two after the Deluge, spreading over the world in com- sons, Heber and Heremon, (names equally suspicious pliance with the divine injunction to replenish the with our Hengist and Horsa,) were the conductors of earth. Writers upon this subject have divided the bulk the expedition. Heremon became the founder of a of mankind into three grand streams; one proceeding long line of monarchs, who have been enthusiastically southwards towards Hindostan, where we trace them chanted by the bards, but are dimly shadowed out in by their cromlechs, pallias, and rock-worship, and still history. more by their astronomical terms; another stream Although coming directly from Spain, the bards proceeding westward to Phoenicia, where we again, in described this colony, and rightly, as sprung from Phoedependently of the sacred writings, trace the use of nician ancestors; they led them into Egypt and Spain, stone memorials; and a third stream to the north-west, and finally to Ireland, 1300 B. C. In naming Egypt from which proceeded the Goths, Scandinavians, Huns, they probably confounded the Scythians with the Tuathand all the barbarous tribes which anciently troubled de-Danaans. There is reason to think that Ireland was Europe.

peopled very soon after the deluge ; ihe number of Man is sadly prone to make to himself visible objects letters in the alphabet, and the sacred or Agham chaof adoration; and the most obvious substances for this racter, show this probability ; the latter so much repurpose were rocks and stones, which were, from the sembling the Persepolitan inscriptions as to suggest a very earliest period, used as memorials both in religious translation by means of the Irish language, which, with and civil matters : hence they came to be regarded with the fact that the shamrock was anciently held sacred to religious reverence, and gradually to be worshipped. the decoration of altars in Persia, its only natural home, Perhaps, also, the sacred character of rocks and stones may lead to the supposition that the Irish derived their arose from their apparent immutability, which rendered learning, and perhaps their parentage, from Persia them fit objects for the reliance of man. Trees may rather than Phænicia. After Heber and Heremon a change or be destroyed, but a rock remains the same thick mist hangs over Ireland; the Simon Brech whom through many generations; and the mind which caught we have mentioned might be one of their descendants, but few and confused glimpses of a future world, was but we find few lights amid the gloom. One of these but too much inclined to worship the unchiselled block, is the “Royal sage Ollamh Fodhla,” who instituted a or the rude cairn which covered the object of its affec- school of general instruction at Tara ; and another is tion; that affection was felt to be eternal, not to be "Con of the hundred fights," celebrated by Ossian. From changed by death or time-how then could it be more the family of this hero was descended that race of chieffitly commemorated than by the indestructible pillars tains, the Dalriads, a demi-tribe of Ulster, who supplied of the earth? The Liagh Fail may have fulfilled a Albany, the modern Scotland, with her first Scottish two-fold purpose'; it may have been an altar of adora- rulers ; Carbre Riada, the grandson of Con of the huntion, as well as a place of inauguration for the monarch, dred fights, being the chief who, about the middle of who, in those early times, was both priest and king. the third century, established that Irish settlement in “ In ancient times, when from the west

Argyleshire, which, taking the name of its princely The star of science sent its ray

founder, grew up in the course of time to the kingdom To illuminate Erin's sacred isle,

of Dalriada, and finally became the kingdom of all ScotAnd change her darkness into day,

land. From the decline of Druidism we hear no more Then from the stone the priest-king taught

of our Stone of Destiny till the time of Carbre Riada, The assembled multitudes to bow

who is said to have carried it with him to Scotland, Before that glorious orb, from whom

and this is countenanced by the fact that a “stone of The blessings of existence flow,

great import and notoriety" was kept in Dunstaffnage But yet no idol was there framed, No knee was bent to wood or stone;

Castle, Argyleshire, where it was much venerated by the They worshipped, by his glorious type,

people, as late as the ninth century. Buchanan, howThe One Invisible, alone.

ever, attributes the removal from Ireland to Fergus the Soon darkness clouds the scene, a barbarous band son of Erck, who, aided by the Nial family, headed a Expel the sons of peace, and subjugate the land; strong reinforcement to the Dalriadic colony, extending Beneath the Scythian yoke what monsters rise

the limits of the former settlement, and giving it suffiTo claim the sacred rites of deities !”

cient stability to throw off its dependence upon Ireland. The Scythian tribe here mentioned conquered the From Fergus was descended Kenneth M'Alpin, king earlier inhabitants of Ireland, drove some of them into of the Scots, whom, according to the well known lines Scotland-hence the name of that country—but re- of Cowper, we must designate a hero ; his slaughter of tained a part of the priests as the teachers of youth; the Picts being most unmerciful, amounting almost to many sought their brethren the Culdees of Iona, and extirpation. Some old Scotch verses may be thus trans. how far northward they voyaged, the stones of Stennis lated :witness to us. The Tuath-de-Danaans had worshipped

“When Alpin this king was dead, the sun and planets, the earliest and purest form of

He left a son, was named Kyned; idolatry, the religion of Nimrod and Zoroaster; the

Doughty man he was, and stout, Scythians or Scots professed Druidism in its corrupted

All the Picts he put out, shape, with its attendant jugglery and cruel sacrifices;

Great battles then did he, and, from this time, Ireland seems to have been retained

To put in freedom his country.”

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