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doubtless afforded the greatest amusement to the popu. and is besides, old, infirm, and full of aches and pains. lace of the day. The following specimen reminds us of A physician, who hears these complaints exclaims, the cries of the London apprentices in the reigns of the “Well know I of what you are ill; it is a disease called Edwards and Henrys. The tavern-crier Raoulet, is avarice," and goes on unsparingly to enumerate all the standing at the door of his master's tap, proclaiming, citizens of Arras afflicted with the same malady. Other as was then the custom, the goodness of the wine :- personages enter and take part in a dispute that arises “Here,” he cries, “is wine newly-tapped. Full pint, out of the physician's censorious remarks, and in the full barrel. Honest wine, drinkable, mellow and full. midst of it comes a priest bearing the relics of St. Acarius, Lively as a squirrel in the wood. Not rotten or sour on which the disputants cease their quarrel, and join in after taste. Wine dry and light, running fair from the doing homage, and paying their contributions to the lees. Clear as a sinner's tear. Fit for the throat of a sacred remains. Among others, an idiot presses forward; jolly fellow, and no other ought to drink it. See how it but, after he has touched the bones, utters greater follies devours its foam; how it mounts, sparkles, and hisses. than before, under which, however, are concealed a series Ever so little on the tongue, gives the taste of a famous of sarcasms against the loose manners of the clergy. wine in the heart."
The fairies next make their appearance, followed by Adam de la Halle, known as the hunchback of Arras, Hellequin, the prototype of the modern Harlequin was one of the most popular French dramatists of the Riquet, a citizen, and Adam, prepare a table for the fourteenth century. His works, which were written in three fairy queens, Arsile, Maglore, and Morgane; but, the Norman dialect, abound in quaint fancies, and dis- unfortunately, no knife has been laid for Maglore, whose play much frankish cunning, and fantastic gaiety, inter- anger is greatly excited by the neglect. Morgane, on mingled with simple and graceful pastorals. Among the contrary, well satisfied, proposes to reward the prethese Robin and Marion ; and the Marriage of Adam, parers of the feast; for Riquet she wishes plenty of or, the Bower ; were the delight of the good citizens of money, and for Adam, that he may be the most amorous Arras. The characters of this piece are seventeen in clerk in the world. Arsile promises that the latter shall number: Adam de la Halle, the author, Maistre Henry, be jovial, and a good writer of songs, and that Riquet his father, a mercer, physician, innkeeper, monk, fool, shall buy all his merchandize cheap, and at good profit. and some portly merchants of the city, with women, But Maglore has not forgotten her anger; she wishes fairies, and the common people. It is the month of May, that Riquet may never have a hair on the crown of his the season in which the fairies make their annual visit. head, and for Adam, who boasts of going to the schools A bower, whence the name of the play, has been built at Paris, that he may do nothing but stay in Arras, and for their reception outside the gates of the town, where forget himself in the arms of his young and loving wife. a knot of citizens are waiting the arrival of the sprightly The fairies then give a specimen of their supernatural visitors. The piece opens with a malicious verbal casti- skill, and take their departure, singing a motet, and gation of the most notable inhabitants of Arras, by the followed by Hellequin chanting “ Say, fits my hat well?" author, who enters, dressed as a travelling student, in A drinking scene, without which no drama at that brown cape and cassock, and approaching the group of period would have been complete, ensues—the monk, burgesses collected near the bower
. “Do ye know, sirs,” with his saintly relics, is unmercifully jeered, and the he asks, “why I have changed my garb? I took a wife; sitting terminates in a boisterous chorus, " Aia sat on a but now I return to the clergy; I am going to revive my high tower.” After which the crowd disperses; each one ancient dreams, but first wish to take leave of ye all. returns to his own home: and thus ends this first speDon't laugh: I am not so much taken with Arras and cimen of early French comedy. its pleasures as to desire to renounce study for them. In London, the company of parish clerks were for a Since heaven has given me some genius, it is time to set long period the only performers. They acted before myself to work; I have too long emptied my purse in Richard II. and his queen in 1390 ; and, as recorded by this place."
Maitland, again in 1409, “ with great applause, for eight Here one of the bystanders inquires what is to become days successively, at Skinner's Well, near Clerkenwell, of his young wife Marie, and reminds him that his a play concerning the Creation of the World, at which reflections should have been made before marriage. were present most of the nobility and gentry of the “ By my faith,” replies Adam, “that is talking like an kingdom.” We have already instanced some of the oracle; but who can be wise in youth? Love seized me mutations of the dramatic art : pageants, morricein the first heat; just in the green and ardent season, dances, mimes, mummeries, and Christmas carols, are when it has the most lively season. No one, now-a-days, among the more prominent changes. The readers of thinks of what is best, but of what best answers his Scott's novels are acquainted with his description of the desires. The summer was sweet and serene, green and Abbot of Unreason and his revels. Of a similar chaflowery, gladdened by the song of little birds ; I was racter were the festivals of the Boy Bishop in England, seated beneath the branches of tall trees in the wood, and of the Ass in France. In 1539 Sir David Lyndsay near a fountain flowing over pearly sand, when the wrote his famous play, The Threc Estates, in which vision of her who is now my wife, appeared to me; now the ceremonies and superstitions of the Church are she seems pale and yellow." He then gives a long and severely criticised and condemned. Religious plays, minute description of his Marie, as she first charmed however, had not ceased to be represented in Scotland so him. Such was the effect of her presence, that he con- late as 1600; in which year, by the exertions of the fesses : " I lost all empire over my reason, and was happy Presbyterians, they were forbidden at Perth as a “disonly when, instead of clerk, I became husband.” He honour of the haill toun.” concludes with a farewell to the city. “ Arras, Arras, In the sixteenth century the dramatic art made city of lawsuits, hatred and treasons. Farewell, a further progress. The first regular English tragedy, hundred thousand times and more. I go elsewhere to Ferrex and Porrex, was written in 1561; it contains study the evangel."
several passages of great power and beauty. In 1575 As Adam is about to go, comes his old father, Maistre appeared, what was long considered to be the first Henry, and greatly applauds his resolution : “Good son," comedy, entitled, Gammer Gurton's Needle : late rehe says, “ I pity thee for having lost thy time for a wife; searches, however, give the precedence, by some years, now be wise and depart." But the young man reminds to another play, Ralph Roister Doister; a picce full of his father that he cannot live in the metropolis unless point and humour, which remains the carliest specimen provided with money. “One can't live at Paris for of English comedy. From this we pass by a succession nothing.” The father replies, that he has no money, of writers to the historical plays by which Shakspeare
rendered his name immortal-and bring our remarks to (1) A similar custom prevailed in this country: in many parishes
a close, Robin Hood's Bowers were set up on certain holidays in the spring.
A LAND JOURNEY ROUND THE WORLD. them know what I have seen ; indians are fools, and AFTER observing the various matters of interest in the makes the chip to go, but I cannot see what makes the
know nothing. I can see that the iron machinery Indian territory, Sir George Simpson passed into the iron machinery itself to go.” Oregon district, or, as it may be called, the Columbia
Bras Croche, though very intelligent, and like all the region. Most of the critical debates between Great Crees, partially civilized, was, nevertheless, so full of Britain and the United States have been terminated doubt and wonder, that he would not leave the vessel since the voyage of our traveller; and we must, there till he got a certificate to the effect, that he had been on fore, pass over the arguments bearing upon the claims board a ship which needed neither paddlers nor sails.
Though not one of his countrymen would understand a of the two countries to this territory. It may, however, word of what was written, yet the most sceptical among be observed, that the region was brought under the them would not dare to question the truth of a story influence of English civilisation by the North-western which had a document in its favour. A savage stands Fur Company, which coalesced in 1821 with the Hud- nearly as much in awe of paper, pen, and ink, as of son's Bay association, and thus the whole district came
steam itself; and, if he once puts his cross to any writing, under the control of the latter body. It is a singular he has rarely been known to violate the engagement
which such writing is supposed to embody or to sancillustration of the influence of commerce, that the tion. To him, the very look of black and white is a greater part of North America has been laid open to
powerful medicine. civilisation by the fur-trade. That the sale of the skins We must now bear in mind that the Russian govern. of certain small animals should be the means of changing ment has not expended all its care on the developthe destinies of half a continent, does not seem sur-ment of trade, but has also provided for the spiritual prising to us, who know the mighty results accomplished interests of its people; a bishop, with fifteen priests and by the merchant's footstep in other regions ; but it is, other clergy being placed in this remote spot. When
the governor had completed his examination of Sittra nevertheless, a wonderful fact in the history of the and its resources, he returned to Vancouveur, and, im. world.
mediately set sail for St. Francisco, on the coast of CaliSir George, at last, reached Fort Vancouveur, a station fornia. To follow him through this route, would require on the Columbia, after a journey of five thousand miles an undue extension of these articles; but, we cannot across the widest part of the American continent, help noticing the agreement between the prediction of through lakes and up rapid rivers, in which twelve Sir George Simpson on the fate of California, and its weeks of constant labour tested the physical powers and seizure by the forces of the United States
, during the
present war against Mexico, “ English, in some sense patience of the party. Vancouveur was an important or other of the word,” says he, “ the richest portions of point in this journey, as from it the governor made first California must become; either Great Britain will ina trip to the Russian settlement at Sittra, and next to troduce her well-regulated freedom of all classes and the coast of California ; after which the determined colours, or the people of the United States will inuntourist sailed for the Sandwich Islands; and, having date the country with their own peculiar mixture of satisfied his curiosity in these fair isles, again returned helpless bondage and lawless insubordination.” The to Sittra. These voyages to and fro may not seem to be comprehended in the plan of a journey round the corruption of the government, the rapacity of the offiworld, being rather a deflection from the direct course ; cials, and the general insubordination of all classes,
were forced upon the traveller's attention at every step, but, as more than half the first volume is occupied in and displayed themselves amidst the symbols of repubthese trips, we must not omit some notice of the im- licanism. With such proofs of national demoralization, portant places brought before us by this portion of Sir it was impossible not to see the gloomy issue lowering George Simpson's work. The journey to Sittra, we
over the light-hearted, indolent Californians. may be certain, was not the result of mere curiosity, for that settlement being the head-quarters of the Russian famed Sandwich islands, memorable for the death of
Leaving this country the governor sailed for the farfur-trade in America, was a place of importance in the Cook, and remarkable for the indications they afford of eyes of the governor of the great British Company, espe fierce volcanic agencies once working in those homes of cially as he holds the opinion, that England and Russia the Pacific. One fact, mentioned by Sir George Simpare destined to absorb the whole power of the world. If son, suggests the probable origin of the term Pacific, the reader will examine the north-west coast of Ame
as applied to that vast ocean which stretches for ten rica in lat. 57o, he will see a small island forming one
thousand miles across the globe. During a run of two of the group once known as George the Third's Archi- thousand three hundred miles the breeze blew with so pelago, but now called Sittra, or, New Archangel. The gentle and agreeable a force that neither studding nor settlement was founded in 1804, by the Russian Bara- sky sails were once taken in. “Ifit was under similar noff, and is now the centre of the Czar's influence along circumstances, as is said to have been the case, that that coast. Thousands of seals, otters, beavers, and sea- Magellan, the first European that traversed this ocean, horses, are annually slaughtered to support the constant and probably the first navigator that spanned it at a demand for furs and ivory; and, as twenty thousand teeth stretch, made his way from South America to the of the sea-horse' are required yearly, and cach horse pro- Philippines, he could not probably have bestowed upon duces but two, ten thousand of these large animals die it a name more appropriate and expressive than that of yearly to supply the ivory trade alone in these remote the Pacific. Nor did his individual experience differ
The surprise manifested at the sight of a steam from the general fact. Excepting in its most northern vessel, and the superstitious awe in which a piece of and more southern latitudes, this boundless sea is ordiwriting is held, prove how little the natives of these narily so calm that open boats may cross it with safety, regions are conversant with the resources of that civi; and in fact, its least sheltered portion, lying between lized world, now pressing upon their most secluded the Polynesian islands and Spanish America, and almost homes. After the arrival of the emigrants from Red River, equalling the breadth of the Atlantic, has actually been
so traversed, Captain Hinckley having carried a number their guide, a Cree of the name of Bras Croche, took a short trip in the Beaver. When asked what he thought occasion,) in an undecked vessel from California to
of horses, (rather ugly customers by-the-bye, for the of her, “ Don't ask me,” was his reply; "I cannot Woatooi, one of the Sandwich Islands. It is doubtless speak; my friends will say that I tell lies when I let this characteristic tranquillity of the Pacific Ocean which
has been the means, under Providence, of peopling (1) Concluded from page 266.
almost every islet that floats on its bosom.” Four of
the Sandwich Islands send up high peaks which are seen the island, the births for a year were but sixty-one, far off at sea by the distant mariner ; two of these whilst the deaths in the same period were 132. In the volcanic mountains rise from the island of Elawaii to most cultivated part of another island it was found that the height of thirteen thousand feet, being visible at a among 5,541 adults there were only“sixty-eight men and distance of more than fifty leagues. This strengthens sixty-five women who had more than two children each." the supposition that the whole group must have been Some ascribe this diminution to the trade in sandalseen by the Spaniards who navigated those seas in the wood, which was sold to the idolators at China to burn 16th and 17th centuries ; indeed proofs exist of an as a fragrant offering in their temples. The labours intercourse between the natives and the Spaniards at a undergone in procuring this from the almost inacees. distant period.
sible mountain heights on which it grew, destroyed The once active craters of the Sandwich group are all hundreds of the natives, unaccustomed to the changes extinct, save one on Mount Loa, which still utters most of temperature consequent upon such pursuits. But significant hints of the powers once raging in these this cause cannot be operating now, for the divinities of beautiful seas. Civilisation may now be said to have the Chinese have long since consumed the fragrant fixed her home firmly in these islands; whither science, wood; the natives, therefore, no longer die in the wild commerce, and christianity have entered from Europe. solitudes of the sandal mountains. Two other causes of A regular government is established, consisting of what depopulation are still at work; one the emigration of we call king, lords, and commons, the nobles being the men to other regions, a thousand being supposed to fifteen chiefs selected by the king, forming therefore a leave the islands every year for the coasts of South species of elective peerage; whilst the commons consist America, and in the whaling ships. This, by itself, of seven representatives chosen by all the inhabitants of would sufficiently explain the decrease in the populaHawaii. Those, then, who are enamoured of universal tion; some, however, bring in another agency, and suffrage might find some gratification from a residence ascribe to the Sandwich Islands' women so heinons & in Hawaii. For the satisfaction of some ambitious neglect of their children as must fearfully increase the ladies in England we must add, that nearly one half of waste of infant life. The language of Sir George Simpthe Hawaiian house of lords consists of the lady son is severe on this head. “Speaking of the mass, the peeresses. In the whole group are thirteen islands, of females of the Sandwich Islands are worthy representawhich four alone claim the attention of the navigator, tives of those of their own sex, who, after Cook's death, either from their population or the convenient position witnessed with indifference from the ships the slaughter of their harbours. Hawaii, formerly called Owhyhee, of their countrymen and friends. To say nothing of where Cook perished, is the largest, measuring a hun- such things as infanticide, the mothers of the Sandwich dred miles in length and about eighty in breadth where Islands indulge in the lesser abominations of exchanging widest; the remains of an extinct crater, or rather vol- children, and of allowing pet puppies to share Nature's canic lake, twenty-four miles in circumference, are food with their own offspring. So far from wondering visible in this former home of subterranean fires. The at the numerical deficiency of the rising generation, we inhabitants are estimated at about 40,000, being chiefly ought rather to be surprised that there is a rising genefound on the narrow girdle of land round the coast, for ration at all in a country where women regard their the dry lava-like interior presents few attractions to own infants and those of others with equal affection, settlers. Mowee, the island next in size, is about forty- and lavish on either far less of their fondness than on eight miles long, and twenty-eight miles wide. Woahoo, the progeny of one of the lower animals.” What a terhaving a surface nearly equal to that of Mowee, is im- rible picture is this for us to contemplate, who have portant to the navigator on account of being the seat of been in the habit of regarding those islands as the most government, and possessing the most important harbour favoured scenes of the Christian missionaries' labour ! called Honolulee, whither nnmerous whaling ships re- We cannot avoid suspecting that Sir George Simpson pair for provisions and repairs. This place, the centre is far too sweeping in his assertions respecting the preof civilisation for these islands, has a population of nine sent moral state of the women, and that he has rather thousand, of which one thousand are probably English drawn his description from things as they were twenty and Americans, or descended from these. Thus have years ago. If his account be true with respect to the been linked to Europe, by a system of commerce and existing condition of the Sandwich Islands, then hare christianity, these remote lands, the discovery of which, our congratulations been too carly and indiscriminate.
toward the close of the last century, excited the curiosity | Our author does, however, intimate his hope of the i of our fathers, and may yet draw within the circle of rising of better times. "The woman have exhibited,"
civilisation the far-stretching groups of Polynesia. One he says, "far brighter and more numerous proofs of fact in the history of these islands is rather startling, that change of heart which is the single end and aim and suggests the possibility that, at some future period, of pure Christianity.” Still, he cannot help sounding the whole native population may become extinct
. The again the knell of the whole population at some apnumber on every island appears to diminish. Van proaching period. “ Viewed by itself, civilisation has couveur, the companion of Cook, conjectured that the been, and still continues to be, a canker worm to prey population had much diminished in the short period of on the population of the group. There is something thirteen years which had elapsed between the time of truly deplorable in the reflection that in this Archipelago Cook and his own visit; and later observations confirm civilisation is sweeping the aborigines from the land of this melancholy fact in the statistics of these fair their fathers, without placing in their stead others betislands. A census was taken in 1832, when the popu. ter than themselves. If there be any truth in the prelation returns amounted to 130,000; four years later ceding paragraphs, the principal measure for preserving another enumeration was made, when the numbers were the native population appears to be the elevation of the only 109,000, presenting a most singular instance of | female character. Now, there are are only two instrudecrease, and almost forcing us to suspect some blun- ments by which this elevation can possibly be effecteddering in taking the census. But the same dark item Christianity and public opinion." It is a sad scene in is again presented by the enumeration in 1840, when the history of human progress when a newly discovered the whole population was reckoned at 88,000. Even if people, instead of being added to the old family of we distrust these returns, which we have no just reason nations, is gradually annihilated by a host of sinister for doing, there are other circumstances pointing in the influences. We may hope, however, that the natives same ominous direction. The disproportion in some will soon become so completely identified with the districts between the births and deaths, in a given English race, that their decay may be arrested before it period, is so great, that nothing but destruction awaits passes the critical point. the people should the same state of things continue. This amalgamation has proceeded to a great extent,
Thus, in a certain part of Woahoo, the most fertile in and the increasing prevalence of our language must tend to bind the natives more firmly to us. English is is a singular instance of a nation of pagans discarding destined ere long to be the vernacular tongue of the their ancient gods from a pure disbelief, caused by group. It must advance as civilisation advances, and intercourse with civilized people, who laughed the idolathe more rapidly the better; for nothing else is so ters out of their old religion without creating a belief likely to promote that amalgamation of the European in a fresh system. Thus, the missionaries, on their and Polynesian races, which can alone prevent the arrival, found the land open for their operations. aborigines—if they are at all rescued from the decay Into the disputes between the French government, that threatens them--from sinking into the condition the Protestant missionaries, and the natives, we cannot of " hewers of wood, and drawers of water.”
enter: it must, however, be noted, that Sir George Sir George Simpson blames the missionaries for con: Simpson found three Romish priests in Honolulu, where tinuing to support the use of the Hawaiian language, and a bishop was shortly expected. He blames the misso raising upa barrier to a freer intercourse with the know- sionaries for this result. “It was they who introduced ledge and civilisation of England. His objections seem secular authority as an instrument of conversion, and sound; but into this point we cannot enter. Perhaps it sanctioned its merciless abuse. It is chiefly their inmay receive some attention from the directors of the Sand- flexible austerity that has filled the (Roman) Catholic wich Island Mission. The old native dress has been in ranks;-it is their unrelenting code of manners and most cases laid aside, and the reader who remembers the morals, as enforced by pecuniary penalties, that has accounts of the former savage dress-the malo, the paw, driven the people to embrace a new faith." We must the kapa, and the war-cloaks-would be rather surprised remark, in concluding this article, that the situation of were he to arrive suddenly in Honolulu on a Sunday, the Sandwich Isles fits them to become the centre of and see not only shoes and stockings, but a crowd of Polynesian commerce, being on the direct route from bonnets and parasols on their way to church. These Cape Horn to the northern parts of the Pacific, and in brown ladies have a decided liking for gay attire,-a the path from Mexico to China, accessible to both satin bonnet trimmed with lace, or a bright coloured Chinese and Japanese traders, whether going or resilk dress, being especially coveted. This tendency gives turning; whilst their secluded position in the midst the missionaries no small trouble, as they feel bound to of the ocean, prevents the possibility of a rival to their oppose the indulgence of such luxuries. The preceding prosperity. The group is also so placed as to be in the remarks, be it observed, refer principally to the dress of centre of the three great whaling grounds, that on the women ; as to the men, many of them keep to the the Equator, the one near Japan, and the Russian stagarb of their ancestors. Some of the qualities of these tion. From 1836 to 1839, two hundred and fifty-five Sandwich Islanders are highly estimated by those who whalers entered the harbour of Honolulu, of which all, know the people best, and Sir George Simpson, speak- except five, were American or British. ing of their courage, says ;
They are, without excep- We must now follow Sir George Simpson through a tion, the most valiant of the Polynesians, being perfect journey across the Old Continent, a track over which heroes, for instance, in comparison with the natives of Mr. Murray's hand-books of travel would be of little the Society Islands. In short, with their fidelity and use. When about to plunge into the wilds of Asiatic courage combined, the Sandwich Islanders, if officered Russia, our traveller still feels perfectly at home, having like our Eastern sepoys, would make the finest soldiers no more consciousness of strangeness than if about to of colour in the world."
take a summer's trip through Cumberland. He The love of the natives for excitement, finery, and scarcely, indeed, looks upon the Russians as foreigners, show, is thus hit off :-"In promenading, certain days bidding us see in the Normans the common origin of of the week take the shine out of others. For instance, the people of Queen Victoria and the subjects of the Tuesday, as every body washes every thing on Monday, Czar. Russia and England are, therefore, according to brings out the belles like so many new pins, with Sir George Simpson, two brothers, or, if the gramgowns as clean, and smooth, and stiff, as starch, and marians please, two sisters, who, having gone in opposite irons, and soap, can make them ; while the fair wearers, directions to make their fortunes, meet, with surprise, that all things may be of a piece, generally embrace the on the other side of the globe. The importance of the same occasion of making their fresh wreaths and gar- view here suggested will fully justify the citation of the lands. For tiese reasons, Tuesday is a stranger's best following passage :opportunity for obtaining a full and complete view of “Before plunging into that colossal empire, whose the beauties of Honolulu, for, though never very prudish, length is to occupy an almost uninterrupted flightyet they are now peculiarly ready to appreciate and for journey I cannot call it--of about five months, let me return the compliment of being the observed of all indulge in a brief retrospect of such portion of my observers. Saturday, again, has its own proper wanderings as I have happily accomplished. merit, inferior to Tuesday in point of show and cere- “I have threaded my way round nearly half the globe, mony, but superior to it in variety and intensity of ex- traversing about two hundred and twenty degrees of citement. On this day, little or no work is done ; and longitude, and upwards of a hundred of latitude; and all those who can get horses, gallop about from morn-in this circuitous course I have spent more than a year, ing till dusk, in the town and neighbourhood, to the fully three-fourths on the land, and barely one-fourth on danger of such as are poor enough, or unfashionable the ocean. enough, to walk.”
“Notwithstanding all this, I have uniformly felt more The reader will not, perhaps, be surprised to find at home, with the exception of my first sojourn at this Polynesian state possessed both of a navy and Sittra, than I should have felt in Calais. army; the former consisting, not of the old fashioned nothing of having always found kindred society, I have canoes beheld by Cook, but of armed decked schooners, everywhere seen our race, under a great variety of cirmanned by native seamen ; and the later of a militia, cumstances, either actually or virtually invested with trained in the European system. Civilisation has also the attributes of sovereignty. I have seen the English taught the kings the art of extracting a fixed revenue, citizens of a young republic, which has already doubled one item of which is a poll-tax on all above fourteen, its original territory, without any visible or conceivable at the rate of a dollar for a man, of half a dollar for a obstacle in the way of its indefinite extension ; I have woman, of a quarter of a dollar for a boy, and of the seen the English colonists of a conquered province, eighth of a dollar for a girl." Besides this, a labour while the descendants of the first possessors, bowever poll-tax is exacted from all the men, at the rate of six inferior in wealth and influence, have reason to rejoice in days' labour on the public works in every month. the defeat of their fathers; I have seen the English
The old paganism of these islands was formally posts that stud the wilderness from the Canadian lakes abolished in 1819, by the king Lilo Lilo, without, to the Pacific Ocean ; I have seen the English advenstrange as it may seem, adopting another system. This turers, with that innate power which makes every indi
vidual, whether Briton or American, a real representa, rigour of the Lent fast, and the consequent natural er. tive of his country, monopolising the trade, and in- cesses, are thus described. fluencing the destinies, of Spanish California ; and, “With respect to Lent in particular, not only the lastly, I have seen the English merchants and English priesthood, but also the laity, exhibited the greatest missionaries of a barbarian Archipelago, which promises, strictness, not shamming on beef, like the Californians, under their care and guidance, to become the centre of but really fasting according to rule.” Of the superior the traffic of the east and west, of the new world and Russian clergy placed in this remote part of the world, the old. In seeing all this, I have seen less than the Sir George Simpson held a high opinion, attributable, half of the grandeur of the English race.
doubtless, to his intercourse with the Bishop of Sittra, “How insignificant, in comparison, are all the other of whom he thus speaks. “On taking leave of this wornations of the earth, one nation alone excepted! With thy prelate, I cannot refrain from rendering a small the paltry reservation of the Swedish Peninsula, tribute of praise to his character and qualifications ; Russia and Great Britain literally gird the globe, and, as he is still in the prime of life, I trust that his where either continent has the greatest breadth, a fact widely-scattered flock may long enjoy the benefit of those which, when taken in connexion with their early annals, powers of mind and body which combine to fit him for can scarcely fail to be regarded as the work of an his important and arduous charge. His appearance im. especial Providence. Hardly was the Western Empire presses a stranger with something of awe, while, on fartrodden under foot by the tribes that were commis- ther intercourse, the gentleness which characterises his sioned for the task, from the Rhine to the Amoor, every word and deed insensibly moulds reverence into when He, who systematically vindicates his own glory love; and, at the same time, his talents and attainments by the employment the feeblest instruments, found are such as to be worthy of his exalted station. With all in the unknown wilds of Scandinavia the germ of a this, the bishop is sufficiently a man of the world to northern hive, of wider range and loftier aim. At once, disdain anything like cant. His conversation, on the as if by a miracle, a scanty and obscure people burst contrary, teems with amusement and instruction, and on the west and the east as the dominant race of the his company is much prized by all who have the honour times; one swarm of Normans was finding its way of his acquaintance." through France to England, while another was estab- The policy of the Russian government in religious lishing its supremacy over the Sclavonians of the Bo- matters shames our statesmen, who have so frequently rysthenes; the two being to meet in opposite directions neglected the spiritual interests of the most important at the end of a thousand years.
colonies, thus weakening the ties which should ever “It is in this view of the matter that I have in these link remote dependencies to the morher state. pages preferred the epithet English, as comprising “ The presence of a bishop, and a complete body both British and American, to the more sonorous form of ecclesiastics in this corner of the empire, is merely of Anglo-Saxon. The latter not only excludes the true in accordance with the long tried policy which has objects of Divine preference, but, also, in excluding amalgamated so many uncongenial tribes into a comthe Normans, it loses sight of the co-operation of Russia pact people, by means of one law, one language, one as the appointed auxiliary of England in promoting, faith,--a policy which England, perhaps through the perhaps by different means, the grand cause of com- freedom of her institutions, has too much neglected. merce and civilisation, of truth and peace. Even the Through this policy, Russia, though apparently the very difference of language, while it practically makes most unwieldy state on earth, is yet more decidedly one me a stranger, serves to confirm my deductions. and indivisible than any other dominion in existence,
“In addition to the permanent conquests already men- as is more than proved by the fact, that a single one of tioned, the Normans, as a mere episode in their history, the three principles of cohesion which cement her rivalled Grecian and Italian fame on the soil of Italy parts into a whole, vests in her an almost direct sway and Greece, and yet, though uniformly victorious in all over the foreign professors of her creed." the climes of Europe, they were
The religion of the vast majority of the Russians is enough to engraft their own speech on that of those more surrounded with ceremony than that of the whom they subdued. This unparalleled success cannot Roman Catholics, and the highest veneration is always be otherwise explained than by believing that the Nor- manifested towards every symbol of an ecclesiastical mans were everywhere strengthened by the Almighty to character. A circumstance of this kind led Sir George accomplish the universal purposes of his omniscience." Simpson and one of his friends into a laughable mistake.
Sir George Simpson arrived at Sittra, from the Sand- A female servant was always observed, when she entered wich Islands, on Easter Sunday, the 18th of April, the sitting room, "to bow down to the ground at every according to the Russians, who obstinately keep to the step, crossing herself reverentially. Whether she meant old style, thus being always twelve days behind the rest to exorcise him, or worship him, or, in default of a cap, of Europe. Easter is a great festival throughout Christ- to set her rosy cheeks at him, he could not tell ; but by endom, but the Russians are perhaps the most deter- means of signs he kept entreating her not to trouble mined, if not the most refined, in their hilarity; a herself on his account. In spite of my maturer years, result which doubtless arises from the exceeding rigour the pretty maiden behaved towards me in the same of the six weeks' fast preceding the celebration of the extraordinary way; and, what was far more mysterious, Resurrection. There is sometimes a coarseness in the she still continued, when I slipped away to try her, to mere animal festivities attending such festivals amongst rehearse her obeisances before the empty chair. a rude people, though in this respect the Russians do “ While I was speculating on her proceedings, I hapnot stand alone. “From morning to night, we had to pened to cast my eyes on the grim visage of an image run a gauntlet of kisses. When two persons met, one which occupied a niche in a dark corner of the room, said, Christ has risen,' while the other replied, 'Yes, behind the position which I had just left. The bubble surely he has risen,' and then came the salutations, was now burst, and my young predecessor was, of some of them certainly pleasant enough, but many of course, mortified to find on my return to head quarters, them, even when the performers were of the fair sex, that the maid's conspicuous attentions had been directed perhaps too highly flavoured for perfect comfort. In over his head to a musty old saint." plain truth, most of the dames of the village had been Such reverence for the externals of religion may be more liberal of some other liquids than of clean water." of great service in the management of a rude people,
The grandeur of the event commemorated on such a whose feelings would be little affected by a higher species day is certainly in strange contrast with the intoxication of teaching. of the celebrants; but we must not exult on this point; Leaving Sittra, the traveller sailed direct for the our Easter wakes and Whitsuntide revels might furnish southern point of Kamschatka, which, though it possimilar cases for the animadversion of a foreigner. The sesses an area as extensive as the surface of the British