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Isles, and lies in the same latitude, can but just feed its | mammoth were found in the greatest abundance throughmiserable population of four thousand persons. Keeping out all the north-western parts of Eastern Siberia. on through the land-locked and shallow sea of Ochotsk, Spring after spring, the alluvial banks of the lakes and Sir George Simpson reached the town which gives a name rivers, crumbling under the thaw, give up, as it were, to this sea. This is a station of the Russian Fur Com- their dead; and beyond the very verge of the inhabited pany, and was a few years since a penal settlement. The world, the islands lying opposite to the mouth of the eight hundred inhabitants of Ochotsk, have, it must be Yana, and, as there was reason for believing, even the admitted, few facilities for studying the beauties of the bed of the ocean itself, literally teemed with these most landscapes, for “a more dreary scene can scarcely be mysterious memorials of antiquity.” How such bones conceived. Not a tree, and hardly a green blade, is to were scattered over these wastes we cannot stop to be seen within miles of the town; and in the midst of inquire, for such a course would lead us within the the disorderly collection of huts, is a stagnant marsh, fascinating circle of geological speculation. Yakutsk is which, unless when frozen, must be a nursery of all a striking illustration of the effects produced by human sorts of malaria and pestilence. The climate is at least wants and human industry; for this city of the waste on a par with the soil. Summer consists of three months is wholly dependent on the trade in ivory and fur, of damp and chilly weather, during great part of which which are sold at a vast annual fair, whither troops of the snow still covers the hills, and the ice chokes the dealers flock from all parts of Siberia and Russia. harbour; and this is succeeded by nine months of From Yakutsk Sir George Simpson departed for dreary winter, in which the cold, unlike that of more Irkutsk, the party being conveyed in boats up the inland spots, is as raw as it is intense. In summer, in magnificent river Lena, which is six miles wide at fact, nobody goes out of the house without necessity. If Yakutsk, though it is there eight hundred miles from the weather be fine, then the noxious vapours of the the sea. The route ran through the countries of the stagnant marsh are to be dreaded ; and if the weather Yakuti and the Tungusi, two Siberian tribes, of which be not fine, then the rain and wind are to be avoided. the latter are the most determined and courageous race. In winter, again, the cold is too severe for much expo- The total number of the Yakuti is estimated at somesure, being of that raw, damp, disagreeable kind, which what less than 250,000, which, being spread over an no clothes can keep out."
immense tract, are but lonely dwellers in a desolate At Ochotsk, the long overland journey to St. Peters- land. burgh begins, being performed partly on horseback, and In Yakutsk are about four hundred houses, seven partly in the boats of the Lena. Neither four-horse churches, a monastery, an hospital, and a barrack. The coaches nor railway engines offer their services to con- varieties of the temperature in different seasons at this vey the traveller; but the richer natives keep large place are astonishing. “ The extreme temperature of caravans of horses, and with one of those drovers named either season is almost incredible. The thermometer Jacob, a petty prince of the Yakuti tribe, Sir George has stood in the shade at thirty-three degrees of ReauSimpson contracted for a conveyance to Yakutsk in mur or one hundred and six degrees of Fahrenheit, while eighteen days. Some of these caravans present a it has fallen in due time to fifty-one degrees of Reaumur singular spectacle, when six hundred horses, laden with or eighty-three degrees of Fahrenheit below Zero, the valuable merchandize, pass in long file over the solitary difference being one hundred and eighty-nine degrees wastes. The horse may indeed be said to be the life of of the latter standard, or nine degrees more than the the Yakuti. “ The horse is to the Yakuti, what the whole distance between the freezing and the boiling walrus is to the Alentians, their best friend in a great points of water.” The sub-soil is subjected to an eternal variety of ways. Besides being sold for a price, his frost. “During the whole year the cellars are said to labour earns money for his owner; his flesh is used as be in a frozen state, and the wells to send up newly food; the hides of the inner part of his thigh make formed ice, for the heat of the summer, excessive as it water-proof boots, while the rest of his skin is formed is, never lasts long enough to dissipate the effects of into cap, shirt, and trousers; and lastly, as we have just winter, to a depth of more than two or three feet.” seen, his mane and tail become the means of drawing “There is, on the whole, little reason for doubting that fish out of the water.”
the ground is frozen to an immense depth ; for under The traveller found his title of "Governor,” the the uppermost yard, the frost never loses in summer highest in those regions, of essential use. “Our mili- what it has gained in winter; even the ice of the sea, subtary guardian, who rode on a-head, had represented us jected as it is, every summer to the action of the sun as very great men indeed, in spite of our plain clothes; and the water, grows thicker from year to year, the everybody was more obsequious than words could tell. first winter producing about ten feet, the second about The commissary, who met us in full uniform, talked five, and so on.” to us for half an hour, uncovered in the open air, while The Cossacks are the great people—the nobility, in all the subordinates doffed their caps at least a hundred fact, of these regions-one of whom it is generally yards before they reached us." At length, after seven necessary for a traveller to have in his train, to rouse teen days hard riding, the party entered Yakutsk, the the indolence of the natives, or quicken the zeal of capital of Eastern Siberia, and the monument of Cossack postmasters. This the Cossack is always ready to do valour and perseverance,-for Russia owes Siberia to the by the summary application of his whip to the ofdaring courage of a Cossack chief in the sixteenth fender's body, a chastisement which the victim receives century. This rude soldier of the Don, who thus with due contrition, calling the castigator “his worship." opened Western Asia to Europe, was named Yermac, The following little scene on the banks of the Lena, and a monument in the ancient city of Tobolsk pre- will illustrate the above remarks. serves the memory of his deeds. Far around Yakutsk “Next day, being our seventh from Bestach, our stretches a lonely region, the dreary monotony of which Cossack gave us a specimen of his summary discipline. is only broken by the footsteps of the hunters and ivory As the progress of the boat was not equal to the irasseekers. Whence does this ivory come ? no animal is cibility of his temper, the man of office went ashore destroyed to enrich civilized man with the precious in a small canoe to quicken the pace; and having made substance, for the bones of huge fossil creatures, of the six of the miserable drivers, Russians and Yakuti, disextinct mammoth species, cover the plains of Eastern mount at the word of command, he belaboured them Siberia.
in turn with a thick stick, apparently distributing his “Providence had seen fit, in some distant age, to favours with impartiality. The unresisting wretches deposit in the very coldest region on the face of the seemed to feel the wanton outrage far less than ourglobe, an inexhaustible supply of an organic substance, selves; they took the whole thing, in fact, as a matter which all previous experience would have expected to of course. They were, perhaps, conscious of having in discover only in tropical climes. The bones of the some degree deserved what they got; and I certainly
found, as Captain Cochrane had found before, that, | top, and terminating at the bottom in a point so narunder the system of corporal chastisement, the people row, that any one shut up in it could neither sit nor lie had become so degraded as hardly to appreciate, at nor stand upright. The last mentioned cage was the least within the limits of a traveller's patience, the only one now remaining, of two, which had served, three force of any other motive.” After a twenty days’ voy- centuries before, as the prison of two young princes, age up the stream, Sir George Simpson found carriages Henri and François de Nemours, sons of Jacques waiting for him at a place bearing the musical name of d'Armagnac, who in the reign of Louis XI. was ConFigoloffskaya, whence he travelled to Irkutsk, over the stable of France. It is well known to any who have Bratsky steppe along a "whirling, jolting, thumping read French History, that d'Armagnac had leagued with road.” This city, though presenting signs of magnifi. the Dukes of Burgundy and Brittany (Bretagne) to cence and wealth, and having a population of 20,000, deliver up France to the English. This plot, which gave, nevertheless, proofs of decay; the wide streets would have snatched the sceptre from the hands of the being almost deserted, and many of the houses tum- French monarch, was discovered to Louis when just bling into ruins.” Want of space prevents us from fol. ripe for execution, and Jacques d'Armagnac was inlowing the governor to Lake Baikal. to which vast stantly arrested, and sentenced to be beheaded. He had inland sea he made a visit before leaving Irkutsk, and two sons so young at the time of his treason and its for the same reason, we can but glance at his journey punishment, that when these poor children were asked of 4,000 miles, from Irkutsk to St. Petersburgh. He if they had not been the accomplices of their father, was now accompanied by an officer of police, to secure they might have answered with the lamb in the fable: all necessaries for the journey, and therefore dashed “How could I, when I was not born?" Nevertheless, by along to Tomsk, a flourishing town on the Tom, having a refinement of cruelty, which even the barbarism of the a population of about 20,000. Thence he crossed the age cannot palliate, much less justify, Louis XI. ordered vast Barabinsky steppe with the utmost speed, fearful white robes to be put on the two boys, and thus attired, of being caught, like Napoleon, by the winter. So they were placed under the scaffold on which their rapidly did he advance, and so readily were horses pro- father was standing, and when he received the fatal vided at the post-houses, that he was amazed at the blow, the executioner sprinkled the white robes and unusual alacrity of the people. “The secret soon oozed their innocent heads with the blood of the criminal. out; our friends a-head, as much, perhaps, for their Nor was the vengeance of Louis satiated by the punishown convenience as for our glory, had insinuated that ment of the Constable. The two orhpans, dyed in a I was an ambassador from the Emperor of China to the father's blood, were taken to the Bastile, dragged to the Czar; while the simple peasants, according to the subterranean dungeons, and there put into the two iron natural growth of all marvellous stories, bad, of their cages described before. Henri de Nemours was then own accord, pronounced me to be the brother of the eight years old, and his brother François very nearly sun and moon himself, pushing on to the capital with my interpreter and mandarins, in order to implore the The unhappy children, thus condemned to continual assistance of the Russians against the English. Private torture, had no other consolation but putting their accommodations were prepared for us at every station, hands through the bars of the cages to grasp each that and we were decidedly the greatest men that had ever of the other. And all day long, and all night long the been seen to the east of the Uralian mountains. As young brothers were hand in hand. the roads were excellent, we enjoyed the joke, whirling François, the younger of the two, was the most desat the rate of twelve or fifteen versts an hour."
ponding " I am so much hurt here,” said he,“ surely With such helter skelter driving, the whole party we cannot live long this way.” And he wept. reached Tobolsk in nineteen days from leaving Irkutsk. " Come, come,” replied Henri,“ a pretty fellow to cry The author here takes a review of the history of Russia at your age; besides you know papa never liked that in Asia, the deeds of the Cossacks, the trade with we should cry. You see they are treating us like men China, and the gold mines of Siberia, which are the of whom they are afraid, so we must not behave like richest in the world. But, for all these digressions, we children. Instead of crying, let us talk of poor dear must, unwillingly, refer our readers to the book itself.
Moscow and St. Petersburgh, through which his jour- And then the poor victims of the cruel policy of ney now lay, are too well known to need remark here; it Louis XI. talked of days gone by, and of the beautiis only necessary to say, that Sir George Simpson reached ful domain of Loctour, where they had passed the first England in safety, having performed his voyage round years of infancy. Once again did they climb their own the world in nineteen months and twenty-six days. hills of Armagnac, once more wander in its thick
Such travels undertaken by judicious and influential woods, once more run races in the broad walks of the men, like Sir George Simpson, would soon open chan. baronial park. But alas ! it was only in imagination nels for that intercourse of nation with nation, which yet the young prisoners found a momentary oblivion of would, in the end, unite the world in one great family, their sufferings in that blessed magic of memory which and promote the civilisation of all people.
makes the present cease to exist for us, by bringing us W. D. back into the past.
One other slight alleviation to their wretchedness was afforded to these infant martyrs by a very little
mouse, which, having crept out of its hole one day, was at HENRI DE NEMOURS;
first so terrified by the sight of the young princes, that OR,
it ran back as fast as possible to its hiding-place. In
vain did the children try to coax it; it was not till the The French people having in 1789 taken possession next day that, pressed by hunger, she ventured out to of the Bastile, that ancient state prison, where so many pick up some of the crumbs which they had purposely political crimes had been committed, where such fearful let fall from the cages. By degrees, however, she became vengeance had been summarily and secretly executed, accustomed to the voices of the children, and a few dars the whole edifice was ransacked, and totally destroyed. after her first appearance, she grew so tame, that she On that occasion, a great iron cage was found, which climbed up to the cages of her patrons, and at length proved to be that in which the Cardinal de Balne, used to go from one to the other, and eat out of their minister of Louis XI., had expiated for eleven years the hands. atrocious guilt of being the inventor, but for other vic- But it was a small thing to the vindictive Louis that tims, of the instrument which thus served for his own the blood of d'Armagnac had stained the fair hair and punishment. In another dungeon was discovered a white robe of his children. He heard that the two second iron cage, smaller, in the shape of a bowl, wide at little prisoners of the Bastile were enduring their
sufferings with fortitude, that, through custom's wondrous more to behold the sun, once more to lay his drooping power they had learned to sleep soundly in their iron head on the bosom of his mother; but the tortures he cage, nay, even to awake with an almost cheerful “good had undergone in the horrible cage left him all his life
on their lips. He heard it-can any heart lame and deformed. that responds to one human feeling believe that it but impelled him to devise fresh torture for them ? He ied orders that a tooth should be extracted every
AN INCIDENT AT SEA. week from each of the children.
When the person appointed to this office, a man too For the first few days our voyage was remarkably long accustomed, as the minister of the king's savage prosperous; our ship, the barque Robert, of some 300 cruelty, to the sight of suffering, to shrink from inflict- tons, was well found; her captain, an experienced ing it, was introduced into the dungeon, he could not hand, had been in the West Indian trade for upwards suppress an exclamation of pity at the spectacle of the of twenty years, and the crew were as fine a set of men two unhappy, yet patient little creatures. He was, as could be desired; all hardy and thorough-going seahowever, obliged to tell the object of his visit, and men. It was towards the end of February, and the when the brutal order of the king was announced, weather had been for some days dry and open, with the the little François uttered piercing cries, and Henri wind at due east. We had a famous run down the endeavoured to plead with the executioner. “Mamma,” channel, and were well clear of the Bay of Biscay on the said he, “would die of grief if she heard of my little fifth day, fully calculating to make Madeira on the brother suffering so much. Oh! pray, Sir, spare him— twelfth. I entreat of you not to put him to such pain ; you see However, the rapid falling of the glass, and certain how weak and ill he is already.”.
atmospherical indications, led us soon to expect a change The executioner of the king's cruel purpose could no in these prospects, nor was it long before it was realized. longer restrain his tears. “There is no alternative," Every thing had been done, in anticipation, to make the he said, but he sobbed as he spoke, “I must obey; I ship snug, by lowering our lighter spars, reducing the risk my life even by delay. My orders are to hand the sails, and by shaping our course so as to have an abundtwo teeth to the governor of the Bastile, in order that ance of sea room, so that, in fact, we were well prepared he may lay them before the king."
for the worst. The wind had entirely dropped, and the “In that case,” said Henri, “ you must only take two sails flapped heavily against the masts, as the ship rolled from me.
I am strong and can bear it, but the least and pitched under the influence of a long and uneasy additional suffering would kill my brother."
ground swell; the sun set angrily, and a low moaning And now a long and touching contest arose between sound, as of wind, created a feeling of discomfort, which the children as to which should suffer for the other. was not allayed by an observation of the captain, that Surprised and affected, the man hesitated for a few we should catch it before morning.” moments, and might, perhaps, have finally yielded to I had retired to my berth, but I could not sleep, not the dictates of pity, and have shrunk from executing so much from positive apprehension as from that fever his revolting office, had not a messenger come from the of doubt which is more distressing. I soon felt that the governor to inquire the cause of his dilatoriness. The captain's prognostication was about to be realized; the messenger knew that longer delay would be regarded whistling of the wind through the rigging sounded like as a crime-he approached Henri and extracted a tooth : funeral wailings; the creaking of the masts, the straining the child repressed every expression of pain, and seeing and groaning of the bulk-heads, as the ship laboured in the man moving towards his brother's cage, he cried, the weltering sea, were frightful. As I heard the waves
Stay, you are to take another from me--you know I rushing along the side of the ship, and roaring in my am to pay for us both.” And the heroic child' obtained very ear, it seemed as if death were raging round the his wish, and his self sacrifice gave to the governor of floating prison, seeking for his prey; the mere starting the Bastile the two teeth he was required to lay before of a nail, the yawning of a seam, might give him en
trance. Suddenly I was alarmed by the loud cry of the The cruel order was executed in its utmost rigour; watch, “A sail a-head !” I was on deck in a moment, every week the minister of his barbarous will repaired and saw distinctly a small schooner close a-head of us, to the dungeon, and every week Henri paid his own with her broadside towards us; escape was hopeless,tax and that of his brother. But the strength of the we struck her just a mid-ships The force, the size, noble boy was at last exhausted; a violent fever raged and weight of our vessel bore her down below the waves; in his young veins; he gradually grew weaker, and his we passed over her, and were hurried on our course. As legs being unable to support him he was obliged to the cracking wreck was sinking beneath us. I had a kneel in the cage. At length a day came when he felt glimpse of two or three wretched-looking beings, who, that he had only a few minutes to live, and making a with frantic gestures for help, and shriek of terror, were feeble effort to extend his hand once more to his brother, swallowed by the waves. I heard their drowning cry he said, “All is over, François, I shall never see mamma mingling with the wind, as the blast that bore it to my again, but, perhaps, you may yet be taken out of this car swept us out of all further hearing. I shall never horrible place. Tell my darling mother that I often forget that cry! It was some time before we could put spoke of her, and that I never loved her so much as the ship about, she was under such head-way. We renow that I am dying. Farewell, François,” gasped he, turned, as nearly as we could guess, to the place where as his breath failed him, "you will give our poor little the schooner had gone down; we cruised about for some white mouse her crumbs every day. I depend upon time, and fired several guns, listening through the gale you to take care of her ; will you not, dear François ?", if we might hear the halloo of some survivor, but all was
He heard not the answer of his brother, death snatched silent; we never saw nor heard any thing more of them. him from his sufferings, and he passed into that place The storm increased with the night. The sea was " where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary lashed into tremendous confusion. There was a fearful, are at rest.” It may be presumed that Louis was sullen sound of rushing waves and broken surges. Deep softened in favour of the last of the Nemours, for, after called unto deep. At times the black volumes of cloud the death of Henri, François was released from his iron over head seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning, cage and transferred to one of the ordinary dungeons. that quivered along the foaming billows, and made
At length the soul of the cruel monarch was required the succeeding darkness doubly terrible. The thunder of him, and the reign of Charles VIII. began. His boomed and bellowed over the wild waste of waters, and first act was to set at liberty all the victims of the were echoed and prolonged by the mountain wave. As suspicious and hateful policy of Louis XI. Among the I saw the ship staggering and plunging among those rest, François de Nemours was released, permitted once roaring caverns, it seemed miraculous that she regained
her balance, or preserved her buoyancy. Her yards a plank with a line attached to it was thrown overboard. would dip into the water; her bow was almost buried I soon reached it; and, clinging with difficulty to it as beneath the waves. Sometimes an impending surge | it pitched and rolled, I succeeded in making the line appeared ready to overwhelm her, and nothing but a fast beneath my shoulders. A loud shout from the ship dexterous movement of the helm preserved her from proclaimed the delight of the crew, who began hauling the shock.
me towards them with a good will that left me little to Morning at length broke, but the gale was unabated, complain of beyond the stifling sensation of being and, with the exception of a mere storm stay-sail, we dragged rapidly through the water, and the pain of the were scudding under bare poles. Heavy, leaden clouds rope across my chest. Luckily they understood my hung like a dome over us, while a lighter fleecy scud signal, as the two latter causes prevented my speaking, was borne, as if on wings, beneath them. The aspect and hauled me in over the stern, for in their zeal they without was not cheering, and within it presented would have pulled me up the side of the ship, against nothing but discomfort; the deadlights had been which, as she rolled and surged, I must infallibly have shipped, making the cabin, wet and slimy from the seas been killed. The congratulations of all the hands were we had shipped, still more cheerless. For three days most sincere; they refused all rewards, and would acdid this state of things continue, and we were driven cept nothing but my thanks; they said they had given helplessly along, our bulwarks stove in, our boats me up, being certain that no man could have kept himdashed to pieces, and leaving mere fragments hanging self afloat amidst such heavy seas for the hour and a half to the davits; the caboose gone, and the decks com- I had been exposed to them. We had a glass of grog pletely cleared. On the morning of the fourth day all round ; and, after I had changed my clothes and the weather moderated slightly, and the captain ven spent a short time in my cabin, I could have fancied the tured to get a trysail set,, but we were occasionally whole had been a dream, but for a painful stricture struck by some frightful seas, and many a time were across the chest, which lasted for some days. In a week the men saved by a life line.
we were at Madeira, where we refitted before we proI was, however, less fortunate, for a mountain wave ceeded on our voyage to the West Indies. E. P. T. striking us abaft the midships, knocked down the man at the wheel and carried me overboard with resistless force. Fortunately, I was immediately missed, and as
Poetry. I rose on the top of a sea, on which I was labouring, In Original Poetry, the Name, real or assumed, of the Author, is after having recovered from the first plunge, I was printed in Small Capitals under the title; in Selections, it is caught sight of. My shoes were soon kicked off, but printed in Italics at the end. my jacket, clinging to me from the wet it had imbibed,
THE SUMMER IS OVER. resisted all my efforts to strip it off. I felt that my
**] chance was a small one, though not hopeless, for I had
The Summer is over, ingratiated myself with the men, and the captain was a
Too soon it is sped, fellow-townsman, and, therefore, I was persuaded that
Its joys scarce returning they would use every effort to save me ; but, at the same
Before they are fled. time, I feared that they might not dare to wear the ship
The leaves that once shaded amidst so much danger. A moment's reflection con
Our pathway, are o'er, vinced me that it would be useless to fatigue myself by
And the flower that is faded
Will blossom no more, swimming, and that my only chance lay in husbanding my power, by keeping myself collected, and by floating
But past joys in remembrance with the least possible exertion. I was soon far, far
Still dwell in the heart,
Like the scent of sweet flowors, astern, anxiously watching the receding ship, when, borne to the crest of a giant wave, I caught a momentary
They do not depart;
And the Robin is singing glimpse of her; and I must confess, that when I was
Still on the bare bough, carried down again into the deep trough of the waves, I
A glad message bringing was assailed with the most painful qualms as to the pos
Of joy even now. sibility of succour being afforded to me in such a sea.
Though the lost sun no longer Minutes seemed lengthened into interminable hours,
Shines through the long day, but still I floated on, sometimes "carried up to heaven,
And the leaves and the flowers and down again to the deep; my soul melting away
Are faded away : because of the trouble.” The sight of the ship always
Though the warm winds of even cheered me, and I waited anxiously for the wave that
No longer blow soft, would bear me up and bring her within view, as it dis
And the bright stars of heaven pelled for the instant the dreadful feeling of desolation
Look cold from aloft: which oppressed me as I lay in the hollow seas. These
Still, still in the bosom snatches of her were so momentary that I could form no
Shall joy find a home, idea whether any change had taken place in her posi.
And the heart shall look forward tion, yet once I thought I saw her broadside to me, and
To pleasures to come, my heart bounded with delight; I hugged the idea,
And the soul shall still cherish although the next glance at her did not bear out my
Glad hopes of the Spring,
When the flowers shall all flourish hopes. Yes! it was no mistake; the distance between
The birds shall all sing. us was lessening, and they had succeeded in wearing the ship. But fresh doubts grew upon me; our positions
CONTENTS. were altered by the course she was forced to take to bear
The Drama in the Middle down upon me, and as I was sure that they could not The Butler's Fright on Hal
loween, (with Illustration Ages, (Second Article).... 279 have seen me for some time, they could neither tell where
..... 273 | A Land Journey round the I was, nor whether I survived ; and then I thought they The Fascinating Power of World, (concluded)........ 281 might miss me, and I knew my voice could not be Serpents.....
274 | Henri de Nemours; or, Fra
Frank Fairlegh; or, Old ternal Affection.............. 286 heard; and then I began to calculate as to the utility
Companions in New
An Incident at Sea.............. 257 of further exertion on my own part, and how much
Scenes, Chap. XI.-The longer I could keep myself afloat. The look out was, Council of War.....
The Summer is over ...... however, most vigilant, and a couple of men had sta
PRINTED by RICHARD CLAY, of Nos. 7 and 8, Bread Street Hill, in the tioned themselves in the fore-top to gain a wider field,
Parish of St. Nicholas Olave, in the City of London, at bis Printing Office and by them I was discovered. The course of the ship at the same place, and published by THOMAS BOWDLER SHARPE, of No. 15,
Skinner Street, in the Parish of St. Sepulchre, in the City of London.was shaped to me, and as she passed within a few yards, Saturday, August 28, 1817.