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tion; but not knowing how long it might continue so,
he did not choose to surrender his right of free judg. The elegant Illustration of Hop Gathering which ment by accepting of obligations, though offered in the adorns our pages this week, was taken from a scene in most unexceptionable manner. Kent last autumn, by that eminent Artist, Mr. WEIGALI, “« This Ministry was dissolved in the spring of 1804, and for the spirited and faithful manner in which it when the places of Lord Sidmouth, Lord St. Vincent,
It has been engraved, we are not less indebted to the &c., were supplied by Mr. Pitt, Lord Melville, &c. able workmanship of Mr. James Cooper. The Original undertaken by Lord Melville ; and again, at a sub.e
was not long before the Catamaran expedition was Painting was exhibited in the Collection of the New quent period, his Lordship's practices in the Nary British Water Colour Society of this year. During the Department were brought to light by the 10th Report season of hop-picking, two distinct classes may be found of the Commissioners of Naval Inquiry. The editor's employed ;-the one consisting of persons who usually father held at that time, and had held for eighteen arrive from Ireland, and other parts of our own country, years before, the situation of printer to the Customs. in fact, emigrate into Kent and Sussex for that purpose; duct he found himself obliged to condemn; yet he
The editor knew the disposition of the man whose conand the other-of which the present engraving is
never refrained a moment, on that account, from speakdescriptive--the small farmers and cottagers of the ing of the Catamaran cxpedition as it merited, or from adjacent villages, who, during the season, shut up their bestowing on the practices disclosed in the 10th Report houses, and adjourn, men, women, and children, in the terms of reprobation with which they were greeted cluding even the babies, to the neighbouring gardens, the general sense of the country. The result was as
Without the allegation of 2 where, forming themselves into companies, they toil he had apprehended. together the whole day, and in the evening divide the single complaint, his family was deprived of the busiproduce of their earnings amongst the different families ness, which had been so long discharged by it, of print
ing for the Customs--a business which was performed employed in each group.
by contract, and which, he will venture to say, was executed with an economy and a precision that have not
since been exceeded. The Government advertisements MEMOIR OF JOHN WALTER, ESQ.
were at the same time withdrawn.
“'On the death of Mr. Pitt, in January, 1806, an Although it has not been our custom to occupy the administration was formed, containing a portion of that pages of this Magazine with obituary notices, (such preceding ministry which the editor had so disinterestarticles, however gratifying they may be to the feelings edly supported on his undertaking the management of of a few individuals, seldom possessing much general the paper. It was by one of these that he was directed interest,) we feel sure our readers will forgive us for to state the injustice that had been sustained in the
loss of the Custom-house business. Various plans were departing from this rule on the present occasion, when proposed for the recovery of it; at last, in the following the event to which we are about to call their attention July, a copy of a memorial, to be presented to the is one which we should conceive no member of the Treasury, was submitted to the editor for his signature; reading public can regard with indifference. We allude but believing, for certain reasons, that this bare reparato the death of John Walter, Esq, for four-and forty tion of an injury was likely to be considered as a favour years editor, and part proprietor of The Times news entitling those who granted it to a certain degree of paper, a journal which has attained a degree of influence over the politics of the journal, the editor celebrity and an extent of circulation wholly unprece- the memorial. But he did more than even this; for,
refused to sign, or to have any concern in presenting dented, and which may, in great measure, be attributed finding that a memorial was still likely to be presented, to the active zeal, indomitable perseverance, and well he wrote to those from whom the restoration of the directed enterprise of the chief director of this mighty employment was to spring, disavowing on his part engine. The triumphant success which has attended (with whom the sole conducting of the paper remained) these efforts may not be considered a fair proof, though, all share in an application which he conceived was practically, we believe it to be a tolerably certain one, meant to fetter the freedom of that paper. The printof the skill and judgment by which they were directed; | ing business to the Customs has, as may perhaps be but if any further clue be wanted to the secret of this anticipated, never been restored. success, it may be found in the steady power which a “The editor will now speak of the oppression which consistent adherence to the principles of strict justice, he has sustained while pursuing this independent line and high integrity, will always obtain over the minds of of conduct. Since the war of 1805, between Austria men. We are indebted to the columns of The Times, of and France, his arrangements to obtain foreign intelli. the 29th July, for the following sketch of his early gence were of a magnitude to create no ordinary political career, given in an article written (by himself anxiety in his mind respecting their result; yet, from we imagine) in reply to an intemperate attack made by the period of the Sidmouth administration, Govern. Mr. Wyndham, in the year 1910, upon the press and its ment from time to time employed every means in its conductors :
power to counteract his designs, and he is indebted for " "The joint proprietor and exclusive manager of this his success only to professional exertion, and the pripaper became so in the beginning of the year 1803. vate friendship of persons unconnected with politics. On his commencing the business, he gave his conscien. First, in relation to the war of 1805, the editor's packages tious and disinterested support to the existing adminis- from abroad were always stopped by Government at the tration-that of Lord Sidmouth. The paper continued outports, while those for the Ministerial journals were that support of the men in power, but without suffering allowed to pass. The foreign captains were always them to repay its partiality by contributions calculated asked by a Government officer at Gravesend, if they had to produce any reduction whatsoever in the expense of papers for The Times. These, when acknowledged, managing the concern; because, by such admission, the were as regularly stopped. The Gravesend officer, on editor was conscious he should have sacrificed the right being spoken to on the subject, replied, that he would of condemning any act which he might esteem detri- transmit to the editor his papers with the same puncmental to the public welfare. That administration, tuality as he did those belonging to the publishers of therefore, had, as he before stated, his disinterested the journals just alluded to, but that he was not allowed. support, because he believed it then, as he believes it This led to a complaint at the Home Secretary's office, now, to have been a virtuous and upright administra- | where the editor, after repeated delays, was informed by
the Under Secretary that the matter did not rest with without being a visionary, may be said to have thought him, but that it was even then in discussion, whether nothing impossible that was useful and good, was early Government should throw the whole open, or reserve an resolved that there should be no impossibility in printexclusive channel for the favoured journals ; yet was ing by steam. It took a long time in those days to the editor informed that he might receive his foreign strike off the 3,000 or 4,000 copies of The Times. papers as a favour from Government. This, of course, Mr. Walter could not brook the tedium of the manual implying the expectation of a corresponding favour process. As early as the year 1804 an ingenious comfrom him in the spirit and tone of his publication, was positor, named Thomas Martyn, had invented a selffirmly rejected; and he, in consequence, suffered for a acting machine for working the press, and had produced time (by the loss or delay of important packets) for this a model which satisfied Mr. Walter of the feasibility of resolution to maintain, at all hazards, his independence. the scheme. Being assisted by Mr. Walter with the
“The same practices were resorted to at a subsequent necessary funds, he made considerable progress towards period. They produced the same complaints on the the completion of his work, in the course of which he part of the editor; and a redress was then offered to his was exposed to much personal danger from the hostility grievances, provided it could be known what party in of the pressmen, who vowed vengeance against the man politics he meant to support. This, too, was again whose innovations threatened destruction to their craft. declined, as pledging the independence of his paper; To such a length was their opposition carried, that it and, be it observed, respecting the whole period during was found necessary to introduce the various pieces of which the present conductor has now spoken, that it the machine into the premises with the utmost possible was from no determinate spirit of opposition to Govern- secrecy, while Martyn himself was obliged to shelter ment that he rejected the proposals made to him. On himself under various disguises in order to escape their the contrary, he has on several, and those very import- fury. Mr. Walter, however, was not yet permitted to ant occasions, afforded those men his best support, reap the fruits of his enterprise. On the very eve of whose offers, nevertheless, at any time, to purchase, or success be was doomed to bitter disappointment. He whose attempts to compel that support, he has deemed had exhausted his own funds in the attempt, and his himself obliged to reject and resist. Nay, he can with father, who had hitherto assisted him, became disgreat truth add, that advantages in the most desirable heartened, and refused him any further aid. The project forms have been offered him, and that he has refused was therefore for the time abandoned. them.'
“Mr. Walter, however, was not the man to be deterred This extract will suffice to show the arduous position from what he had once resolved to do. He gave bis in which the manager of such a journal as The 'l'imes is mind incessantly to the subject, and courted aid from all placed, and the difficulties and temptations with which quarters, with his usual munificence. In the year 1814 he has to contend-difficulties which nothing but the he was induced by a clerical friend, in whose judgment highest mental qualifications could enable him to over- he confided, to make a fresh experiment; and ac
Of Mr. Walter's later political career we need cordingly the machinery of the amiable and ingenious say but little; with its leading feature, his unyielding Kænig, assisted by his young friend Bauer, was introcrusade against the New Poor Law, and the indefatiga- duced-not, indeed, at first into The Times office, but ble perseverance with which he hurled article after into the adjoining premises, such caution being thought article at the devoted heads of the Somerset House pecessary from the threatened violence of the pressmen. Commissioners, and those who had get them in autho. Here the work advanced, under the frequent inspection rity, our readers are not now to be made acquainted; and advice of the friend alluded to. At one period suffice it to say, while the ranks of its defenders were these two able mechanics suspended their anxious toil, daily thinned, those of its opponents increased in like and left the premises in disgust. After the lapse, proportion, until in the chamber of sickness Mr. Walter however, of about three days, the same gentleman dishad the satisfaction of learning that there was scarcely covered their retreat, induced them to return, showed a parliamentary candidate who did not pledge himself them to their surprise their difficulty conquered, and to oppose the inhumanities of that law, against which the work still in progress. The night on which this he had so long waged war single-handed. Before we curious machine was first brought into use in its new quit the subject, we cannot forbear calling the attention abode was one of great anxiety, and even alarm. The of our readers to a fact which in memory throws us suspicious pressmen had threatened destruction to any back to the bright old days of chivalry, when a dead one whose inventions might suspend their employment Douglas won the field-we allude to the unprecedented - destruction to him and his traps. They were way in which the mere prestige of his father's name has directed to wait for expected news from the continent. gained for Mr. J. Walter the election of Nottingham.” It was about six o'clock in the morning when Mr.
We offer no apology to our readers for presenting them Walter went into the press-room, and astonished its with another extract from the same source, as the occupants by telling them that. The Times was already account of the manner in which Mr. Walter introduced printed by steam ! That if they attempted violence there the stupendous invention of the steam printing-press was a force ready to suppress it; but if that they were is in itself so interesting as to render such a proceeding peaceable, their wages should be continued to every one superfluous. After telling how he obtained news of the of them till similar employment could be procured ;'capitulation of Flushing forty-eight hours before the a promise which was, no doubt, faithfully performed; government of the day, The Times proceeds :
and, having so said, he distributed several copies among “But one achievement alone is sufficient to place Mr. them. Thus was this most hazardous enterprise unWalter high in that list which the world, as it grows dertaken and successfully carried through, and printing older and wiser, will unore and more appreciate
by steam on an almost gigantic scale given to the
world. On that memorable day, the 29th of Novem«Inventas aut qui vitam excoluere per artes, Quique sui memores alios fecere merendo.'
ber, 1814, the following announcement appeared in The
Times :He first brought the steam-engine to the assistance of “Our journal of this day presents to the public the the public press. Familiar as the discovery is now, practical result of the greatest improvement connected there was a time when it seemed fraught with diffi- with printing since the discovery of the art itself. The culties as great as those which Fulton has overcome on reader of this paragraph now holds in his hand one of one element and Stevenson on another. To take off the many thousand impressions of The Times news5,000 impressions in an hour was once as ridiculous a paper, which were taken off last night by a mechanical conception as to paddle a ship fifteen miles against wind apparatus. A system of machinery almost organic has and tide, or to drag in that time a train of carriages been devised and arranged, which, while it relieves the weighing 100 tons fifty miles. Mr. Walter, who, human frame of its most laborious efforts in printing, far exceeds all human powers in rapidity and despatch. | fascinated. They are like Pope's poetry ;-all possible That the magnitude of the invention may be justly care seems to have been lavished on the form, but the appreciated by its effects, we shall inform the public, soul has evaporated during the process." that after the letters are placed by the compositors and A common-place observation enough, reader. Can enclosed in what is called the form, little more remains you guess the sex of the speaker ? According to all for man to do than to attend upon and watch this un conventional rules,—and it is by those that the world conscious agent in its operations. The machine is then walks,-it ought to be a lady. The prime article in the merely supplied with paper-itself places the form, inks creed of that great complex, hollow-hearted rationalist, it, adjusts the paper to the form newly inked, stamps Society, is a belief that women love delicately to the sheet, and gives it forth to the hands of the attend- detract from each other's merits. Not a man in the ant, at the same time withdrawing the form for a fresh world, who has outlived the noble credulousness of his coat of ink, which itself again distributes, to meet the youth, (which, trust me, comes ever nearer to the truth ensuing sheet, now advancing for impression; and the than the shallow unbelief of after years,—just as the whole of these complicated acts is performed with such man who walks blindfold towards a tree is more likely a velocity and simultaneousness of movement that no to reach it than he who goes in an opposite direction, less than 1,100 sheets are impressed in one hour. with his eyes wide open,) but thinks that his safest
". That the completion of an invention of this kind, mode of recommending himself to any woman is to not the effect of chance, but the result of mechanical proclaim his indifference to the attractions of another. combinations methodically arranged in the mind of the And what do the ladies all the while? They tolerate artist, should be attended with many obstruotions and it, as an attem to please, however mistaken, and they much delay, may be readily admitted. Our share in the laugh inwardly to think how little the mystery of their event has indeed only been the application of the dis hearts is comprehended by those who seek to win them. covery under an agreement with the patentees to our Exactly thus felt Mrs. Dalton, while listening to the own particular business ; yet few can conceive-even observation which we have just recorded ;-perhaps a with this limited interest-the various disappointments secret consciousness that she herself possessed, in the and deep anxiety to which we have for a long course of highest degree, the species of fascination alluded to, time been subjected.'
rendered her peculiarly alive to its meaning. The "From that day to the end of his life Mr. Walter never speaker was Sir Mark Wyvil, a middle-aged baronet, ceased to improve on the original plan; and if we should of unimpeachable fashion, laboriously attractive, and soon be able to accelerate the press considerably but resolutely youthful. The subject of his criticism was safely beyond its present speed, we shall be indebted to Edith Kinnaird. him and those whom he employed, for that result. Her third season had just drawn to a close, having
“ As a step in the progress of civilization, the steam consisted, like the two which preceded it, of a series of press can only be compared to the original discovery of uninterrupted triumphe, a perpetual incense of admiprinting itself. Had it not been for that timely inven- ration. She was now staying at Selcombe Park, the tion, literature and information must have been re- noble owners of which had assembled a large circle of stricted in their growth, and still more in their extent, guests, to beguile the tediousness of a magnificent by the labour, expense, and delay incident to the autumn in a beautiful country. Lord and Lady multiplication of copies ; and that at a time when the Selcombe were amiable, respectable, and moderately human mind was preparing for its mightiest efforts. pleasant people; they had great wealth, of which they When one copy of even a small book was the work of duly expended a reputable fraction in charities, public many days, it is evident that the mass of mankind must and private ; the gentleman was a regular attendant in be strangers to all novelty in literature. Forty years the House, a most affable president of agricultural since the world had come again to exactly the same sort meetings, a hearty Tory, a steady church-goer, (on of stand-still. If the pressmen of the daily journals had Sundays,) and a profound hater of "the Oxford theocontinued their labours till one day's “form' was replaced logy,"—in short, the popular ideal of a country genteby the next, they could only have supplied the wants of man could scarce have found anywhere a better a certain limited class. Steam gave wings to the press, embodiment. The lady was passée, but elegant-of enlarging its powers to the scale of the world. It has toilette studious and elaborate; she patronised district enabled the metropolitan press to issue an adequate societies and charity bazaars; was frequently heard to supply for all England, even before the inhabitants of lament that she lived in such a whirl of engagements the metropolis itself have assembled at the breakfast that she had no leisure for any serious pursuit; kept a table. By this potent aid we printed and circulated first-rate governess for her daughters; worked a pair of fifty thousand copies of our paper, containing Sir Robert slippers annually for her husband; and was esteemed Peel's celebrated speech announcing the repeal of the by all her acquaintance "a pattern wife and mother." Corn Laws, in the course of the following morning. The other members of the party at Selcombe Park
“We have little more to add. About a year since, shall speak for themselves as they are introduced to the Mr. Walter became aware of the first symptoms of the reader. Yet we must bestow one word on Mrs. Dalton painful complaint which was destined to end the career ere we proceed to record her answer to Sir Mark Wyvil's of one whose life had proved so eminently useful to the observation. She was, by some, considered a little too country which had given him birth. After many months blue to be seminine-Heaven forbid that we should of suffering, he expired at his residence in Printing unravel all the meaning of that phrase, or develope all house-square, on Wednesday, the 28th of July.” the consequences which it involves !--but even this
worst sin in woman was tolerated, for the sake of the fascinations which accompanied it. She might perhaps have seen thirty summers, but her attraction depended
not on feature or complexion, and was rather increased THE MAIDEN AUNT.-N0. IV.
than impaired by time. Its elements consisted in the singular gracefulness of her figure, movements, and
manners, the varying expression of her large dark eyes, “ BEAUTIFUL !--yes, there can be no doubt that she the only really fine feature which she possessed, the is very beautiful ; her face is absolutely faultless, and ready, ringing laugh, musical as that of childhood, anů her figure magnificent. But it gives me no pleasure to feet melody of voice. For these she was forgiven if she
that rarest, and perhaps most winning of all gifts-perlook at her ;-her manifest self-consciousness destroys presumed to discourse of literature at a dinner party, the charm at once. It is always so with perfect beau- and to know a little more of art than most of the men ties ;-you may be forced to admire, but you are not I who devoted themselves to her. Yet, even these would
scarcely have preserved her from the danger of being | rather that Edith would learn to undervalue wisdom, secretly voted à bore, had she not added to them the virtue, and discretion, than that she would approach charm of a vanity sufficiently under discipline to avoid to any distrust of the perfection of her idol. Aunt offensiveness, sufficiently evident to save her friends Peggy would have been alarmed, could she have witfrom the painful necessity of compelled respect. She nessed this period of her darling's mental history; but was accessible to delicate flattery, capable of refined her alarm would have been groundless. The exercise coquetry, pleased with attention, and always ready to of hearty love and admiration, if only the object be in glide from literature to playfulness-from playfulness the main good and admirable, is, in itself, the most to sentiment, at least in the social sense of the term. ennobling process to which the spiritual part of man's She was therefore charming; and when we add that her nature can be subjected. Let all who are around the voice was as bewitching in singing as in speaking, her young, or around those whom any peculiarity of temtalent for music so remarkable as to be recognised even perament preserves in the youth of their hearts to a in these days when education labours to bring all stu- later period of life, beware how they shut up this sweet dents up or down to the same level of undistinguish fountain or turn it into bitterness by ridicule, by able but cultivated mediocrity, it will be at once surprise, by criticism, by contradiction, or by cold allowed that she was irresistible. We have here withdrawal of sympathy. Lose not the glory of a sunsketched the external development of her character- set by seeking to count the spots in the sun. heart, mind, and soul, (if she has them,) must be left fess that they are there, if you will force us to the for a more gradual discovery. Her husband was a confession ; but we are not thinking about them, and member of Parliament, still engaged with his duties, we do not mean to look at them ;- suffer us to take the though it was the second week of August. They had beauty and goodness of God's works into our inmost been married several years, but had no children. hearts !
With a slightly sarcastic expression in her beautiful “ Miss Kinnaird,” said one of the two gentlemen eyes, she rejoined,-“ A stronger proof of the omnipo who were hovering around the chairs of that lady and tence of Miss Kinnaird's claims could scarcely be found Mrs. Dalton, “ how does the diary proceed? and when than that she has inspired Sir Mark Wyvil with a are you going to fulfil your promise, and read us the simile."
events of a whole day!" The sting of the words was neutralized by the smile “When they are written,” returned Edith, laughing. with which they were spoken, and Sir Mark, drawing “ What a gigantic idea you must have of my powers, his chair very decidedly forwards, seemed to be pre- both bodily and mental, if you think I have strength paring bimself in a business-like manner for a playful enough left to make an entry in my diary, after dancing encounter of wits, when he was checked by the entrance as I have done every night since I came here !" of Miss Kinnaird herself.
" Is it a green book with silver clasps ?" pursued the She came from the garden, laden with flowers. A questioner. scarf, hastily substituted for a bonnet, was twisted “ Yes," answered Edith, a little puzzled. round her head, the ends falling on her shoulders; her “ Then I have seen it !" exclaimed he, triumphantly. delicate colour flushed into crimson with the exertion “ I passed under the window of your room after breakof her late employment; her hands full of roses. Since fast this morning: the table was standing in the window, we last saw her, her marvellous beauty has matured and I saw a green book with silver clasps upon it. It into a steadier brilliancy, her step has acquired some- was lying by a pocket-handkerchief with a lace border, thing of stateliness, her manner something of com- and a white kid glove, trimmed with blue, was lying in posure, blended with a more even vivacity; the world a heap with it. Yes !" continued he, accumulating the admires her ten times as much as it used to do, for the evidence, “ there were two roses in a china vase, and a last lingering tint of the glory of childhood has faded gold vinaigrette, and a sash, checked white and lilac. away,--and childhood is a mystery and a wonder,--and said to Vaughan, at the moment, 'I am quite sure the world does not like mysteries, and is far too well that is Miss Kinnaird's diary.' He did not think it educated to wonder at anything..
was, but I felt quite sure." Two gentlemen advanced from opposite sides of the The smile with which Edith looked up at Lord room-the one from a book, the other from a lounge- Vaughan, as this speech was concluded, proved that, on to relieve her of her fragrant burden. Sir Mark Wyvil her side at least, aīl unpleasant recollections connected lifted his cold critical eyes to her face, and then turned with the event of three years ago had passed away. to Mrs. Dalton with an expressive smirk (for such a Whether it also betokened a lurking consciousness that man cannot smile,-there is heart in a smile). In every her power was undiminished, we will not determine. gesture and movement of poor Edith,-in the manner in “ I am not by any means certain that you are right," which she resigned her flowers to her two assiduous observed she, gravely addressing the speaker, whose squires, in the tone with which she declared herself eyes opened to their widest extent, in pure astonishtired, in the careless grace with which she threw her-ment. self upon the nearest chair, in the little pause which “O! my dear Edith,” cried Mrs. Dalton, "you do not intervened ere she removed her unwonted head-dress,- know what a dangerous thing it is to contradict Mr. he saw only the panoply of conquest, consciously Delamaine. His accuracy is positively unbounded. I assumed and used for a purpose. His discernment was don't believe he ever was mistaken in a date, a name, lost on Mrs. Dalton, however, for she had joined her or a number, in his life.” younger friend at the table, and was helping her to sort “ Well,” said Mr. Delamaine, visibly delighted, “ I the flowers. Few things had more entirely gratified do believe I am tolerably accurate. That is the habit Edith than the manner in which Mrs. Dalton had sin. of mind which I have always laboured to acquire. I gled her out from the circle at Selcombe Park, with the could tell you some curious traits relative to that very apparent resolution of making her a friend. To a girl subject,-I mean, the accuracy with which Mrs. Dalton of intelligence, enthusiasm, and warm affections, the is good enough to say that I remember even the most caressing demeanour of the first woman of genius with trivial occurrences. Remind me”-turning to Lord whom she had ever come in contact, was absolutely Vaughan—“to tell you a story about a pair of ear-rings, irresistible, an she repaid it with a kind of uncalcu- and the way in which I recollected something. It is lating idolatry, which effectually secured its continu- not exactly apropos just now; but I dare say we shall
The influence which Mrs. Dalton thus acquired resume the conversation." was of somewhat dubious advantage to the character of Lord Vaughan promised to remind him, with the her admirer; for if the delicious sophistry of love air of a well-bred victim, and Mr. Delamaine proceeded, should fail in making all she did and said appear “ Thornton always used to remark, 'if memory be wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best," the danger was not accurate, it is worthless.' I remember perfectly