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the occasion upon which he said that. He was saying, “ My cousin Godfrey Thornton,” said she, “is young, that he had painted a hundred and fifteen portraits rich, of good family, handsome, and a genius.” since he began his career as an artist, out of which “And coming here !” added Edith ; "that completes there were only three which had satisfied him. I said the list of his attractions. I heard Lord Selcombe tell he had painted a hundred and sixteen, and I offered to Mr. Davis so, as they passed to the stables, while I was recount the names of the sitters. He didn't wish me gathering my flowers." to do it; but I did, though, after the first twenty or so, “ But if he is rich and of good family," inquired I required a little reflection to bring each name to my Lord Vaughan,“ how comes he to be an artist ?" remembrance. It was at a dinner-party, and, long Mrs. Dalton's eyes kindled into more than common before I finished, Thornton and I, and our good host, brilliancy. “ Oh, what an English observation !” exwho was dozing in his arm-chair, were left quite alone; claimed she.“ He is an artist because God made him however, I went through the whole number, and it was one, and he has neither the power nor the will to as we crossed the hall to take our leave of the ladies, unmake himself.” —for it was getting very late--that he made the remark “ Then he lives for art !" cried Edith, with a sudden which I have just now quoted."

burst of her old romance; " and has given up the “ You were correct, then," said Edith, politely. world's life, though, with all the attractions which you

Why, no, not exactly--that is to say, I was correct have enumerated, it would have been to him nothing in remembering all the names, which was, after all, the but triumph and enjoyment. He ought to have a tower great thing, you know,—but there were only a hundred like Balta's in Minstrel Love, where, in the midst of and fifteen of them ; so Thornton was right there." the grandeur and beauty of nature, he might be a true

" That gives a somewhat different colouring to his artist-hermit, and forget men and women altogether. observation," observed Mrs. Dalton, in a very low tone How delightful! He must be quite an ideal character." of voice, to Edith, as she stooped over her flowers.

'Quite !" responded Sir Mark Wyvil, coolly. He I found out afterwards," continued Mr. Delamaine, 'lives for art' at No.15, Green-street, Grosvenor-square, “ how I had added that hundred and sixteenth. He and studies nature from his drawing room windows." had painted the same portrait twice ;--you know that “My dearest Edith,” said Mrs. Dalton, a little im. was a very satisfactory sort of thing-I'must say that patiently,“ that is one of your pretty heresies of which it gratified me, for I was altogether at a loss to know I have not yet been quite able to cure you.

You seem how I had contrived to make the confusion. I offered to have a sort of vazue, unpractical idea, that a man afterwards to give the names in the order in which they must needs withdraw from the world in order to achieve had really presented themselves; but Thornton wouldn't any thing really great. Now I, on the contrary, believe take the bet. I suppose he felt sure of losing."

that society is the very food and stimulus of genius, “ Time or money,” said Mrs. Dalton, with an arch which droops without it, grows morbid, and loses look at Sir Mark Wyvil.

both the creative power and the power of self-measure“Ah! time," cried Lord Vaughan ; " that brings us ment." back to the diary, you know. Have you much waste of “Long may the idea continue unpractical,” exclaimed tiine to chroniele, Miss Kinnaird ?"

Lord Vaughan, answering the only part of Mrs. Dalton's " That is scarcely a fair question to ask a young lady," speech which was within the limits of his compreinterposed Lady Selcombe, who was comfortably hension, “if Miss Kinnaird meditates achieving greatensconced in a bay window, embroidering a spaniel on ness in her own person !" a footstool in livid and unearthly hues, which suggested Why, yes,” replied Edith, “I confess I have no that you were setting your feet on the discoloured inclination to shut myself up in a hermitage. That corpse of a dog, whose profile, moreover, seemed to have would be rather too high a price to pay for any sort of been much battered by frequent crushing; “ tritles, greatness.”

Iam afraid, generally make the sum of human things She did not speak exactly as she felt-but there was at that age.” And Lady Selcombe glanced with good. no discrepancy between the words and the manner in natured condemnation at the group round the table, which she lived. How long would the world, which and then looked complacently down upon her work, had already divorced the outer life from the inner feeling convinced that embroidering dogs was a much thought, leave the thought unmolested ? fitter occupation for an immortal soul than contem- * There is only this difference,” said Sir Mark, with plating flowers.

studious sportiveness ; "to shut Mr. Thornton up in a “I fear I must plead guilty,” said Edith, looking hermitage would be an act of cruelty to an individual, from one of her admirers to the other with a playful but to immure Miss Kinnaird would be punishing ease very unlike penitence. “ But before I begin my the world." confession, do tell me who Mr. Thornton is, and whether

(To be continued.) it is the same Mr. Thornton who is coming here to-day.”

• Thornton! coming here !" cried Mr. Delamaine ; " Good heavens, how extraordinary! My dear Miss Kinnaird, you could not have applied to a better person MORAL REFLECTIONS; OR, ESSAYS ON MEN, than myself to tell you all about Thornton; for I think

MANNERS, &c.? I may venture to say that he is one of the most intimate friends I have in the world. If you will allow me, I will tell you his whole history.” Edith looked imploringly at Mrs. Dalton, who in

On Man and Iluman Life stantly came to her rescue.

I protest against this !" cried she to Mr. Delamaine. “ You are not to speak on the subject at all. Jr. “We have all been brought up without that,” say the Thornton is my cousin, and I claim the right of kindred greater number of those who hear of any plan that will as giving me precedence in the matter." But, my dear lady _" cried the rebuked orator.

simplify or facilitate education. It is precisely because Edith playfully held a rose against his lips, so as to you have been brought up with means that were less stop the torrent of words. He accepted the flower with easy and less advantageous that you should believe a bow and a gratified smile, as though he felt that the that in point of education every means are good to favour accorded was so great as to pledge him to those who know how to make use of them. Methods observance of the terms on which it was granted; and of education are instruments in the hands of a good Mrs. Dalton commenced her history at once, as fearing that the pause would not be of long duration.

(1) Concluded from p. 302.






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workman; and what workman will complain of seeing courage, in anticipating even to the fear of a fall, so the instruments of his trade increase, were it only that that the pupil, supported before he feels himself in he might make a choice of them? It would, never- danger, learns to lean with confidence upon his guide, theless, be a strange idea, to desire that the instruments without being aware of all the weakness which renders should work by themselves; it is, however, what is ex- the support so necessary. But in those cases which pected by the greater number of inventors of methods. relate more especially to early childhood, the most As soon as they have discovered one, the work of edu- vigilant mother requires to be guided, or, at least, to cation is, in their opinion, completely finished, or rather be assisted. Should her heart not require to be is rendered useless. They look upon a child, armed with guarded, or her judgment to be enlightened, her mind their method, as a machine which, once set in motion, will require to be aided, in order to furnish her with will never stop until it has fulfilled the object of its means to satisfy the multiplicity of ideas which condestination, and would be tempted to say to the teacher sume childhood. If the duration of time be measured who sought to aid the movement,“ What business have to us by the number of our ideas, if a fixed idea renyou to interfere ?" I certainly would interfere,-it der this duration almost insensible, while, on the conwould concern me to consider a little before I would trary, a variety and rapidity of ideas give it sometimes put a pack of mythological cards into the hands of a an intolerable length, then certainly nothing can appear child, in which they are taught the history of Venus longer than a child's day. Weak in comprehending and Adonis, and some other adventures of the mother ideas, quick in exhausting them, in a very few hours of Love. I will not believe that with a pack of his he has run through the whole circle of his employtorical cards they can by themselves learn the New ments; new ones must be incessantly provided for him ; Testament; for I will look, for instance, at the card we must incessantly labour to rep the weariness which which gives an account of the Sermon on the Mount, produces impatience, caprice, and uneasiness, and weakfor some observation on those words so calculated to ens the bodily strength, by destroying the energy of strike the minds of children,-“If thou bring thy gift the mind. Those who have never brought up children to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother cannot comprehend of what importance it is to those hath aught against thee, leave there thy gift before the who are engaged in such cares to be able to invent a altar and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, quarter of an hour's additional amusement; but the and then come and offer thy gift.” And in place of importance is doubled, if from the amusement some that, I shall simply find that in this sermon Jesus instruction can be drawn. It has often been said that Christ recommends union and reconciliation. When I we ought not to make the lessons of children a play to should see in the cards of Roman history, on the sub-them, and that of all the lessons they can be taught, ject of the marriage of Tarquin and Tullia, that “from the most important is that they should submit to nethis monstrous alliance nothing but monsters could be cessity, and give up their will to that of others. As to born,” I would endeavour to let the minds of my that, we may make ourselves easy; opportunities little readers dwell as shortly as possible on expressions enough will never be wanting. But if the lesson may of this kind, which, containing only ideas beyond not be a play, where would be the disadvantage of altheir capacity, would present them with words lowing the play to be a lesson, so that children might without ideas; but by scarcely ever adopting the ex- learn to attach to their amusements some serious idea? planatory passages contained in those cards, I would | The danger of regular lessons is, that it places a wall take advantage of them to explain to the children of separation between the ideas of employment and what I wished them to know; they should be an pleasure, and attaches to the latter exclusively the idea itinerary of my route, in which I should reserve to of idleness, so that for children, the important time of myself the right of walking at what pace I pleased, their life-the only one that they can really call their without prohibition of either resting or rambling. A own, is the time in which they do nothing; this is the game, however simple it may be, can be made profitable only time to which they attach any interest,—the rest in the hands of those who know how to make use belongs to others,—they allow it to go as it will, and of it; but I confess that it is thereto that, in my endeavour especially to lose it. We ought, on the conopinion, the pretensions of the greater number of the trary, to accustom children to look upon all their time best combined methods should be limited. If they as important to them, by forming them early to a refacilitate instruction, it is by pointing out the method gular course of life, to which recreation is an exception, of teaching rather than the method of learning; their and of which the customary pleasures are composed of object should be to assist the master rather than the more or less serious employments. A child should pupil; if they assist the latter, it is by supporting the always be believed to be doing something useful, that arm which leads him ; and they will assist the former he may imbibe the idea that it ought not to be otherby affording him the means of doing better, -not wise; and nothing is more easy than to give him this of doing less. It is not to the mind, it is not to idea. Seem to associate him with your employments, the feelings of children that we should first apply; | by sometimes joining in his; you will have done much their imagination is the only one of their faculties of to secure his attention when you have given him yours. which you can really dispose; the others perpetually That lack of ideas which continually torments him escape you by their inconstancy and tenuity.

draws him incessantly towards those who are able to
It is even to the unsteadiness of the imaginations of furnish him with new ones, and every point of contact
children that you are indebted for the power of direct between their mind and his, every employment which
ing them; nevertheless, without continual attention, can be made mutual, is a benefit to both parties; but,
what will indicate the point at which it is ready to it must be owned, that, as in many other cases, this aid
escape you? What will teach you the right idea at is especially useful to those who are best qualified to
which to stop and fix his attention, if an intimacy with dispense with it.
every moment of the child's life, with his plays, his
pleasures, his troubles, and all the little events of his

day, does not enable you to seize that fit opportunity
which the wisest method will not supply, but which the

No. IV.
least skilful mother can turn to advantage? Of all the
theories of education, I do not believe there is one that
can be equivalent to the continual action of that gentle create vivid impressions, not casily to be forgotten, in

There are many passages in English history which power, ever intent upon rectifying the wanderings before they become too difficult to repress, in propor. the minds and hearts of true Englishmen. It is not tioning the object that it may not be too difficult too much to say, that the perusal of these stirring to attain, in assisting the little successes which en- occurrences has wrought many a wavering purpose



into stability, and excited the reader of our national | soul.” His death took place a few days after the battle chronicles to emulate our glorious predecessors in their of Chalgrove Field, in which engagement he was path of fame and well-doing. Who does not feel proud mortally wounded. of his countrymen when the brave deeds of days gone The spot where the battle was fought has been reby rise up before him? Who can look back on many cently indicated by a memorial, erected through the of those noble scenes, and not exult that England is instrumentality of Lord Nugent and other of his his country? Not few nor far between, but constantly admirers. present in the annals of our ancestors, they present That all the memories of this great man will come examples for all successive generations, and afford na- crowding round the brain of him who wanders and tional illustrations of a people, ever recognised in the who thinks in the leafy shades and woodlands of his oldest traditions as courageous, and of a free and liberal | last home, who muses in the old church of Hampden, spirit.

in Buckinghamshire, or who treads the halls where Happily for these our later days, wars and rumours Hampden lived and died, is but natural, and harof wars are becoming less and less heard of. Peace monises well with the ancient spirit of the place. It is reigns around us; and an increase of civilization has truly a fair spot. The house, originally built in the brought in the train of its many blessings onc scarcely Plantagenet fashion, has been altered and repaired from yet sufficiently esteemed, the power of settling all dif- time to time. It stands on a fine eminence; is surferences by gentler means than the destruction and rounded with lofty and noble trees, and adjoins the desolation of inimical interests. With what feelings church, which is part and parcel of the domain. On of gratitude and happiness so tranquil a consummation one side are the Chiltern Hills, and the fields assessed should be viewed, let those attest whose avocations for ship-money, which Hampden refused to pay. The have enlisted them in some foreign clime for their view of the house opens through a vista, a mile and a country's cause; or those who have made mankind their quarter long. On either hand, stand elm, beech, and study, and traced the springs and aims of human Spanish chestnut trees, of high dimensions. The estate actions to their starting point, from thence downwards comprises a boundary of nearly 5,000 acres; of this, to their end. Public opinion no longer speaks by there is a vast extent of arable land, and some beautiful the aid of fisticuffs ; we have done with such things, woods, whose richness of foliage, seen in the fading and a new and happier era has come. In days gone autumn season, is suggestive of the life of a gentleman by, let us hope for ever, a different feeling prevailed; of eld, whose amusement and occupations alternated the sword and the strong arm too frequently by their in an agreeable succession. Books and running brooks, might overcame the justice of a good cause. Might the cares of a farmer, the duties of a magistrate, the and power then constituted right; as the old song pleasures of field-sports, the higher gratifications of expresses it

taste, and the activities of charity; in this wise did “That they should take who have the power,

the patriot pass a pleasant life for eleven years, -a And they should keep who can.”

happy existence broken only by the death of his wife.

The stirring events which so soon after happened So were manners and matters in those times. Gra- roused the spirit of this enthusiastic man, who could dually, but surely, however, came a change; and when not witness his countrymen bearing the wrongs that presin later years, Charles I. attempted to obtain an im. sed them down tamely and unmoved. It may be very post, alike odious to peasant and peer, and endeavoured | easily believed that the whole surrounding scenery is to use his royal prerogative to enforce his demands, Eng- associated with the name and fame of Hampden. The land took its boldest step to resist the unwarrantable mansion itself has a peculiar character of its own, and, encroachment on a people's rights. The particulars of though almost deserted by its present proprietor, bears that contest are familiar to all. Amid the many ad-striking impress of its ancient greatness. The hall is mirable histories of the period, an impartial mind may gloomy, and disfigured by several paintings, which are glean the truth, and casting aside the broad and vaguenot only of indifferent execution, but are totally inconassertions of one class of writers, and the equally un sistent with the place. The suite of rooms consists of founded hypotheses of another, soon arrive at a just a library, two dining-rooms, drawing-room, presence and satisfactory conclusion. The history of the Civil chamber, and state bed-room, on the ground-floor. They War, unlike that of many other struggles, stands out are handsomely furnished, and contain a few pictures clearly and distinctly in the pages of almost every of merit, but most of them in a sad state of neglect. narrator and essayist on the subject. There is not A view of Venice, by Canaletti, has suffered grievous much mystery in the great transaction. A monarch damage at the hands of the cleaner, and an exquisite and his people ranged on opposite sides, and a people head of Lely's seems to have become much affected ultimately victorious. It is not too much to say, that by damp. in the drawing-room there is a chimney. of all the men who lived and moved in that eventful piece of white marble, with figures of rustics, executed epoch, Hampden appears to have been influenced by in alto-relievo; this, which deserves more than a hasty feelings of the most patriotic nature, and to have acted glance, was the production of an Italian artist, and was with a vigour and determination, ever tempered with brought from Rome by Viscount Hampden. gentleness and forbearance. Hlad he lived, what a dif- In one of the apartments a large quarto Bible is ferent ending would have closed that drama! Listen shown as having been the property of Philip Cromwell, to his dying words; do they not breath of loyalty and uncle of Oliver. It contains detailed entries of the homage to his misguided king? Who can say that names and births of many members of the Cromwell such a man would have consented or suffered Charles to family. Elizabeth Cromwell, the Protector's aunt, marhave closed his career on the block? Hear him as the ried one of the ancestors of the patriot. The father of last words come feebly and falteringly forth! How that Hampden was Griffith, high sheriffof Buckinghamwell they attest the integrity and purity of his motives ! shire, who entertained Queen Elizabeth in all costly O Lord God of Hosts, great is thy mercy; just and style and splendour at Hampden, not only fitting up a holy are thy dealings unto us, sinful men.

room purposely for her reception, but employing an O Lord, if it be thy good will, from the jaws of death. immense number of workmen to cut a passage through Pardon


manifold transgressions. O Lord, save my some very dense woods to allow her majesty to pass in bleeding country : have these realms in thy especial the nearest possible direction. Such was the loyal keeping. Confound and level in the dust those who bomage and courtly devotion of the days of Queen Bess, would rob the people of their liberty and lawful pre who appears to have commanded respect, if she did not rogative. Let the king see his crror, and turn the find love from all her subjects. This opening is still to hearts of his wicked counsellors from the malice and be seen, and is known to all the neighbourhood as the wickedness of their designs. Lord Jesu, receive my | Queen's Gap.

Save me,



There arc a great many family portraits scattered The church, like the house, is embosomed in trees, through the mansion. On the staircase is a whole- and is seldom visited by any beside its seventh-day length of Oliver Cromwell; he is accoutred in armour, occupants. The locality is perfectly secluded, lying with helmet and truncheon. There is no mistaking some distance from the two principal roads, and about who the artist meant. The stern determination of pur- equidistant from the Great Northern and Western railpose, the calm forethought, and the hard-lined features, ways. The Tring station is the nearest, and even that is are unmistakeable. It is to be regretted that the pic.twelve miles off. All the adjacent lanes and villages, not ture is in parts greatly injured by the damp. At no to say towns, are of the most

rural description, and convey great distance is a fine portrait of one of the family, the impression of a rich agricultural district. In the who is said to have destroyed himself in an adjoining quietude of such a scene, it is well to have nothing to chamber. This circumstance is alluded to in terms break the contemplation of its former lord, and the and tones of such solemn awe by the attending domes occurrences in which he took so active a part. It has tic, that the visitor is not surprised to be told after been truly observed by one of the greatest writers of wards that the room is believed to be haunted. In one our time, that the history of Hampden's life is the of the principal apartments hangs a picture of a man history of England during the period in which he lived. about five or six-and-thirty, which was always said, Whatever difference of opinion may exist as to the though on assumption only, to be the resemblance of effects of his memorable opposition to the increasing the great hero of his house. Some years back, Lord encroachments of the crown, there can be none the Nugent, when preparing his memorials of Hampden conviction that he was actuated by an honest love for for the press, being in doubt upon a disputed point, the welfare of his country, the prosperity and happi. caused the body of the patriot to be exhumed in his ness of his fellow-countrymen, and an ardent love for presence, permission having been accorded by the noble the blessings of liberty and social progress. To think proprietor of this properly. On unclosing the face, of him amidst the groves where he wandered, in the which was in fair preservation, two or three persons halls where so often his footsteps fell, or in the hallowed present were instantly struck with its resemblance to fane where he lies, uncenotaphed but not forgotten, is the picture in question. The grave has thus settled the indeed a pleasure and a privilege. And few votaries identity, and it is therefore invariably looked upon as ever sought a shrine more worthy of their seeking than the likeness of Hampden.

the grave of this upright, conscientious man. Few Roaming through the forsaken old hall, which seems excursions containing more of profit and pleasure comto be drooping in its faded splendour, all things about bined can be taken than this, so picturosquely situate serve to testify of a past age; and the melancholy feel in one of the most retired districts of the county. ing is heightened if the visit be made on an autumn day, when the wind blows through every cranny and crevice, and the leaves of the stately trees without,

THE TEMPERATURE OF INSECTS. half golden and half sere, fall one by one on the dewy grass, to mingle with the remnants of the passing

In two former articles, on the temperature of the bee

hive in winter and in summer, it was shown, that bees Strange to say, there are no papers or documents of maintain a degree of heat in their dwellings considerably any interest relating to Hampden to be found in the above that of the external air. The same fact has been precincts of his dwelling-place,-nothing to assist in observed by Mr. Newport in the nest of the humble-bee the elucidation of any one point in his history. So, passing to the church where he lies, there is there, too, in its natural haunts. The nest examined was situated no indication of the spot. No tablet, no effigy, no

in a shaded chalk bank, near the ground, and about monumental stone, or marble of any kind. There is a eight inches from the surface. At ten o'clock, A.M., the memorial to the last John Hampden. It is profusely temperature of the air in the shade, four feet from the decorated with armorial bearings. On an oval medal- ground, was nearly sixty-nine degrees; that of the lion is a representation of Hampden falling from his exterior of the chalk bank, near the entrance to the horse at the battle of Chalgrove Field. There is a morion with the Hampden crest, and an inscription set- nest, sixty-six degrees. On introducing a small therting forth the relationship of the deceased to the Trevor mometer very carefully into the nest, without disturbing family. Far more to our purpose, infinitely more inter the inmates, a temperature of eighty-three degrees was esting, is the epitaph written by Hampden to the indicated, and this in a few minutes rose to eighty-five memory of his beloved wife. It is upon a black marble degrees. Another nest, containing forty or fifty bees, tablet, placed between the windows of the chancel, was removed from the earth to Mr. Newport's residence, underneath a coat-of-arms. As it is fair to presume and placed in a small breeding cage. The bees were that this is the composition of the regretful husband at first very irritable, and were therefore kept in close himself, the gentle record acquires a twofold attraction. confinement, and fed with moistened sugar; but on the It runs thus :

third day they became accustomed to their new abode, and were placed on a table in the sitting-room, near

the window, which was left open, as was also the door “To the eternall Memory of the truly, vertuous and pious of the cage, so that the bees might go abroad and return Elisabeth Hampden, wife of John Hampden, of Great Hamp, at pleasure, which they did with as much regularity as den, Esq., solė daughter and heire of Edmund Symeon, of if the nest had been in its natural locality. The Pyrton, in the county of Oxon, Esq. The tender mother of an happy offspring in 9 hopefull children.

temperature of this nest varicd considerably at different În lier pilgrimage

times, but was highest when the bees were excited. In a The staie and comfort of her neighbours,

third nest, which was caged like the second, the bees were The love and glory of a well ordered family,

at first greatly affected and agitated by the slightest noise, The delight and happiness of tender parents,

such as the removal of a chair, or a footstep in the But a crowne of blessing to a husband

room, or the passing of a carriage along the road, thirty In a wife: to all an eternall patterne of

feet distant; but they were not in the slightest degree Goodness and cause of Joy; whilst shee was

affected by persons talking loudly in the room, whilst In her dissolution a loss unvaluable to each, yet herself blest, and they fully a tap with the finger on the table put them immediately recompensed, in her translation from a tabernacle of clave and into a state of the greatest agitation. In two or three fellowship with Mortalls to a Celestial Mansion and Communion days they became accustomed to their situation, and with a Deity, the 20th day of August, 1631.

were not disturbed by slight noises. When the tem" John Hampden, her sorrowful husband, in perpetnall testi- perature of the air was seventy and a half degrees, that mony of his conjugall love, liath erected this Monument." of the box and nest was seventy-three degrees; but


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when they were excited it rose to seventy-seven, but that of the air, but the insect was much excited by being gradually subsided to seventy-three degrees as the bees disturbed ; its general temperature when feeding is not became quiet. On another occasion, when greatly more than three degrees above the air, and, when perexcited, a temperature of nearly twelve degrees above fectly quiet and apparently asleep, the temperature is that of the air was observed.

exactly that of the air. From a variety of observations An ants' nest, examined in its natural haunts, it was evident that individual insects possess a temperafforded still more remarkable results. The tem- ature of body above that of the surrounding medium; perature of the air in the shade at eleven o'clock, A.M., that the amount of heat is not constant in the same was seventy-six degrees; when the thermometer was insect, but varies according to certain conditions, which passed into the nest to the depth of five inches, it rose will be noticed presently. to eighty-four degrees, and remained steadily at that In the nymph, or pupa state, the temperature of the point; but in about six or eight minutes, the insects insect is generally lower than at any other period of becoming excited, and running about in every direction its existence, and is only equal to, or but very little in a state of great agitation, the temperature of the nest above that of the surrounding medium; when disturbed rose to ninety-three degrees ; and soon after, when the their temperature rises somewhat above that of the air. insects were still more excited, to ninety-five and a half The pupa part with their natural heat with much degrees, and a little nearer the surface, where the com- greater rapidity than the larvæ, and this seems to be motion was greatest, to ninety-eight and a half degrees. the reason why most hymenopterous insects select for During these observations the ant-hill was carefully their young those situations which are found to be the shaded from the sun ; but when exposed to its influence, worst conductors of heat. This is why the mason-bee the thermometer rose to 108 degrees. This was a tem- encloses its larvæ in cells constructed in the vertical perature much too great for the insects to bear; they sections of banks of earth which are exposed to the all retired beneath the covering of the nest, and scarcely morning sun, and why hive and humble bees crowd over a single ant was to be seen. These observations, which those cells which are about to produce the perfect insect, were made on a fine day in July, were repeated on a when the enclosed nymphs are most in need of increased gloomy, wet day in September, when the temperature warmth to invigorate them for the change they are of the air at eleven o'clock, A.M., was only fifty-four about to undergo. degrees, that of the nest at the depth of one inch was In the imago, or perfect insect state, the insect has a sixty-five, at two inches, sixty-six degrees, below wbich higher temperature than at any other period of its life, it gradually diminished. In another nest, twice the and when in a state of activity is not so much influenced size of the first, observed at the same time, the ther- by sudden changes of atmospheric temperature as in the mometer stood twenty degrees above the temperature larva or pupa state. The imayo has also greater power of the air, when the insects were a little excited. of generating as well as of maintaining heat; but it is

It appears, then, that these communities of insects not till some time after an insect has assumed a perfect maintain a degree of heat in their dwellings con- state that it is able to support its full temperature. siderably above that of the external air; such being When a lepidopterous insect leaves its pupa case with the case, it would seem to follow, that every individual its whole body soft and delicate, and its wings undeinsect must maintain a separate temperature of body, veloped, and hanging uselessly by its sides, it parts so higher than that of the surrounding atmosphere. In rapidly with heat, that it appears to have a lower tempeorder to determine this point, Mr. Newport made an rature than at the time when it is about to pass from immense number of experiments upon insects in their the larva to the pupa state; and it immediately seeks a different states and under various circumstances. The retired situation where it may suspend itself vertically thermometers used in determining their temperature at rest, and complete the development of what are now were of small size, with cylindrical bulbs, about half an to become its most important organs of locomotion. In inch in length. The method of taking the temperature doing this the insect first begins to breathe very of an insect was either by allowing it to remain with deeply, and continues to do so for a considerable time. the soft ventral surface of the abdomen pressing against The inspired air passes from the large air-sacs in the the bulb when in a state of rest, or by pressing the abdomen into the base of the wings, and while the thermometer firmly against its body when in a state ramified air-tubes in the wings are becoming elongated of excitement; and, in order that the heat of the hand and distended, and the wings in consequence developed, might not interfere with the result, the insect was held the temperature of the insect again begins to increase. during the observation between a pair of forceps covered But it is not till the wings have become firm and fitted with woollen, and the hand which held the thermometer for flight that the insect is enabled to generate its full was also covered with a glove. The temperature of amount of heat. Thus, in an observation on a pussthe insect was always compared with that of the atmo- moth, half an hour after coming from the pupa, its sphere at the time of observation. The temperature of temperature was only two-tenths of a degree above that active flying insects was taken by enclosing them singly of the atmosphere; an hour afterwards three-tenths; in a small phial. The number of inspirations per in an hour and a half six-tenths, when the insect was second was noted, as was also the degree of activity of moderately active. In two hours and a half's time, the insect, so as to be able to compare the amount of when the insect was a little more active, its temperature respiration with the heat evolved.

was nearly one degree and a quarter above that of the In examining insects in their different states it was atmosphere; and on the following day, when perfectly found that the larva always evolved less heat than the strong and excited, as during rapid fight, it was seven perfect insect of the same species, supposing both to be degrees above the temperature of the atmosphere. similarly healthy and active. The larvæ of humble The hymenopterous insects which live in society, such bees and some others were from two to four degrees as bees, have their heat increased artificially by the above the temperature of the surrounding air, whereas brooding of the nurse-bees over the cocoon or pupa the perfect insects were from three to eight or ten case ; but when the young bee comes forth it parts with degrees higher, and when much excited the difference its temperature most rapidly, unless immediately prowas even greater. The larva of the flesh-fly is seldom tected by warmth from the bodies of other individuals. more than one and a half, and the perfect fly only But when the same insect, a few hours afterwards, has two and a half degrees above the surrounding medium; | become fully able to perform all the duties of its existbut precise observations are difficult to be made on ence, it sometimes has a temperature of perhaps twenty small insects, although easy enough on the large soft- degrees above that of the surrounding air, while its bodied larræ of sphynges. On applying the bulb to a temperature in the larva state is scarcely more than full-grown larva of the death's-head moth, it showed a three degrees higher. temperature of seven and a half degrees higher than The temperature of insects is influenced by various

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