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offers a noble example to future cultivators of the Muses and with this sweet sentiment lingering on the mind,
Whose dwelling-place is Heaven, daughters of Jove;
MEMOIR OF PARMENTIER;
OR, THE INTRODUCTION OF THE POTATO AT PARIS. Admired, not loved. And those on whom they smile, Great though they be, and beautiful, and wise,
ANTOINE AUGUSTIN PARMENTIER was born of poor Shine forth with double lustre.”
parents, in the little town of Mondidier, in 1737. His The celebrated and beautiful group of the Graces, father died during his infancy, and he was left to the from Canova's chisel, attracts all eyes, and leads them
care of his mother, a woman of superior character, and to dwell upon its matchless beauties. It is in figures of of admirable good sense, to whom he loved in after-life refinement and delicacy that this sculptor excels; in to ascribe the highest advantages of his education. The manly and heroic forms, he loses by comparison with old cure of the parish, who was the friend of his family, the northern artist, Thorwaldsen. Leaving the gallery struck by the intelligence with which he received of sculptures, it is a pleasant change to wander in the her early lessons, undertook to instruct him in the rudi. parterres and conservatories, filled as they are with a
ments of Latin. At sixteen, Augustin, impatient to splendid collection of plants of every kind. The pin- render some assistance to his mother, who, though etum and araucaria house, contain valuable plants of the honourably descended, was struggling with great povspecies Abies and Araucaria. The botanical house is erty, entered into business under an apothecary in his rich in the possession of some magnificent specimens of native town, and the following year he went to Paris to the tribe of cactus. The palms and ferns are of great one of his relations, who followed the same profession. size, and grow to a prodigious height. Not the least
An opportunity soon offered for the young chemist
The war agreeable pastime is to wander up and down through to enter a career worthy of his ambition. the tortuous intricacies of the labyrinth, composed of with Hanover having broken out, Parmentier joined horn-beam, and crowned with a temple of Chinese the army in 1757. The talent and the self-devotion fashion, To all these tasteful contrivances for passing which he displayed during the dreadful epidemic which away pleasant summer hours, there seems no termi
so cruelly decimated the brave soldiers, whom the nation. Not the least of their merit consists in their sword of the enemy could not conquer, soon rnised him variety, and their excellent arrangement in the most to the rank of second chemist; not only did the ardent picturesque positions. To leave them, however, with and intrepid young man expose himself in the hospitals out a word of comment on one of the choicest ornaments without fear, but he also frequently fought on the of the place, would be an injustice. The dairy at Wo-battle-field. He was taken prisoner five times, and he burn is too unique to be passed unnoticed, and claims a
used to describe these mishaps, in later days, with his special note of admiration. It is a small structure of usual gaiety, and praise the skill with which the PrusChinese character, surrounded by water, on which the sian hussars had several times undressed him. “They elegant water-lily floats in graceful wreaths. The inte.
were the cleverest valets," he said, “that he had ever rior is well adapted for its uses and combines every con
met with." venience with its ornamental details. Nothing more
During one of these military captivities, Parmentier perfect in its way can be conceived.
conceived the first idea of the good deed which was On the east side of the abbey, there is a group of trees, destined to render his name immortal. Being subbetween whose aged trunks several village spires may be jected to rigorous confinement, and obliged to content seen, all tending to form distinct and cheerful landscapes himself with the rations of the prisoners of war, who of sylvan life. From another part of the park, the
were fed on potatoes; instead of complaining as the church at Woburn is a prominent feature in the view.
rest did of this food, which was new and disagreeable A sense of something positively English prevails every: the nature and the utility of the precious root, and de
to them, he more wisely set himself to consider well where; and in no place is the impression disturbed or destroyed. The noble house of Russell has ever stood termined not to forget it when he should recover his foremost through all our national history for the inhe liberty: we shall see how he fulfilled his intention. rent nobility of its sons, a glorious race ! illustrious for
When peace was restored to his native country in their achievements in the field and their greatness in 1763, Parmentier returned to Paris, where he attended the senate. Thus, wandering in the haunts where they chemistry delivered by the two brothers Douelle; and
the medical lectures of l’Abbé Mollet; those on so oft have trod, it is natural to muse and meditate on bygone years, and listen to the chimes of the old church, the botanical courses of the celebrated Bernard de Jusas they might have listened when called to prayer by sieu. His ardent love of learning led him to bear with the same sweet sounds, and where they pondered on the cheerfulness the greatest privations, by means of which passing scenes of their eventful times. “ Che sarà alone he was enabled to pay for his lessons, and to buy sarà,"---they have ever been a lofty branch of the aris- the books he wanted in the prosecution of his studies. tocracy of England, and long may they continue to be And all this time he spared money to assist his mother so, and for years come to enjoy their leisure in the and sisters, who little knew at how great a sacrifice of sweet precincts of Woburn.
the comforts of life he thus contributed to the supply of Before quitting the neighbourhood, it may be recom
their wants. In 1766, he was chosen from amongst mended to the casual visitor to take a stroll through the many other candidates to fill the situation of assistant cemetery of the church. Every grave, however humble, druggist at the Hôtel des Invalides, and in this new is kept in the most perfect order; and the intermixture post he won all hearts by his zeal, his gentleness, and of shrubs, rose-trees, flowers, with the marble and stone the charm of his affectionate and sprightly disposition. memorials of departed greatness, is happily suggestive The old mutilated soldiers loved him for the interest of that land where all earthly distinctions are forgotten. he took in their past services, and in their welfare and One stone, commemorative of a girl of tender years, is comfort; and the good sisters who had the charge of the worthy of remark. After relating the name and age of hospital loved him for the sympathy he showed in the deceased, the tribute to her memory is thus con- their anxieties and labours. cluded
In 1769, Parmentier was rewarded by the appoint“ He builds too low who builds beneath the sky."
ment of senior chemist, which fixed him permanently
at the Hôtel des Invalides. As soon as he began to Never was Cowper's poetry more appropriately quoted; | taste the pleasures of ease and tranquillity, the remem.
brance of his imprisonment in Germany, and of the political discussions that raged around him, and his potato, recurred more vividly than ever to his mind. silence was considered as a disavowal of the principles This useful vegetable had been brought into Europe which were then triumphant. Those who arrogated to from Peru in the early part of the sixteenth century, themselves the title of “Friends of the People” began and was first cultivated in Italy and in Germany. it to persecute the man who had shown his friendship by was introduced into France from Flanders, and was his deeds. "Speak no more of Parmentier !” exclaimed propagated in the south by the care of the great an orator of the Jacobin Club, "he would feed us only minister Turgot; it was used in the provinces of on potatoes. It was he who invented them." His name Anjou and Limousin, but ignorance and stubborn dis- was placed on the list of the suspected, and he was like to every innovation had prevailed in all other parts deprived of the small pension given to him by Louis of the kingdom, and the plant was regarded as a subtle XVI. and of his apartments at the Hôtel des Inspecies of poison, that was calculated both to exhaust valides. But he had scarcely been reduced to poverty the soil in which it was grown, and to bring forth before the absolute need of his services was again feli. leprosy and other fearful maladies wherever it was used The coalition of all the European powers against France as an article of food. Such were the absurd preju- forced her to neglect no means that might contribute to dices Parmentier now resolved to attack with courage her security, and amongst these it was deemed advisable and perseverance. He knew how hard the strife must to reorganize the pharmaceutic department of the miliever be against long-established custom and popular tary hospitals, and to make the soldiers' bread better. opinion ; but he was animated by the purest philan. This difficult task was offered to Parmentier, who acthropy, and no obstacle seemed to him invincible in the cepted it with enthusiasm, and acquitted himself of it path which should lead to the attainment of a national with zeal which was above all praise. To this day his benefit. He saw that it would be necessary to obtain name is gratefully remembered in the French army. from the first some powerful protection for his plans, He was now appreciated according to his deserts, and and he sought that of the king himself, Louis XVI., was called to one honourable employment after another who gladly accorded it. He then determined to strike in the service of humanity. Al the learned societies the imagination of the Parisians, and so to forge a sent him diplomas, and he was received as a member of weapon of his own, for his projected warfare against fancy the National Institute. During the time that Napoleon's and foolish superstition. For this end, he asked the empire lasted, Parmentier's life flowed on in unintermonarch to bestow upon him fifty acres of the sterile rupted prosperity and honour ; but in 1813 his health plain of Les Sablons. They were cultivated now for was considerably injured by his grief on the death of a the first time, under his directions and at bis expense, beloved sister, joined to his distress at the reverses susand in due time were planted with potatoes. No tained by the French armies. At the approach of the sooner did the flowers appear, than Parmentier carried allied sovereigns he fell dangerously ill, and died on the a nosegay of them to Versailles, and presented it to the 17th of December, three days after they had entered king, who was surrounded by his court; Louis received France. A distinguished French savant, Cadet de the offering most graciously, and placed it in his Gassicourt, delivered a funeral oration in honour of button-hole, in spite of the scornful looks and the half- Parmentier before the Pharmaceutic Society; and in suppressed smiles of many who were present. From describing the life of this simple-minded and benevolent that time the cause of the potato was gained in man, he dwelt on the two acts by which it was especially the highest circles of Paris. The noble and the beauti- marked, and which contained, as it were, an epitome of ful imitated the example of the monarch, and the it all,—the introduction of the potato and the syrup potato blossom was worn instead of jasmine and roses of the grape, which, in his own charitable intentions, in the most fashionable dresses of the day.
were to become the bread and the sugar of the poor. But while the great lords and ladies of the court François de Neufchatel had already proposed giving his hastened to the Hôtel des Invalides to offer their con- name to the potato, and calling it "La Parmentière," gratulations the modest philanthropist at whose but his suggestion was not adopted, and few perhaps expense not a few jokes had been passed only a week now in France remember to whom they are indebted before, it was still doubtful whether the people, for for one of the most necessary luxuries they possess whose benefit he had chiefly been anxious to raise the amongst the fruits of the earth. plant, would be willing to profit by his pains.
The guards placed round his field by day increased the curiosity of the crowd, but they were withdrawn at night, and Parmentier heard with infinite satisfaction
EXTRACTS FROM NEW WORKS. that his potatoes were stolen. He rewarded the first man that brought him tidings of this welcome theft, exclaiming, in the gladness of his heart, “If they are stolen by night, the old prejudice against them no longer “ Soon the barking of shepherd-dogs announced that exists."
our approach was heard ; and, to our infinite joy, we Soon afterwards he gave a grand entertainment, at found ourselves in a few minutes in a wild little which Lavoisier and the American philosopher, Frank Albanian hamlet, with the whole of its very unsophislin, were present, amongst many of the most distin. ticated inhabitants crowding round us. Instantly, guished men of that time. Every dish consisted of when they found how wearied and exhausted we were, potatoes dressed in an endless variety of form and there was a great dispute as to who was to have the fashion ; even the liqueurs were extracted from the same honour of offering us hospitality. Finally, the right to precious root. It only to be regretted that the bill do so was claimed by the fortunate possessor of the of fare and the receipts of the cooks have not been pre- best house in this village of shepherds. He triumserved to the present day. Thus did the generous efforts phantly led the way to the dwelling, which we were of one man give to his fatherland an inestimable supply told was so greatly superior to all the others. It was of wholesome food, and placed millions beyond the a small building, composed entirely of wood, and conreach of the dreadful famines which used in past years sisting of one single apartment. A large fire blazed from time to time to desolate the plains of France. merrily on a square stone near the top of the room, and Parmentier occupied himself a good deal from 1783 to the furniture consisted of various sheepskins, spread 1791 in composing and publishing several most useful out on the clay floor as seats. We were invited to take works upon domestic economy and agriculture. But our places on the ground, on one side of the fire, into soon the storms of the French revolution put an end to which a handful of pine cones having been flung, it all calm meditation and enjoyment. He was too wise, shot up into bright flames, which cast a strong glare and far too well occupied to take any active part in the l on the strange scene around us. Opposite to us sat our
THE COTTAGE OF AN ALBANIAN SHEPHERD.
host and his wife, their daughter, a little girl of some vessel threw the whole mass against them, to regain in fourteen, and her husband, a fine-looking youth of all haste their berths, which were protected by stout twenty. Beyond them were our servants, occupied in planks, in order to save themselves from being lamed preparing our supper, and in rubbing down the horses, or crushed to death by the luggage which came falling who had entered by the same door as ourselves, and upon them. Their condition now was terrible; and were to share the same apartment; next to them were was made sadder by the moans of one of the young an ass and a pig, who were loud in their remonstrances fellows who, in attempting to reach the hatchway and at being thrust so far from the fire to make way for the get on deck, had been badly wounded by some of the new comers, not to speak of the innumerable cocks and chests falling upon him :-while from all the berths the hens who perched in the rafters, and flew about amongst noise was increased by the wailing of the women, the
I really believe we should have slept soundly in screams of children, and the groans and sobs of the seaspite of all, but for the restlessness of the pig, who was sick. It was a frightful confusion; and in vain did a decided somnambulist, and the braying of the ass in they all rage and cry for help from the sailors. In the his dreams-a sound which all must be aware is far from darkness they could bave done nothing, had they even melodious under any circumstances; but those who had leisure then to attend to the unfortunate passengers. have never had an opportunity of hearing it in a Then, when all might suppose the alarm had reached bedroom can have no idea how overpowering it then a height that could not be increased, there pierced appears. The night was short, and we started again at through all the din and uproar, through all the groaning three o'clock on our return home; but it was one never and complaining, a cry of agony and unspeakable horror to be forgotten." - Wayfaring Sketches among the so wild, that even the sick and the children hearkened Greeks and Turks, by a Seren Years' Resident in to the sound, and for the moment an absolute hush Greece.
followed the dismal tumult. It was but for a moment: and the fearful exclamation--'A corpse ! a corpse ! sounded from berth to berth, from lip to lip !"- The German Emigrant's Journeyings and Adventures.
BETWEEN DECKS ON A GERMAN
A NIGHT ON THE SHORES OF HINDUSTAN.
“A HOLLOW sea was running, and the waves thundered with heavy blows against the sides of the ship, which quivered to her heart at every stroke. Yet the
“ We came to anchor, on the third morning after gale had not blown long enough to raise the waves quitting Kedgeree, under the walls of Fort William, much ; and heeling over to the wind—the position in and found H.M.'s 3d Dragoons encamped on the glacis. which a vessel is both safer and bas less violent motion About four in the afternoon, the heat having conthan when it blows directly astern and the lofty mast siderably abated, we disembarked, and marched into sways from side to side-the good ship shot rapidly the Fort, where quarters had been provided for our through the dark water, dashing the foam from her men, though none for the officers, as the brigade-major bows, while most of the passengers quietly and without informed us, at the same time stating, that as a difference alarm fell to sleep.
A wild confused cry, a
of opinion existed on that subject between himself and thumping and washing of heavy bodies, an almost the fort-major, we must wait until he (of the Queen's) stupifying, piercing pain in the head, waked him had craftily overcome him (of the Company's), and [Werner). Alarmed and surprised, he opened his eyes ; induced the latter individual to house us. There is and although everything around was hidden in pitchy an old proverb about a man between two stools being darkness, he instantly perceived that the ship must likely to come to the ground, which was fully illustrated have changed her tack, and was in consequence lying in our case, for, both of our supports for a night's rest over on the other side, on which his berth was—for his in Fort William having given way, we came to the earth, head was thrown downwards, while his feet were pointed though fortunately in the tents of the 3d Dragoons, almost perpendicularly upwards. He changed his immediately under the walls of the fort, where our fali position in all haste. The frightful din between decks, was kindly broken by cloaks spread on the ground to however, went on; and creeping out of his berth, he
receive us. I was composing myself to sleep as combecame at once aware of the alarming condition in fortably as circumstances would permit, when suddenly which he and the rest of his fellow-passengers were at
a volley of screams, as though proceeding from the lungs the moment. . . . . The luggage had been lashed to of ten thousand demons, caused me to start on my feet, the stanchions, as usual in passenger ships, and in such supposing the camp to have been invaded by the in a way, too, that most of the lids and covers might be fernal regions. My host, lying in the opposite recess of opened to give the owners access to their stores of food the tent, being a man of some days' experience, begged me and clothing ;-but one of the peasants, not at once
not to disturb myself, as it was only the jackals.—- Only comprehending the reasonable purpose of keeping the the jackals !' but they are pretty nearly enough to baggage fast, and the risk which might attend the murder sleep, I thought, as I laid down to await the neglect of this precaution, had, in spite of the dissuasions cessation of their intolerable howls. Silence at length of the others, loosened one of the ropes, in order to get ensued, and I was just falling asleep, when a low gurgling more easily at something in his chest. The little noise arose close to my ears, and continued with the tailor, who lay in the berth above him, may very likely most monotonous regularity: ‘Good heaven !' I cried, have had a prophetic fear of the trunks and cases after listening intently for a few minutes, “that must come dancing about in disorder : for he had attempted to
from the diabolical bandicoots, of which I have often fasten them as before, but, being ignorant of the heard from old Indians. I drew my sword, and awaited mystery of knotting ropes, had done it but poorly. So their advance in a violent perspiration, for I have an that when the ship began to plunge—when the whole insuperable abhorrence to the whole rat tribe; but they weight of the baggage was swayed over, now on this had no intention of coming to close quarters. No, their side, now on that, -the fastening gave way, and down cursed pipes sounded the advance, unheeded by the came clattering first the little boxes and cases from the main body. My enemies, nevertheless
, seemed to be top of the pile, followed, at last, by the heavy ordnance, mustering; for the gurgle was taken up by a reinthe immense chests of the emigrants. Many of them, forcement from the opposite side of the tent, interrupted indeed, with laudable zeal, instantly leaped out of their occasionally by a low, muttering sound: cribs when they perceived the danger: but from the
Jamjam efficaci do manus scientiæ. frantic motions of the ship, they could hardly keep themselves on their legs, how much less master these 'I submit; it is impossible to sleep through this inheavy weights-and were fain, as a sudden shift of the terminable persecution, and a man's days in this climate
must be necessarily short without rest !'. Thus I ex: claimed, as jumping up, I threw my cloak aside, and paced the tent in a fever, saluted incessantly by the unearthly gurgle. My friend lay on the opposite side; sleeping as calmly as if there were no such things in the world to torture us as jackals or bandicoots. The morning was just breaking, and I stepped out of the tent, in hope of being taken for a ghost by the jackals, and thus retaliating by fright on a portion of my enemies -when, lo! the veil of mystery was withdrawn, and there sat two Hindoos smoking the pipe of the country, commonly known by the name of hubble-bubble, which noisy instruments I had mistaken all night for the bandicoots. This was too absurd. I burst into a fit of laughter, which awakened my friend, who hastily joined me, when I related my grievance. Having silenced the smokers, I soon enjoyed the rest I had almost despaired of attaining."- Military Sketches by a Cavalry Officer.
And they look forth from hour to hour;
But still the shark is prowling near;
With sundry kinds of fear.
Oh, how unlike their former glee!
They shrink from the bright sea. Heavy is their choice of woe; For they must drown, or brave the cruel foe: Once more they look ;-hope beams! far off, or near, They see him not-"Heaven send our way be clear Now is the time; we will not perish here!” For the dear life to shore they strain,
Convulsed, worse than in fever dreams;
And once the younger screams
(In Original Poetry, the Name, real or assumed, of the Author, is
printed in Small Capitals under the title; in Selections, it is printed in Italics at the end.)
THE BROTHERS' ADVENTURE.
BY ROBERT SNOW, ESQ. 'Twas in a tropic ocean-bay
Two English boys went forth to swim; Brothers they were ; trained with the sea
To gambol; lithe of limb
How a fairy islet lay
The jewel of the bay.
And landing in a tiny cove,
They rove the islet o'er and o'er,
And high and low explore
'Tis time again to take the flood ;But oh, what spectacle of fear
Congeals their youthful blood !
The younger clings about his brother,
My mother, O my mother !"
They have neither pulse nor breath:
Companionship with death.
THE DUMB GIRL.
ANNE A. FREMONT.
Like the glad ones around,
And when some childish grief
Ah me! its stay how brief,
But must I hide mine deep
For I can only weep,
But there is one, the best,
For me she'll leave the rest,
And with a skill, love-taught,
Unlock each scaled thought
The Abbey and Park or
303 The Battle of Hastings. 354
Memoir of Parmentier; or.
the Introduction of the Frank Fairlegh; or, Old Companions in New
Potato at Paris......
S65 Scenes, Chap. XIV.-The
Extracts from New Works.. 366 Meet at Eversley Gorse... 357 POETRY:The Nymph of the Foun- The Brothers' Adrenture 263 tain, (concluded)........... The Dumb Girl...... S6S
PRINTED BY RICHARD CLAT, of Nos. 7 and 8, Bicad Street Hill, in the
Parish of St. Nicholas Olave, in the City of London, at his Printing Onice at the same place, and published by Thomas BowdLER SHARPE, ora 18. Skinuer Street, in the Parish of St. Sepulebre, in the City of Londoa Saturday, October 2, 1817.