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of his past services, and partly from a sense of their present difficulties. They had been beaten in the great battle fought at Tanagra, and they expected that another army would come against them from Peloponnesus the next spring. They therefore recalled Cimon from banishment, and Pericles himself was the first to propose it. With so much candour were differences then managed! So moderate were the resentments of men, and so easily laid down where the public good required it! Ambition itself, the strongest of all passions, yielded to the interests and the necessities of their country!

Cimon, soon after his return, put an end to the war, and reconciled the two cities. After the peace was made, he saw the Athenians could not sit down quietly, but still wished to be in motion, and to aggrandise themselves by new expeditions. To prevent their exciting farther troubles in Greece, and giving a handle for intestine wars and heavy complaints of the allies against Athens, on account of their formidable navies traversing the seas about the islands and round Peloponnesus, he fitted out a fleet of two hundred sail, to carry war again into Egypt and Cyprus. This, he

41 The history of the first expedition is as follows: While Cimon was employed in his enterprise against Cyprus, Inarus king of Libya, having induced the greatest part of Lower Egypt to revolt from Artaxerxes, called in the Athenians to assist him in completing his conquest. Upon this, the Athenians quitted Cyprus, and sailed into Egypt. There they made themselves masters of the Nile, and attacking Memphis seized two of the outworks, and attempted the third called The White Wall.' But the expedition proved very unfortunate, Artaxerxes sent Megabyzus with a powerful army into that country. He defeated the rebels, and the Libyans their associates; drove the Greeks from Memphis, shut them up in the island of Prospitis eighteen months, and at last forced them to surrender. They almost all perished in that war, which lasted six years. Inarus, in violation of the public faith, was crucified.

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The second expedition was undertaken a few years afterward, and was not more successful. The Athenians went against Cyprus with two hundred galleys. While they were besieging Citium in that island, Amyrtus the Saîte applied to them for succours in Egypt, and Cimon sent him sixty of his galleys. Some say, he went with them himself; others, that he continued before Citium. But nothing of moment was transacted, at this time, to the prejudice of the Persians in Egypt. In the tenth year of Darius Nothius, however, Amyrtæus issued from the

thought, would answer two intentions; it would accustom the Athenians to conflicts with the barbarians, and it would improve their substance in an honourable manner, by bringing the rich spoils of their natural enemies into Greece.

When all was now ready, and the army on the point of embarking, Cimon had the following dream: An angry bitch seemed to bay at him, and something between barking and a human voice to utter these words:

Come on;

I and my whelps with pleasure shall receive thee.

Though the dream was hard to interpret, Astyphilus the Posidonian, a great soothsayer and a friend of Cimon's, told him it signified his death. He argued thus: A dog is an enemy to the man at whom he barks; and no one can give his enemy higher pleasure, than by his death. The mixture of the voice pointed out that the enemy was a Mede, for the armies of the Medes are composed of Greeks and barbarians. Subsequently to this dream, he had another sign in sacrificing to Bacchus: When the priest had killed the victim, a swarm of ants took up the clotted blood by little and little, and laid it upon Cimon's great toe. This they did for some time, without any one's taking notice of it; at last Cimon himself observed it, and at the same instant the soothsayer came up, and showed him the liver without a head.

The expedition, however, could not now be deferred, and he therefore set sail. Sixty of his galleys he sent against Egypt; and with the rest he made for the Asiatic coast, where he defeated the king's fleet consisting of Phoenician and Cilician ships, took possession of the cities in that circuit, and watched his opportunity to penetrate into Egypt. Every thing was great in his designs. He thought of nothing less than overturning the whole Persian empire; and this the rather, because

fens, and being joined by all the Egyptians drove the Persians out of the kingdom, and became king of the whole country. (Thucyd. ii. Diod. Sic. xi.)

he was informed that Themistocles was in great reputation and power with the barbarians, and had promised the king to take the conduct of the Grecian war, whenever he entered upon it. But Themistocles (they tell us) in despair of managing it to any advantage, and of surmounting the good fortune and the valour of Cimon, fell by his own hand.

When Cimon had formed these lofty projects, as a first step toward them, he cast anchor before Cyprus. Thence he sent persons, in whom he could confide, with a private question to the oracle of Jupiter Ammon; for their errand was entirely unknown. Neither did the deity return them any answer, but immediately upon their arrival ordered them to return; "Because Cimon," said he, "is already with me." The messengers, upon this, took the road to the sea; and when they reached the Grecian camp, which was on the coasts of Egypt, they found that Cimon was dead. They then inquired on what day he died; and comparing it with the time of the delivery of the oracle, they perceived that his departure was enigmatically pointed out in the expression, "That he was already with the gods."

According to most authors, he died a natural death during the siege of Citium. There are some, however, who state that he died of a wound, which he received in an engagement with the barbarians 42.

The last advice which he gave to those about him, was to sail away immediately, and to conceal his death. Accordingly, before the enemy or their allies knew the real state of the case, they returned in safety through the generalship of Cimon, exercised (as Phanodemus says) thirty days after his death.

After him, there was not one Grecian general, who performed any thing considerable against the barbarians. The leading orators were little better than incendiaries, who set the Greeks one against another, and involved them in intestine wars; nor was there any healing hand to interpose. Thus the king's affairs had time to recover themselves, and inexpressible ruin was

42 See Thucyd. i. 112.*

brought upon the powers of Greece. Long after this indeed 43, Agesilaus carried his arms into Asia, and renewed the war awhile against the king's lieutenants on the coast: but he was so soon recalled by the seditions and tumults, which broke out afresh in Greece, that he could effect nothing of any brilliance or magnitude. The Persian tax-gatherers were then left amidst the cities in alliance and friendship with the Greeks; whereas, while Cimon had the command, not a single collector was seen, nor so much as a horseman appeared within four hundred furlongs from the sea-coast 44.

That his remains were brought to Attica, his monument is a sufficient proof, for it still bears the title of Cimonia. Nevertheless, the people of Citium have a tomb of Cimon, which (as Nausicrates the orator informs us) they hold in great veneration; the gods having ordered them in a certain famine not to disregard his Manes, but to honour and worship him as a superior being. Such was this Grecian general.

43 Above a century.*

44 This proves at once the previous exactions of the satraps, and the salutary terror of Cimon's name employed in effecting one of the most patriotic of objects.*




Family of Lucullus. He accuses the augur Servilius. His eloquence, and command of both the Greek and Latin tongues. His affection for his brother. Sylla attaches him to his party, and employs him upon several occasions. He goes into Egypt, where he is well received by Ptolemy. He escapes the enemy by a stratagem, on his return. Fimbria proposes to him to attack Mithridates by sea. He surprises and defeats the Mitylonians. Sylla constit tes him, by will, guardian to his son. He is elected consul; and employed to manage the war against Mithridates; re-establishes discipline among the troops. Mithridates makes new preparations for war; and defeats Cotta by land and sea. Lucullus marches against him; but is prevented, by a singular phænomenon, from engaging. He determines to gain time. Mithridates besieges Cyzicus. Alarm of the inhabitants. They are supported by several remarkable signs. Lucullus gains a considerable advantage over Mithridates. His second victory. He takes one of that prince's galleys: and pursues him, flying with the rest; which are destroyed by a tempest. The complaints of his soldiers, and his vindication of himself. He encamps opposite Mithridates, and gains some advantage over him in a skirmish. A Dardarian grandee undertakes to assassinate Lucullus, but without success. Successes of Lucullus' officers over those of Mithridates. The latter decamps., Cabira

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