Interactions between the immune, endocrine and nervous systems seldom appear as main issues in the neurosciences and in immunology. So far this was most likely due to the need to focus on the molecular and cellular bases of single neural, endocrine and immune processes. But hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides can also influence more subtle mechanisms underlying immune cell activity. The contents of this volume aim at listing some aspects which show that not only the bases for neuroendocrine control of more refined mechanisms related to the organization and functioning of the immune systems to exist, but also that the immune system can actively communicate with neuroendocrine structures. The evidence is divided into three categories: - Anatomical, cellular and molecular bases for the exchange of information between immune, endocrine and neural cells, - reciprocal effects between immune and neuroendocrine mechanisms, and - immune-neuroendocrine regulatory circuits. Immunologically triggered neuroendocrine responses can be either beneficial or deleterious for the host. A systematic approach would imply the simultaneous evaluation of neuroendocrine and immune parameters and thus provide the basis for therapeutic interventions based on antagonizing or blocking undesirable effects.
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Role of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide in Modulating
Functional Roles in Health
A Critical Neurohumoral
Sexual Dimorphism of NeuroendocrineImmune Interactions
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Acad Sci USA ACTH ACTH response activity adrenal arthritis autoimmune basal Brain Res Bucala carbon monoxide central Clin corticosterone corticotropin-releasing factor corticotropin-releasing hormone CRF and VP cytokines decreased disease effects endocrine Endocrinology endogenous endorphin endotoxin enzyme evidence gene expression gland glucocorticoids heme oxygenase hemin HPA axis HPA axis response human hypothalamic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal immune cells immune response immune system immune tissues Immunol immunoreactivity increased induced inflammation inflammatory influence inhibit interleukin-1 isoforms L-NAME levels LHRH LHRH release LPS2-LPS lymphocytes macrophage macrophage migration inhibitory Maines MD mechanisms mediated mice migration inhibitory factor modulate mRNA Natl Acad Sci nervous system neural neuroendocrine Neuroendocrine-Immune Interactions Neuroendocrinology Neuroimmunol neurons neuropeptides Neurosci neurotransmitters nitric oxide synthase opioid pathway peptide peripheral Pharmacol physiological pituitary POMC Proc Natl Acad production protein rat brain receptors regulation Rivier role secretion signals steroids stimulate stress stressors studies testosterone vasopressin vitro vivo
Pagina 128 - Palmer RMJ, Ferrige AG, Moncada S. Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.