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of the Troad in the time of Alexander the Great or of the Roman emperors, for every position and scene of action in the Iliad, than to the monks of Jerusalem for those in the history of Our Saviour. We possess the same Iliad which they did; and there seems no reason, why our judgments should not be as sound as theirs, and our opinions as correct.

After all that has been said upon the subject, the chief, and perhaps the only requisite is still wanting-an accurate survey of the country. In such an undertaking, particular care would be required in inquiring and noting the names of places, mountains, rivers, &c. both in Greek and Turkish; it ought to include all the region of Ida and the whole tract to the westward of Adramytlium and Priapus ; to be accompanied by a diligent search for ancient inscriptions, and by a notice of all the existing remains of antiquity.

The work, however, would require more time and labor and perseverance than travellers are usually disposed to bestow upon such an object. The numerous obstacles to which geodetical expeditions are subject in winter from the atmosphere and state of the country, from fogs, marshes and inundations, and the danger to which health is exposed from the heat and mal-aria of the summer season, are well known to those who have been engaged in such operations in these or similar climates: nor after these difficulties are surmounted, is it very agreeable to submit to the personal inconveniences, and that total want of comfort and accommodation, which attend the traveller in almost every part of Asia Minor ; or to have to contend with the ignorance and absurd prejudices of a Turk, or to sit for the greater part of a day on the top of a snowy mountain, nieasuring the angles or tilling up the outlines of a plan, or to remain for two or three hours decyphering and copying the half-obliterated letters of some inscription, accidentally discovered, while the traveller's hungry attendants are urging his departure, and his nearest lodging is at several hours' distance. On the other hand, the political state of this district has been for a long time, and I believe still continues to be, very favorable to such an undertaking.

It can hardly be doubted that a survey of the Troad, correctly executed and well delineated, would be more useful and satisfactory to the admirers of the Iliad, than all that has been written upon the topography of Troy. Every reader might then refer to Homer and judge for himself, without the necessity of consulting

'The interesting inscriptions, which Dr. Clarke and other travellers have found in the parts of this region which have been visited, give reason to hope for equal success in the others.

same names.

either the opinions of modern travellers, or of the Greek and Latin writers of a middle age. In the mean time, as the opponents of Le Chevalier have lately had the advantage of numbers, it may be fair to cast a few arguments into the opposite balance, without pretending to give any decided opinion upon the subject, until more exact information on the topography has been acquired.

Upon this side of the question then it may be said, that taking it for granted that the war of Troy was a real event, having a reference to real topography, no place has yet been shown that will combine even a few of the requisite features of the plain of Troy, except the district which lies between Kum-Kale and Bu. nár-bashi; whereas in that district, and in the surrounding region by land and water, we find the seas and mountains and islands in the positions which the poet indicates, and some of them with the

The features which do not accord so well with his description, are those which are the most liable to change in the lapse of ages, namely, the course and size of the rivers, the temperature and other peculiarities of the springs of water, and the extent and direction of the low coast where these waters join the

Instead of a river with two large branches, we meet with a broad torrent, reduced in the dry season to a slender brook, and a few stagnant pools, and we find a small perennial stream, which, instead of joining the former, is diverted into an artificial canal, and is thus carried to another part of the coast. But the diminutive size of some of the most celebrated streams of antiquity is well known to those who have travelled in Greece, and it must be remembered that in this instance it is a poet, who writes of a real scene, and is therefore obliged to magnify all those objects, which, without exaggeration, would be beneath the dignity of his verse. In regard to these changeable features, therefore, it seems sufficient for a reasonable person still to find, at the end of three thousand years, two streams, which, if they do not now join, evidently did so in former times! to find the first of these 'streams, (which the poet describes as springing under the walls of Troy, from two sources, one tepid and smoking, and the other in summer cold as ice,') rising at the foot of a hill commanding the plain, from two places, at one of which the water is at the temperature of 60° of Fahrenheit, and emits much vapor in winter, and in the other is of a


1 “Η μεν γαρ θ' ύδατι λιαρό ρέει, αμφί δε καπνός

Γίνεται εξ αυτής, ώσει πυρός αιθομένοιο:
“Η δ' ετέρη θέρεί προρέει είκυία χαλάζη,
χιόνι ψυχρή, ή εξ ύδατος κρυστάλλο.

Il. X. v: 149.

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lower temperature, or at least is so considered by the natives,' and is gratefully cool in the heat of summer.

For poetry this coincidence appears sufficient, and in regard to the position of Troy itself, it seems quite enough to find a hill rising above the sources just mentioned, not only agreeing in all particulars with the kind of position which the ancients usually chose for their towns, but the only situation in this region which will combine all the requisites they sought for, namely, a height overlooking a fertile maritime plain, situated at a sufficient distance from the sea to be secure from the attacks of pirates, furnished with a copious and perennial supply of water, presenting a very strong and healthy position for the city, and for the citadel a hill beyond the reach of bow-shot from the neighbouring heights, defended at the back by steep banks and precipices, surrounded by a deep valley and broad torrent, and backed and defended beyond the river by mountains, which supplied timber and fuel. That it was precisely such a situation as the ancients invariably preferred, might be shown from a great variety of examples, both in Greece and Asia : and it can hardly be doubted that a person, totally unacquainted with the Iliad, but accustomed to observe the positions of ancient towns, would fix on Bunar-bashi for the site of the city to which this region belonged.

It may be objected to this arrangement of the Trojan rivers and to this position of Troy-1. That the Scamander was the larger


The poet


This I learn from Dr. Clarke, (Travels vol. ii. p. 109.) It suggests a question whether these fountains have not been in the same state of temperature in all ages, although vulgar opinion, or a love of fable, inay have ascribed to them

a difference, which would not have been disproved even in the present day, without the help of the thermometer. would probably adhere to the local tale, even though he had examined the fountains so minutely as to be of a different opinion. An inclination to mix truth with fiction, to believe whatever is marvellous or makes a good story, and still oftener to repeat it without believing it, has in all ages been a characteristic of the Greeks, and it is so still. It was the foundation of their mythology, and derived from the fertile imagination and poetical genius inherent in the nation. Thus Pausanias tells us, the Greeks feigned that Hercules dragged Cerberus out of Hell, through a cavern at Cape Tenarus, though (as he adds,) this cavern has not any subterraneous passage whatever. Thus travellers in Greece at the present day are continually amused with local fables resembling those of antiquity, repeated by all, but believed by scarcely any, and in general, least of all by those who live in the places from whence they originate.

The water of the springs of Bunar-bashi seems to be nearly of the same temperature, of 60° all the year, and will consequently feel cool when the air is at 70° or 80°, and warm when it is at 40° or 50°. It has often occurred to me in Greece to find the same source which I had admired in the summer for its refreshing coolness, disagreeably tepid, and flat to the taste in winter.




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of the two streams, and consequently must be ascribed to the Méinder-2. That this name is itself a corroboration of the identity—3. That it is strongly confirmed by the words of a native of the country, Demetrius of Scepsis, as quoted by Strabo,' and by the remarks of Strabo himself. It must be observed, however, that in the climate of Greece and Asia Minor, subject to great droughts in summer, a perennial stream of pure water, however diminutive, was of more importance than a large torrent, which, winding through low grounds, affords only water that is either turbid or stagnant. We all know what importance the Greeks attached to the smallest sources, which furnished a constant supply of water.

In this view, therefore, the rivulet of Bunar-bashi was more likely than the Méinder to have been the God Scamander, and as being more peculiarly the river Troy, may easily be supposed to have given name to the united stream, after its junction with the other branch. When Troy and its ruins had perished, when its site had ceased to be known; when the fountains of Bunar-bashi had lost their fame and local importance, and the waters of its stream had been diverted into another channel, it seems not at all unnatural, that the name of Méinder should have been transferred from the united stream to the whole of the Easternmost branch throughout its entire course from the summit of Ida to the embouchure in the Hellespont, and that the name of Simoeis should have become obsolete. There are many instances of a change of names in the rivers of Greece from one age to another, and an example of a transmutation of name in two branches of the same stream, under circumstances which cannot so easily be accounted for as in the rivers of the Troas, is to be found in Thessaly, where the river called Apidanus by Herodotus and Thucydides is undoubtedly the same as the Enipeus of later writers, whose Apidanus is at twelve miles distance, and joins the other stream not far from the confluence of the united river with the Peneus. The word Méinder, too, it

must be observed, is still applied to two other rivers on the West - coast of Asia Minor, the Cayster and Meander, and, like the


"Έμπειρος δ' ών των τόπων, ώς αν επιχώριος ανήρ ο Δημήτριος, τότε μεν ούτως λέγει περί αυτών. Εστί γάρ λόφος τις της "Ίδης Κότυλος: υπέρκειται δ' ούτος εκατόν που και είκοσι σταδίοις Σκήψεως: εξ ου και τε Σκάμανδρος δει και ο Γρανικός και Αίσηπος.

Strabu, l. 13. ed. Casaubon, p. 602. In another place, p. 597, Strabo says the Scamander divided the territory of Cebrene from that of Scepsis.

2 The lowest state of the Grecian rivers is not in July, as the reviewer of Mr. Gell's book in the Edinburgh Review, No. 12. p. 274. supposes, but just before the autumnal rains, and if these are not copious, sometimes cven so late as December and January. In July the snows are not all melted in the mountains.

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names Don and Don-au,' applied to so many of the rivers of Europe, seems to be a generic word belonging to the language of this part of Asia, before the time of the Greek colonies, and of which Scamander and Meander were the Greek forms.

Strabo is a witness that the coast of the Troad at the mouth of the river had gained considerably upon the sea.

It would be surprising, indeed, if a phænomenon so common in other places, under like circumstances, had not taken place upon a coast, where every requisite favors it, and where it is probable that this opera-, tion of nature has been further assisted (instead of prevented, as has sometimes been supposed,) by the current of the Dardanelles, which causes an eddy in many points of the coast of the Hellespont, proportioned to its own rapidity. It may surely be allowed, therefore, in adjusting the Homeric topography, to suppose the marshes and low land near the mouth of the river to be of a formation subsequent to the time of the Trojan war. In trying to identify the Scamander and Simoeis of Homer, Strabo confesses, himself puzzled. This is not surprising. An intelligent native of the country (Demetrius) informs him that the Scamander springs from a single source in the same summit of Mount Ida, which gives rise to the Granicus and Æsepus : on the other hand, he finds Homer's fountains of the Scamander quite in a different place; but remarking, that they have no communication with the river then called Scamander by the natives (the Méinder), he is obliged to reconcile the difficulty, by supposing either that they were supplied by a subterraneous communication from the Scamander, (Méinder,) or that they were considered the fountains of the Scamunder, because they were near it. As neither of these suppo

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1 The Greeks made Tanaïs out of Don, and the Romans Danubius out of Donau.

2 The depositions at the mouth of the Meander have removed the coast to a considerable distance from Miletus, Priene, and Myus, which were formerly maritime cities, and Chandler thought the same thing had happened to Bargylia and Caryanda, whose position seems beyond the influence of that river. It is impossible to reconcile the topography of Thermopyla and the neighbouring district, with the description of it given in the sober prose of Herodotus, without previously supposing, that all the lower part of the plain is of recent formation, and that the Spercheius has added six miles to the length of its ancient course.

3. After citing the well-known description of the fountains from the 22d book of the Iliad, he says,

Ούτε γαρ θερμά νύν εν τω τόπω ευρίσκεται, ουδ' ή του Σκαμάνδρου πηγή ένταύθα, αλλ' εν τω όρει και μία, αλλ' ου δύο. Τα μεν ούν θερμά εκλελειφθαι εικός: το δε ψυχρόν κατά διάδοσιν υπεκρέον εκ του Σκαμάνδρου κατά τούτο ανατέλλειν το χωρίον, και και διά το πλησίον είναι του Σκαμάνδρου, και τούτο το ύδωρ λέγεσθαι του Σκαμάνδρου πηγήν ούτω γαρ λέγονται πλείους πηγαι του αυτού ποταμού.

Strabo Geog. lib. 13. p. 602.

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