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passioni non cedens, sensu resistendi, alterum, ut cedens, sensu se
submittendi. Nam ovis, aut pellis, aut quod dicitur xódov, (vellus
ovinum,) omnis actionis expers, et passioni tantum obnoxium, ton-
detur : at homo (tondetur,) alterius actionem adjuvans, et ad
certum habitum se componens, et tonsioni se accommodans,
admiscens sc. actioni passionem.' Sic ergo xelpao lan est Facere
se tonderi, vel Se tondendum præbere, uti noúcarbas, Se la-
vandum præbere, xgioacia, Se unguendum præbere.” Kuster.
de V. M. ii. 1. p. 116. “ Diog. L. Zenone 64. (de Cate-
gorematis): 'Αντιπεπονθότα δε έστιν, εν τοις υπτίοις * ανύπτια όντα.
'Ενεργήματα δε έστιν, οίον, Κείρεται εμπεριέχει γαρ εαυτόν ο καιρόμενος.
• Ego pro &vTITETOVOóta reposui «ÚTOTETTOVOóta, parva, ut vides,
mutatione literarum. Neque enim vel ap. Th. Gazam, vel ap.
Apollon., doctissimos Grammaticos, invenire potui genus hoe
verborum, quæ kVTITETOVOÓTa vocarentur; et exemplum ipsum a
Laertio allatum ostendebat, pro αντιπεπονθότα leg. αυτοπεπονθότα.
Qui enim tondetur, quo quidem Laert. usus est exemplo, non
dicitur dutináoxelv, sed *aútorbogelv. Huc accedit etiam, quod
ei descriptio Laertii congruit. Keigoje a enim quamvis desinat, ut
verba supina, tamen supinum non est : quia effectum quendanı
etiam ostendit, in quo et ipsemet continetur. Hanc enim habent
vim sibi propriam verba, quæ æÚTONETOVO6te vocantur, ut adjunctam
cum passione, ut ita loquar, actionem habeant.' Aldob.

Aldob. Loquitur V. D. tanquam si sic Laertii verba vel legisset, vel correxisset, Αυτοπεπονθότα δέ έστιν εν τοις υπτίοις, ανύπτια όντα, οίον, Κείρεται: έμπεριέχει γαρ εαυτόν ο καιρόμενος. 'Αντιπεπονθότα habent ceteri editi,

ó . '', omnesque manu exarati. Codd. Aldobrandinus tamen qÚTOTETOV Góra de suo ausus est reponere. Revocanda omnino vetus lectio.

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the reciprocal force of reipaola.. This opinion derives great probability from the note of Kuster upon the Clouds of Aristophanes, v. 127., where the passage in Philo was quoted by Kuster, four years before the first appearance of the tract on the Middle Verb. His words are these :“ Aldáčovai, i. e. ipse me docendum alteri præbebo. Verba enim media pleruinque passionem significant cum actione conjunctam, veluti nousoual, lavabor, i. e. me ipsum lavabo, vel, me lavandum aliis præbebo : Kelpovas, me ipse tondeo, vel, tondendum me alteri præbeo ; et similia : solent enim Græci de hominibus, qui vel a se ipsi, vel ab aliis volentes quid patiuntur, lo quentes adhibere verba media, que ideo etiain αντιπεπονθότα, vel αυτοπεπονDóra vocant. Egregius est hanc in rem locus ap. Philon. de Caino (Lib. de Cherubim, t. i. 153. Mang. t. ii. 42. Pfeiffer.), ubi de v. Keipeodai agens, in significatione ejus sic distinguit, ut dicat, oves, pelles, et alia inanimata, sive actione carentia, sensu passivo dici relpeolat:' at hominem, qui sponte se tondendum præbeat, et sic actionem aliquam passioni admisceat, sensų medio κείρεσθαι. "Ωσπερ γαρ, inquit, κ. τ. λ.”

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Similiter ap. Philo J. (l. c.) et ap. Orig. c. Cels. (315. Ed. Cant.) 'Επειδή το πείθεσθαι ωσπερεί των καλουμένων αντιπεπονθότων, εστίν ανάλογον τω κείρεσθαι άνθρωπον, ενεργούντα το παρέχειν εαυτόν το κείροντι. Ita interpungendus h. 1. quem non cepit Interpres. Mire autem ad Laert. nostrum facit, ap. quem ex Orig. leg. 'Eunapéxer yap èautò ó xeipóuevos.". Menag. Imo illud, utapézs saurò, sic absolute usurpari nequit. Scribe, Εμπαρέχει γαρ εαυτόν τα κείρονται και

. , ': . xespóuevos, Tonsori præbet se tondendum. Vide Nostrum in ’Exπαρέχω. nagézm. Sed vel sic lectus locus iste non sanus est, quod Menag. fugisse miramur; quis enim sensus voci évegyíuata inest ? ’AUTIπεπονθότα δε έστιν εν τοις υπτίοις ανύπτια όντα. 'Ενεργήματα δε έστιν, οίον, Κείρεται: έμπαρέχει γαρ εαυτόν τα κείροντι και χειρόμενος. Νam primum évésympic, de verbis dictum, nihil aliud sonare potest, quam Activum verbum : Gramm. évepyntıxa vocant pýjata, inquit

• . ενεργητικά ρήματα, Noster, quæ

Lat. Activa verba, unde aŭtoevepyntixòv, Verbum, quod passivam vocem et activam significationem habet, ut páxouar. .Deinde quomodo fit, ut inter exempla tūv évepynuátw, Activorum verborum proprie sic dictorum, Diog. L. ponat illud reípetak, Tondendum se præbet, quod verbum ad ea, quæ đutiteTOYOTA dicuntur, Adjunctam cum passione actionem habentia, proculdubio pertinet ? Lege igitur, ut partim tacite legisse videtur Aldob., *Αντιπεπονθότα δε έστιν εν τοις υπτίοις ανύπτια όντα, οίον, Κείρεται: έμπαρέχει γαρ εαυτόν τα κείροντι και χειρόμενος. 'Ενεργήματα δε έστινperiit explicatio vocis évepríuata." Nov. Thes. Gr. L. No. iv. p. 614-5.

I know not whether Ign. Ross. in his Notes on Diog. L. has touched upon

this

passage. The editors of the New Greek Thesaurus might have added, that the truth of the reading åYTITETOVOÓTa, is placed beyond all doubt by the words of Philo, κατ' αντέρεισιν.

It cannot, then, be denied, that Philo, and Origen, and Eustathius, and some of the ancient grammarians, were not unacquainted with the peculiar import of the Middle Verb, as denoting in certain phrases, action mired with passion.

Now those grammarians who had viewed the subject in this light, may perhaps have been disposed to trace the origin of the term middie, not to “position;" that is, to the exterior form of the verb, as if the Middle Voice occupied the middle space ber tween the active and the passive in the formation of its tenses, having some tenses similar to the active, and some to the passive, (see the words of Wolle, which I shall soon produce,) nor to the notion that the Middle Verb has sometimes an active, and some, times a passive signification, but to the circumstance of its denoting

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action mired with passion, and thus, in respect to its meaning, lying, as it were, in the middle between the active and the passive.

On the other hand, it cannot be denied that some of the ancient grammarians were not sufficiently acquainted with this proper import, but considered it as only implying sometimes mere action, and sometimes mere passion, but not action mixed with passion. Looking at the terin middle in this improper point of view, they traced its origin to the circumstance of its being applied to verbs neither purely active, nor purely passive, but denoting, under one and the same termination in pat, sonjetinies action without passion, and sometimes passion without action, and, in respect to this double power, so differing in sense from verbs active with the termination, w, and verbs passive with the termination was, as to lie, as it were, in the middle between the active and the passive. In this sense we are to understand the words, which Fischer I. c. has produced from the Etym. M. p. 754, 16. :

Τέτηκα μέσος παρακείμενος, και διάθεσις μέση. Και τί έστι μέση διάθεσις; ή ποτέ μεν ενέργειαν, ποτέ δε πάθος, παριστώσα. Και τί παριστα και επειδή και των μέσων τύπος επ' αμφοτέρας φθάνει τας διαθέσεις, εις δν η ερμηνεία, και των μέσων τύπος φθάνει, και επί του ενεργητικού χαρακτήρος, και επί του παθητικού και επί του παθητικού μέν, δια το ηκροασάμην, και κατηρξάμην παθητικού γαρ τύπου ταύτα: επι δε του ενεργητικού, ως το κέκοπα, και πέπνιγα. "Αλλως το λέλογα, και πέφραδα, ενεργητικήν έχει σημασίαν· το δέ τέθηκα, και διέφθορα, παθητικήν οι αυτοί γαρ σχηματισμοί, και επί ενεργητικού λαμβάνονται, και επί παθητικού.

After having cited these words, Fischer subjoins by way of explanation :-“ Grammatici enim quidam tradidisse videntur, verba media, nunc reciprocam passionem, nunc reciprocam actionem, indicare, ita quidem, ut aoristus haberet vim passionis sui, perfectum actionem in agentem redeuntem, alii hoc ipsum tempus esse indicem, et actionis, et passionis, reciprocæ.”

If this paraphrase of the words be correct, Fischer has, without doubt, contradicted bimself, when he, three pages afterwards, asserts, that the ancient grammarians were not sufficiently acquainted with the true import of the middle verb, as denoting action mired with passion. But the attentive reader will soon discover, that Fischer bas misinterpreted the words of the Etym. The writer has used no word corresponding to “ reciprocam, " which Fischer employs. He describes the peon Soábeois, or “me

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dium genus verborum,” as denoting, not nunc passionem reciprocam, nunc actionem reciprocam, but sometimes mere action, and sometimes mere pussion, without any notion of reciprocity : Kai ti έστι μέση διάθεσις; ή ποτέ μεν ενέργειαν, ποτέ δε πάθος, παρίστώσα. He says, that the “ perfectum” implies not actionem in agentem redeuntem, nor hoc ipsum tempus esse indicem et actionis et passionis reciproca, as Fischer erroneously explains the words, but a signification, sometimes merely active, and sometimes merely passive.

Macrobius,' in his tract, “ de Differentiis et Societatibus Gr. Latinique Verbi,” has the very same notion about the application of the term réoc to Middle Verbs, as implying both action and passion, but not action mixed with passion, which we have seen in the

passage cited from the Etym. When treating “ de Generibus Verborum," p. 597. ed. 1628, he writes thus :

“ Quod Græci &áberu ömuatav vocant, hoc Latini appellant genera verborum. Affectus enim Græco nomine &áderis nuncupatur. Græci igitur laderens hac distinctione definiunt. Quæ in w exeunt activam vim significantia, et junguntur casibus vel genitivo, vel dativo, vel accusativo, et accepta par syllaba transeunt in passiva ; hec activa dixerunt : ut άρχω σου, κελεύω σοι, τιμώ σε. Hæc assumta ja passiva fiunt. Contra raotixà dixerunt quæ in peal desinentia significant passionem, et necesse habent jungi genitivo cum præpositione útò, ac possunt amissa pead syllaba in activum redire, άρχομαι υπό σου, κελεύομαι υπό σου, τιμώμαι υπό σου. Cui ex supra scriptis definitionibus una defuerit, nec švepyntixòy, nec παθητικόν dicitur. Sed si in ω exit, ουδέτερον vel απολελυμένον

. w , vocatur; ut est ζώ, πλουτώ, υπάρχω, εορτάζω. In his invenies aliqua aperte et absolute actum, aliqua designare passionem. Nam τρέχω, αριστώ, περιπατώ, de agente dicuntur : νoσώ autem et οφθαλusõ jeső sine dubio passionem sonant. Sed neque activa illa dicuntur, quia et nulli de supradictis casibus jungi possunt, nec pas recipiunt. Νam nec τρέχω σε, nec αριστώ σε, nec περιπατώ σε dicitur: nec potest transire in τρέχομαι υπό σου, αριστώμαι υπό σου, περιπατούμαι υπό σου. Sed nec νoσω et οφθαλμιώ quamvis verba sint passionis, dici nabytixa possunt, quia nec in par desinunt, nec quisquam significatur passionis auctor, nec subjungitur illis úró cou, quod proprium passivorum est: nam et in activo et in passivo

See what is said about the genuineness of this tract, in the New Greek Thesaurus, No. iv. p. 341. 1. 3.

VOL. XVIII. Cl. Ji. NO. XXXV. L

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debent omnimodo duæ, et administrantis et sustinentis, subesse persona. Hæc igitur quia utroque nomine carent, apud illos oudéτερα vel απολελυμένα dicuntur; sicut apud Latinos volo, vito, valeo. Sed sicut aliqua apud Græcos in w exeuntia significant

. passionem, ita multa reperies in peas desinentia,' et activam tantum habent significationem : ut κίδομαι (Ι. κήδ.) σου, φέδομαι (φείδ.) σου, επιμέλομαί σου, ίππάζομαί σου, μάχομαί σοι, διαλέγομαί σοι, δωρούμαι σοι, χορίζομαί σοι, εύχομαί σοι, άγαμαί σε, περιβλέπομαι σε. Sunt apud Græcos communia quæ ab illis péra vocantur, quæ dun in ua desinant, et actum et passionem una eademque forma designant; ut βιάζομαί σε, και βιάζομαι υπό σου, ανδραποδίζομαί σε, και ανδραποδίζομαι υπό σου. Sola quoque passiva hoc nomine, id est μέσα νοcantur, ut ηλειψάμην, ησάμην, έλουσάμην: haec enian licet της μέσης διαθέσεως dicant, nihil tamen aliud significant nisi πάθος. Nam hoc est ηλειψάμην quod ήλείφθην, hoc est ησάμην quod ήσθην. Item έγραψάμην, εφάμην, έδόμην, μέσα appellant, cum nihil significent preter actum : hoc est enim έγραψάμην quod έγραψα, nec unquam dicitur * προεγραφάμην, et hoc εφάμην quod έφην. Ηoc est έδόμην quod έδων. Εrgo et illa que superius diximus, φίλομαι (1. φείδ.) σου, κήδομαί σου, ιππαζομαι, μάχομαι, διαλέγομαι, περιβλέπομαι, δωρούμαι, χαρίζομαι, έρχομαι, άγαμαι, cum actum solum significent, μέσα tamen appellantur : licet his similia Latini non communia, sed deponentia nominent. Est et hæc Græcorum a Latinitate dissensio, quod cum Latini nunquam verbum commune dicant, nisi quod sit simile passivo : Græci tamen quædam et activis similia μέσα dixerunt, ut πέπηγα quod μέσον dicitur, et sub activo sono solam significat passionem. Hoc est enim πέπηγα quod πέπηγμαι. . πέπληγα vero, αφ' ού το πεπληγως αγορητήν και κέκοπα, αφ' ού το αμφοτέρω κεκοπως, tam de actu, quam de passione dicuntur. Lectum est enim et πεπληγώς σε, et πεπληγως υπό σου, πεπληγως αγορητήν, και ράβδω πεπληγυία. Similiter apud Latinos quedam modo neutra, modo fiunt deponentia, ut labo labor, fabrico fabricor, ructo et ructor: quod etiam Graci non ignorant, βουλεύομαι βουλεύω, πολιτεύομαι πολιτεύω.

This passage of Macrobius deserves particular notice. We see that, while he was aware that some Middle Verbs, called by Kuster activo-media, have an active, and others called by Kuster passivomedia, have a passive signification, he was quite ignorant of what Kuster terms the vere media, i. e, such as denote, in all the best Attic writers, action mixed with passion; for he considers haeryμην and έλουσάμην as signifying “ nihil aliud nisi πάθος ” whereas

I « Videtur deesse membrum hoc, Quæ casibus junguntur." Opsopæus.

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