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manente, salvi esse non possumus. Quare omnes tè, qui hæc salva esse volumus, et hortamur, et obsecramus, ut vitæ, ut saluti tuæ consulas : omnesque tibi, (ut pro aliis etiam loquar, quod de me ipse sentio,) quoniam subesse aliquid putas, quod cavendum sit, non modo excubias et custodias, sed etiam laterum nostrorum oppositus et corporum pollicemur.

Sed, unde? est orsa, in eodem terminetur oratio. Maximas tibi

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Laterum nostrorum oppositus-pollicemur) si Oratio dicta aut scripta videri vellet paucis mensibus ante Cæsaris necem, vel post novissimum illud Senatus consultum, quo omnia ei divina atque humana decrevit, ferenda fortasse in Senatore et consulari esset hæc species adulandi. Tantum refert, quo quidque tempore dicatur scribaturve. Sed custodiis Hispanorum contentus etiam posthac Cæsar recusavit stipatores ex Senatu et Equitibus ; immo tutum ab omnium insidiis se putans, teste Dione, ipsas custoitias illas removit. Ita enim Dio XLIV, 7.

"Οπερ που έγένετο· καίτοι του Καίσαρος και δι' αυτά ταύτα θαρσήσαντος, (ως ουκ άν ποτε ούτ' υπ' εκείνων, τοιαύτά γε ψηφιζομένων, ούτ' υπ' άλλου τινός δι' αυτούς επιβουλευθησομένου,) κακ τούτου δε σωματοφύλαξιν ουκέτι χρησαμένου. Τω γαρ δή λόγω το πρός τε των βουλευτών και πρός των ιππέων τηρείσθαι πρoέμενος, και την εκ

TOūmpin Ppoupar a poruceriduciv." Ubi vide Fabric. et Intpp. ad Veliejum II, 57. In Verbis, quibus turpis sententia exprimitur, ne quem offeadat amag asyópurvoy, oppositus, quia bas formas vocabulorum maxime frequentavit argentea ætas; vix aptiorem vocem h. I. ipse Cicero in promptu habuisset. Iiem semel is tfia quatuor similia posuit, interpositus, intentus, invitatus, interjectus.

Sed, unde-fieri intelligo) Gratiarum actio si fieri debet laudando, nondum desiit Orator gratias agere; sin aliter, ne orsus quidem est rem : quid ergo simulai, se ad eam rem redire ? Jam hanc reversionem verbis facit non Ciceronianis. Ille dicere solet, Eo, unde digressi sumus, revertamur ; Illuc, unde deflexit, redeat oratio nostra; Redeo ad illo, quæ initio dixi, etc. Hic etiam verbum ordiri nove ponit vi passiva, quasi pro ducta : quare nonnullis placuit orta ex quibusdam MSS. Mox verba hæc melius erant vincienda, sic fere : Sed, ut, unde-oratio, maximas tibi omnes gratius ugimus, majores etiam habemus : quamquam, grutiæ majores maximis quales sint, et quain ingentes, non satis intelligo. Neque adeo video, qui fiat, ut nunc repente omnes iden sentiant ; siquidem paullo ante videbantur latere quidam pertinaces et ingrati, animum retinentes armatum. Conf. 9. 31. Adde sermonem minus oratorium, Omnes idem sentiunt : sed omnium Senatorum lacrimæ lectori propemodum cachinnus expriment. An finxit sibi Declamator in illa Senatus consurrectione omnes Patres Conscriptos lacrimantes ? Hactenus pleraque sunt vel stulta vel inepta : in extrema periodo accedit tanta obscuritas, non verborum, quæ per se plana sunt, sed universæ sententiæ, ut, quid sibi ea velit, vix conjeciando assequare. Cujus partem culpæ susiinuerint sane librarii, quorum errata et correctiones probe factas excule, si quid luculentius extundere audes. Alii pro stantibus scripserunt a stantibus, alii astantibus s.adstantibus, quod verbum nonnullis in locis, sed diversi generis, usurpatur pro simplici stare : mox alii dederunt quod fieri decet, in postremis alii, fieri id intelligo; alii,quod M. Marcello reddito deberi intelligo ; alii, precipue id a me fieri intelligo, scil. ut ego potissimum gratias agam. Ex iis vero scripturis, de quibus convenit inter librarios, plane elucet cupiditas verborum ad formam quandam Ciceronis copulandorum, sine ulla perspicua aut apta sententia. Sed omnium turpissimum illud est, quod præ cupiditate sua oblitus hic Cicero epistolæ suæ ad Sulpicium (Famil. IV. 4) ceteros Senatores omnes finxit verbo assentientes, M. T. Ciceroomnes gratias agimus, C. Cæsar, majores etiam habemus. Nam omnes idem sentiunt: quod ex omnium precibus et lacrimis sentire potuisti. Sed, quia non est stantibus omuibus necesse dicere, a me certe dici volunt, cui necesse est quodammodo, et quod volunt, et quod decet, et quod M. Marcello, a te huic ordini populoque Romano et reipublicæ reddito, præcipue id a me fieri intelligo. Nam lætari! omnes, non ut de unius solum, sed ut de communi omnium salute, sentio : quod autem summæ benevolentiæ est, quæ mea erga illum omnibus semper nota fuit, ut vix C. Marcello, optimo et amantissimo fratri, præter eum quidem celerem nemini, quum id sollicitudine, cura, labore tamdiu præstiterim, quamdiu est de illius salute dubitatum, certe hoc tempore, magnis curis, molestiis, doloribus liberatus, præstare debeo.

Itaque, C. Cæsar, sic tibi gratias ago, ut omnibus me rebus a te

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nem censentem pro istis omnibus, et ipsorum nomine jussuque dicentem. Ea res neque ita facta est, nec potuit fieri ullo modo. Cæsari gratiæ actæ sunt a plerisque Senatorum, occasione subito oblata a L. Pisone, relationem egresso; nec verisimile est,pluribus verbis hac de re usum esse Ciceronem, quam nonnullos alios et familiares Cæsaris. Is enim, ut supra vidimus, suo quemque loco sententiam rogaverat de restituendo Marcello. Nuper aliquis ex iis Editoribus, quos nunc scholæ habent, conjiciebat, sententias dictas esse de conjuratione quadam in Cæsarem et utrocissima suspicione, qua Declamator magnam partem libelli sui inde a cap. 7 conflavit. At cuntiavit, non ex historia sumpsit, opinor. Certe in Marcellum ante hunc diein, quo restitutus est, Cæsari nulla mota fuerat talis suspicio. Epp. ad Famil. IV, 7. “ Sic intellexi, nihil aliud esse, quod dubitationem afferrei ei, penes quem est potestas, nisi quod vereretur, ne tu illud beneficium omnino non putares." Vix enim mentiri h. I. potuit Cicero.

Num lætari-prestare debeo) Aliquot MSS. brevius, quam voluit Auctor, non de unius sed de communi sulute, ita utobsit solum, quæ vox jure displicet Pareo Mant. Lex. crit. p. 22. qui et omissam testatur in cod.quodam. Sed aliis sentio displicet, maluntque sentis, ut supra: ex lacrimis sentire potuisti. De reliqua pompa verborum tædet sensum meum explicare, spectandis singulis partibus sententiæ, ductæ ex Epp. IV, 7. f. et 9. f. Quincastigationis vim habet ipsa Manutii interpretatio : Si, dubia Marcelli salute, omnem sollicitudinem, curanı, laborem sustinui; nunc, eo conservato et reip. reddito, statuo mearum esse partium, ut tibi gratias agam.Ne constructio quidem sine vitiis est; nec recte Ernestius putabat omnia apte cohærere, si modo scriberetur, ita ut vix, et deinde, id quum sollicitudine, etc. Alii parenthesi quadam adjuverunt laborantem structuram, quod hodieque faciunt indocti scriptores. Ita vero hic noster doleret pleniorem ambitum periodi suæ perisse, cujus amor eum sæpe transversuin agebat.

Itaque, C. Cæsar---uccesserit.) Sic exponit hæc Manutius: “ Vis est in singulis verbis.

Primum merita scribit; quæ majora sunt, quam studia, officia, beneficia : deinde addit innumerabiliu: postremo in me unum.

Hæc augeri non videntur posse, augentur tamen subjectis verbis, maximus cumulus accesserit : non enim aliquid ait accessisse, sed cumulum, nec simpliciter cumulum, sed maximum. Eodem pertinent verba, Quod fieri jam posse non arbitrabar. Neque illud sine judicio prolatum, hoc tuo facto. Nam hoc tuo merito languidius esse videbatur, præsertim quum dixisset, ad tua in me unum innumerubilia merita ; quæ Marcelli salute vehementer aucta significat." Non placuit Manutio, ostendere elegantiam formulæ,

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non conservato solum, sed etiam ornato, tamen ad tua in me unum innumerabilia merita, quod fieri jam posse non arbitrabar, maximus hoc tuo facto cumulus accesserit.

MANUSCRIPTS,
BIBLICAL, CLASSICAL, AND BIBLICO-

ORIENTAL.
No. XI.—[Continued from No. XXXV.p.95.]

We have made arrangements for collecting an account of all manuscripts on the foregoing departments of Literature, which at present exist in the various PubLIC LIBRARIES in GREAT BRITAIN. We shall continue them till finished, when an Index will be given of the whole. We shall then collect an account of the Manuscripts in the Royal and IMPERIAL LIBRARIES on the Continent.

BUCHANAN EASTERN MSS.

In the last NUMBER we mentioned our intention of giving, on some future occasion, an account of the Syriac and other Eastern MSS. presented by Dr. Buchanan to the Public Library of the University of Cambridge. This was to have been done in continuation of the account already given of his other manuscripts : and here the order would naturally proceed. We, however, beg

omnibus rebus conservare, qnæ Ernestio videtur ne Latina quidem esse, corri. genti transponendu; ut me a te non conservato solum, sed etiam omnibus rebus ornato, etc. Aliud vitium constructionis fefellit Ernestium, quem tot alia fefellerunt in Cicerone suo.

Nam in ipso discessu ridicule ruit magister : Sic tibi gratias ago, ut ad tua in me innumerabilia merita hodie maximus cumulus ACCESSERIT.

Ruit denique etiam Scholiastes, de ornato hanc notulam subscribens: Quia Dictator Cicero fuctus est Italia—dignissimus annotator Scriptore suo.

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leave to make a short pause, in order to give a more particular description of a Manuscript of Dr. Buchanan's already noticed, and barely noticed : but it is one so curious in itself, so valuable for its beautiful characters and antiquity, and of such importance to biblical critics, that we shall transgress our usual rule, which is, in general, to give little more than the title of the manuscript. The title of the manuscript now alluded to, as already given, is, an Indian Copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch.

It is thus intitled in a pretixed label : “ This manuscript, on a roll of goatskins dyed red, was found in the record chest of one of the Black-Jews, in the interior of Malayola in India, by the Rev. Claudius Buchanan, in the year 1806.” It does not appear, however, that the Jews, from whom it was obtained, could give any satisfactory account of it: whence, therefore, it was actually derived, and its particular age (for many reasons) cannot be positively ascertained, and must be left, in a great measure, to inferences, probabilities, and conjecture. We are not, therefore, to be surprised, that the gentleman, who made the collation, of this most singular manuscript with Vander Hooght's and Athiar's Bibles, whatever opinion he might entertain of the original, froin which it might be derived, is cautious of giving an opinion of the age of this copy.

On comparing together the most ancient Greek manuscripts known (the Codex Bezæ in the University Library of Cambridge, the Alexandrine in the British Museum, and the Acta Apostolorun, in the Bodleian) with the most ancient Hebrew manuscripts, in the Oxford and Cambridge Libraries, it will be found by comparing the state of the vellum and of the letters with each other, that the former must be more ancient than the latter by several centuries. But there is less difficulty in fixing the age of Greek manuscripts than of Hebrew, for the following reasons. It is known, by inscriptions,' that the most ancient Greek manuscripts must have been in the square character (or Uncial, as they are called) and the progress may be gradually traced from the Uncial to that of the smaller size. Add to this, that years

later there are Greek manuscripts with a specific date, and by these the ages of others may be pretty correctly ascertained. So that though the very best critics may perhaps, be mistaken by a century or two, in giving their opinion as to the precise age of the most ancient Greek manuscripts (and they have given different opinions) yet in following the rules laid down by Montfaucon, they would probably not go

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a few

Antiq. Asiaticæ Christianam Æram Antecedentes, &c. per Edmundum Chishull.

very wide from the truth.--Vid. Montfaucon's Palæogradia Greca.

But the age of Hebrew manuscripts cannot be ascertained by these rules. They are written in one uniform square character, (I am not speaking of the Rabbinical Hebrew,) and they are all, (i am speaking of ancient manuscripts, without dates. Dr. Kennicott supposes, that the oldest Hebrew manuscript is not beyond the age of 800 or 900 years. See his Dissert. Generalis.

All that can be ascertained of Hebrew manuscripts then is, whether they have, or not, the points and accents, &c. and the marginal notes called keri? whether or not, they are written in columns, with all the spaces and other peculiarities of the best masoretic copies; and whether the skins are ornamented, or not, with the corone at the top of a few of the letters : in short, whether they have, or not, the undoubted evidence of their being derived from ancient synagogue copies: for this is the criterion by which the Jews are directed in estimating the value of the Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament. But with respect to the precise antiquity of particular copies, they do not seem to possess any precise rules by which they form their judgment: to what, however, they call private copies they pay little regard.

As to this Indian Hebrew manuscript, it unquestionably possesses all those marks of peculiarity, correctness, and surprising minuteness, which, in the estimation of a Jew constitutes the prime excellence, and stamps the value of a synagogue copy. It has also many marks of antiquity. It is also accompanied with this additional circumstance, which will give it consequence among Christians. Dr. Kennicott observes, ' It is certain, that almost all the Eastern Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament, which are known at present, were written between the years 1000 and 1457 ; which makes it probable, that all the manuscripts written before the periods 700, or 800, were destroyed by some decree of the Jewish Senate, on account of their many differences, then declared genuine.'

I shall not inquire now into the exact truth of this opinion; nor of some others delivered by Dr. Kennicott. But as this learned writer, and many others, have expressed an earnest wish, (the manuscripts of the western Jews being in their judgment corrupted) ihat copies of the Hebrew Scriptures among the Indian and Chinese Jews could be procured, (who had carried on no intercourse with the western,) this being the case, the present Indian Hebrew manuscript, it is presumed, cannot fail of being considered a treasure : it is the great desideratum ; yet, according to the present collator, it differs in nothing which is material from the western copies, whether Jewish or Christian.

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