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always satisfactory. We started out about joints ache considerably, and I was glad to half past one, accompanied by my invincible tumble in at an early hour. The Legation is guard.

situated next door to a large temple, and I Yedo, I believe, covers more ground than was 'awakened at midnight by the boom any other city in the world, and a walk boom” of the gong, and in my half sleepy through a portion of it gives one some idea state, grasped my pistol, imagining that someof its vast extent.

thing fearful was about to take place. The streets through which we passed were The next morning, after breakfast, I started lined on either side by Daimios' quarters. out for a ride around the castle, accompanied Each Daimio or Prince was compelled, until as usual by my invincible guard. On our recently, to spend six months of the year at way there we passed through the principal Yedo, and some of their establishments are part of the city, which, as far as buildings are quite grand. Averaging perhaps from ten to concerned, presents very little of interest. fifteen acres each, the ground is enclosed by A person having seen one town has seen all, a fine stone wall. Inside of this and entirely as there is very little variety. The same little surrounding the compound, are barracks, or paper houses, the same overwhelming populaquarters for the retinue, while in the centre tion blocking up the streets, and the same is the castle and other buildings. There are scrupulous cleanliness pervading every thing. about three hundred of these Daimios, so The castle is surrounded by three moats that their quarters alone take up a consider. about one hundred and fifty feet wide, with a able amount of room; in fact, all streets in wall and embankment inside of the first two. sight were lined with these enclosures. It is the castle itself is situated on quite a bill, on really funny to notice the age at which they an artificial island containing at a rough estiallow their small boys to wield swords. mate fifty acres. From the inner moat rises Hundreds of little fellows of nine or ten a finely sodded bank, about thirty feet high, years, strut along the streets with two swords on top of this is a high and substantal stone in their belts, and with the same dignified wall: furthermore deponent saith not, as expression that their immortal ancestors have neither love nor money could effect an enhanded down to them, and I have no doubt trance. The three moats are spanned by that they make as free use of their weapons, bridges built, as all their bridges are throughwhen excited, as their fathers. The poor out the country, in the most substantial dogs have to suffer the most from these manner. Never built on the level, but always weapons, as they are convenient objects to with a slight curve and with narrow plank, they test the edge of a sword. I saw poor beasts are models of strength and durability. Each with slices off their backs, and minus tails, moat is filled with countless numbers of wild and one large animal had just been divided fowl which no one is allowed to molest. We as we passed. Cut with one powerful stroke next ascended Tassojama, a temple hill situaof a sword directly in half, the poor thing ted near the centre of the city, from which a was just dying. It appears that all the upper splendid view can be obtained of houses in classes are permitted to carry weapons, the every direction, while behind us is the never mercliants being the only exceptions.

failing background to Japanese views, snowA walk of four miles brought us to the clad Fusyama. new hotel for foreigners. The Concession is The Government, being in constant expecat present merely an open lot, no houses tation of an attack on the city, were exceedhaving been commenced. The hotel is a ingly anxious to get rid of all foreigners, and fine, large building, nearly completed, of two as the officers at the English Legation were stories, with large rooms and halls, and requested to retire to Yokohama, I found it situated directly on the water, commands a necessary to start on my return immediately fine view of the bay of Yedo. On the way after “tiffen," arriving in Yokohama about back, I had the honor of being hooted at, five o'clock. When we arrived at the cusand called hy epithets which, if translated, I tom-house, I informed my guard that it imagine would have been any thing but pleas- was "all right,” and wished them good ant, and I thanked my stars for once that I day, but the fellows would not leave me did not comprehend their villainous jargon. until they had delivered me with no bones When I arrived at the Legation, I was rather broken at the palatial residence from which I fagged out. Twenty-two miles' ride and eight started, when they took their leave in a bemiles' walk I found sufficient to make my coming manner.


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PROBABLY, the truth of the familiar say. that they were raising a monument to the ing, that a reputation cannot be assailed by glory of the founder of the Bonaparte dypasty. any other mari so successfully as by its owner:

No pamphleteer, however hostile, could have in other words, that a man, when he fairly produced a work half so damaging to the sets about it, can « write himself down"

reputation of the imperial hero; no libeller,

however unscrupulous, would have dared to faster and more effectually than any other

invent some of the letters wbich have thus man can do the work for him-was never

been given to the world in the blindness of more signally shown than in the recent publi- political idolatry. But it was long before the cation of “Napoleon's Correspondence" by effect on the public outside the imperialist order of Louis Napoleon.

atmosphere could be appeciated, and, in the The object of the latter personage was, of

meantime, fifteen volumes had been published. course, the glorification, generally, of mon

The work was expensive and quite beyond the oncle ; " though he may have thought that

reach of popular readers; it was long and

filled up in a great measure with administrathe rays of the halo thus evoked would ex

tive and military matters which deterred indotend to and include the great captain's suc- lent minds accustomed to the light food of cessor in office. At any rate, the faith of the small chronicles and lively causeries. News. nepbew in the impeccability of the uncle was papers and reviews were afraid to tread on exemplary, touching and supreme

such dangerous ground, and withheld their effectually made obvious by the fact, not only criticism; in a word, the correspondence, all of bis ordering the publication, but of his things considered, was little read and still less directing the members of the Commission spoken of. Now and then a political writer,

bolder than the rest, would quote some startwho superintended the publishing, to “make

ling passage to show the evils of uncontrolled no alteration, suppression or modification of

power and the dangers of excessive centralizathe texts."

tion, but without daring to add a commentary. The thirteen originally appointed Com- So the work proceeded rapidly and noiselessly, missioners pursued their task with great dili- watched and appreciated only by a select few. gence. In the space of six years—from It was half completed before its most zealous 1858 to 1864—they published no less than

promoters had found out that their pious fifteen large, closely printed octavo volumes.

efforts had resulted in the most complete and They performed their task, also, with great

irrefragable collection of accusing testimony

that any one man was ever made to furnisb fidelity-indeed, with too much fidelity; for,

against himself. in 1864, the master of ceremonies found it necessary to supersede them by a new Com

Among the strange things connected with mission of six members, of whom Prince Napoleon's career, one of the most strange is Napoleon was the chief; who were instructed the fact that, after a legion of authors have to publish only what the Emperor himself endeavored to set the world right as to the would have made public, had he lived long character of the first Emperor of the French, enough to be his own publisher.

and, in their varied efforts, have represented On the subject of this change of editorship, him in all the phases intermediate between a the Edinburgh Review, in a masterly and—as demon and a deity; leaving the real question, far as it goes—an exhaustive article, of which

like the authorship of Junius, in such a con. Fe make free use as we write, remarks : fused state that its solution seemed to be

If any surprise was felt by the public, it hopeless; the hero of all these “Lives" was caused, not by the measure itself, but by should himself have dispelled the fog of unthe fact of its having been so long delayed. certainty, and, with his own hand, have Had the situation of the French press been rendered a decision of the disputed point in different, had there existed in France any of those sure and prompt means for testing public part of any intelligent man who will read

such indisputable terms that dissent, on the opinion which free countries afford, there can be little doubt that the knowledge of the im

what is written, is simply impossible. pression produced by the publication of this

Hitherto, any man, according to his prejucorrespondence would hare quickly dispelled dices or his convictions, might adopt or reject the delusions of those who flattered themselves any of Napoleon's " characters," as found in

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fore us says,

the pages of the Emperor's self-constituted voice is still diametrically divided between biographers, on the ground that " that is the censure and praise. What many men regard English view of the case ; or,

“the Prus- as despicable in Napoleon, others hold to be sian ; " or,

“ the French ;” and so on. As proof of his greatness. For example, a if any one was necessarily less or more cor- portion of the readers of this correspondence rect than any other because its origin was will concur with the Commissioners when known. . As if an anonymous Life of Napo- they say—in that inflated style which none leon might be more credible because its origin but Frenchmen ever attainwas unknown. But now, we have a record

What most surprises one in this correwhich is no man's “view ;” which is neither

spondence, is the impression it gives of the history nor biography as produced by a third universal and powerful mind which embraced person, but is a posthumous confession of the

every thing; and which could, with equal hero himself. It is a photograpb, taken from facility, rise to the most sublime conceptions the living subject; and, whether flattering or and descend to the most trifling details. Now damning, it is mathematically accurate in every

soaring above the world, Napoleon marks out line and feature. The most abject and de

the limits of new states; and, anon, he con

centrates bis solicitude on the humblest hamlet voted of Napoleon's worshippers must admit

of his Empire. that this picture is correct; or, that the god of their idolatry misrepresents himself : for it For our own part, we find nothing “sur. is his own handiwork.

prising" in all that; and, as the Commission. The period of time included in the fifteen ers claim for the object of their panegyric volumes of the first Commission, is about six- little less than supernatural qualities, it is teen years—from the latter part of October, superfluous for them to be surprised at his 1793, to the end of August, 1809; that is, capacity for details. But that is only a par from Napoleon's twenty-fourth to his fortieth tial statement of this matter of detail. Not year. As one may say, from his majority to only did Napoleon mark out new states and bis maturity-from the commencement of supervise hamlets; but, as the reviewer he his public life to the highest flight of his imperial power.

At the very zenith of his power, with one The contents of these fifteen volumes of

half of Europe under his rule and the other “ Correspondence” are not, however, merely half iu arms against him, he concocted little letters.. Proclamations; messages to the police plots, planned scurrilous pamphlets for Directory on public affairs, civil as well as literary hirelings, suggested caricatures wbich military; bulletins ; a variety of official docu

he thought might be telling against bis ene

mies, found time for the ordering of fêtes and ments, not necessarily written by Napoleon,

monuments, read reports on the chitchat of the though bearing his signature and issued by

salons of Paris, and, with great pride in his his authority; these, and a mass of miscella

superior vigilance, himself denounced their nies of less importance, help to fill the books; intrigues to his mortified Minister of Police. but of letters there are enough. Enough of This activity might have been admired bad such as Napoleon" would not have made it been successful; but, unfortunately, the public, had he lived long enough to be his pamphlet, the caricature, and the monument own publisher," to substantiate what his desigced by the imperial meddler were generadversaries have alleged against him; and

ally bad. In spite of his police and counter

police, his empire was so insecure that-as also enough on matters purely military to

was shown by the momentary success of the justify the intensified praise of even Thiers

Malet conspiracy—its very existence was at the himself. This latter result was, indeed, hardly mercy of a bandful of resolute men. Neither needed. The world has long been divided literature nor art, neither trade nor agricul. on the question of Napoleon's character; but ture, throve under bis unvarying and stilling there is little diversity of opinion as to his

solicitude. Iu France, all was done by the military genius.

Government; and all, or almost all, was ill

done. The various estimates of his character, apart from his qualities as a soldier, owe their All this certainly shows a capacity for deexistence, mainly, to the credulity or incre- tail, but there is nothing in it to command dulity of men as to the facts of his career; respect-and surely nothing to warrant pane on which subject, the testimony of historians gyric. It indicates littleness, not greatness, is hopelessly conflicting. But it is remark- of character. At the same time, it indicates able that on some points about which the mere littleness; it involves no moral derelic. witnesses agree as to the facts, the public tion, properly so called. But as the investi




gation proceeds, the colors deepen and the ground and lay his land waste. He is a furioug character grows dark.

oligarch, an enemy of France and of the army. Napoleon was one of the few men who After a time, the casualties of even sucspring, per saltum, to a full and complete

cessful war having reduced the number of development, without toiling through the

his troops, he writes to the Directory that he intermediate stages of learning, experience has already sent them twenty millions of and progress. In all things, except, indeed,

francs in money wrung from the Italians ; the possession of unlimited power-for, up and that if they will send him thirty thousand to that time, he was not independent of the

more men, he will be able to produce out of Directory—he was the same man at the be

the yet unconquered States, twice that sum in ginning of his campaigns in Italy, as he was

money, besides innumerable treasures in the at the peace of Tilsit. From the moment of

way of works of art, jewelry, museum-collec. his crossing the Alps, he had nothing to

tions, and whatever other trifles might be learn in the art of war, and nothing to ac

scraped together by his skilful marauders, quire in the “sciences” of rapine, violence,

In Egypt, this game of pillage could not be and deceit. As the wars thrust upon Italy,

played to much purpose on account of the Egypt, Spain, &c., were in the gross gratui- poverty of the people; therefore, the defitous, wanton, unprovoked aggressions on

ciency was made up with heads. After the innocent and helpless people; so were the

first punishment of the revolters at Cairo had details of those wars marked by reckless and

been inflicted with a barbarity that would be unscrupulous barbarity. The lives, property, incredible, did not the correspondence attest and private rights of inoffensive citizens were

it, Napoleon ordered all the prisoners to be treated, severally and collectively, as if they

beheaded. Soon after that, he writes that belonged to Napoleon by right of inherit

“order is now reëstablished in Cairo. Every Nothing was spared, which an all night we cut off thirty heads. I think this grasping general coveted, or a rapacious sol

will be a good lesson to them.” We have diery could destroy. Private mansions, as

here, also, Napoleon's own order for the well as “humble hamlets" and villages, were

massacre of the two thousand Jaffa prisoners. burned for pastime; prisoners were butch

This system of governing a conquered peo ered in cold blood; and, in short, all the ple by means of “good lessons,” continued demons of war were impressed into the ser

to be one of Napoleon's favorites during his Fice of this ferocious conqueror, to be set whole career.

In 1806, after making his loose at the close of every victory.

brother Joseph a present of the kingdom of The animus of all this is foreshadowed in Naples, he writes : Napoleon's first proclamation to the army of Italy:

The fate of your reign depends on your con

duct when you return to Calabria. There must Soldiers, you are naked and ill-fed. France

be no forgiveness. Shoot at least six hundred owes you much, but can give you nothing. I rebels. They have murdered more soldiers will lead you to the most fertile plains of the than that. Burn the houses of thirty of the world. Wealthy provinces and great towns will principal persons in the villages and

distribute be in your power ; you will reap honor, glory,

their property among the soldiers. Take away and riches, etc., etc.

all arms from the inhabitants, and give up to As a fitting commentary on this promise of

pillage five or six of the large villages. When

Placenza rebelled, I ordered Junot to burn two general pillage, the great devastator writes

villages and shoot the chiefs, among whom after his first battle:

were six priests. It will be some time before The furious excesses of my half-starved they rebel again. soldiers are enough to make humanity blush.

A week later he writes : And two days later he says:

I wish the rabble at Naples would revolt. There is less pillage. The first thirst of an

Until you make an example, you will not be army destitute of every thing has been slaked.

master. I should consider an insurrection in The poor wretches are excusable. After sigbing Naples in the same light as a father of a family for the promised land for three years, they

would regard the small-pox for his children, have at last reached it and wish to enjoy it.

provided it did not weaken the invalid too Among his orders about private property,

much, is this:

Does any curious reader pause to inquirc, Tax the lord of Arquata 50,000 livres. In

Who were these Italians and Egyptians, to default of payment, raze his house to the whom these good lessons were so freely ad. ministered ? " Alas! they were peaceable, with the Pope--writing to him the most harmless, ignorant people, the greater part of respectful and conciliatory letters, and, at tho whom had never heard the name of their same time, in his letters to the Directory, destroyer until they heard the sound of his exulting over the exactions he was about to guns; who owed him and France no more levy on His Holiness—is fully exposed in allegiance, than we owe to Theodorus of this correspondence. He says, among other Abyssinia; and over whom he and France things, had no more right of control than the king

In my opinion, when Rome is deprired of of the Fejee islands has over the British Bologna, Ferrara, Romagna, and the thirty Parliament. The relative rights of the parties millions we take from her, she cannot exist: were precisely those which exist between the the old machine will tumble to pieces of itself. passengers and crew of a merchantman when

We cannot pursue this subject, because, their ship is boarded by a band of pirates.

however interesting, it is inexhaustible. We Does any curious reader inquire, further, have said enough to call to the correspondunder what pretext Napoleon assumed the

ence the attention of those who can gain right to administer these “good lessons ” ?

access to it, and who have the leisure and the The pretėxt was the battle-cry of liberty,

inclination to study it. To others, we recomequality, and fraternity; and this was para- mend a careful reading of the Edinburgh phrased in the proclamations, which promised Review for October, 1867—from which we the destruction of tyranny and the liberation

make this concluding extract : of the people, wherever the liberating army carried its victories. After this fashion, Pied

As regards the man himself, the dominant

impression that will be left on the reader's mont, Lombardy, Parma, Modena, and Venice

mind will, we think, be that of meancess-of were “liberated ;” and before marching on

moral littleness, strangely combined with great Rome with the same philanthropic purpose, strength of will and unrivalled activity of Napoleon proclaimed that,

mind. Napoleon was in truth an actor, and in In order to reassure the people, it is neces

his correspondence we view him from behind

the scenes. The vulgar applause of the mulsary to let them know that we are their friends,

titude can no longer deceive those who know and particularly the friends of the descendants

his history as it is there written with his own of the Brutuses, the Scipios, and of the other

hand. His duplicity, his bombast and mock great men whom we have taken for our models.

heroism, his studied violence, his love of false Yet, with commendable candor, he at the grandeur, his envy in the midst of unrivalled same time wrote to the Directory that, if they

greatness, his hatred and distrust of all that would send him plenty of reinforcements,

was really good and great, bis yulgar arro

gance, bis indifference to the sufferings of Rome, Trieste, and even a part of the king- others, his selfish and insensate ambition, are dom of Naples will become our prey ;

conspicuous in every page. This greatest of

modern conquerors was not a hero, for the which, indeed, they did, in due time. Na

great soul—the magnanimity—which alone poleon's shameless duplicity in his dealings makes heroes, he never possessed.

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