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chimed in Tom, "fwhat a convanient up nearly to the surrounding level. The thing it is to have an experience o' this warmth of the breath, however, from kind, so when ye goes back to Ameriky, the sleepers had kept open a small if ye can't raise a stake ony other way, breathing-hole at their heads, and I ye can publicate a book.” Tom's bril- presiime none of them experienced any liant literary and financial project of discomfort beyond a rather unpleasant “ raising a stake” by "publicating” a sensation of heat. I gave what might book founded on his experience, brought be considered a close imitation of the out a general laugh; and I was glad to scalp-balloo, and after three or four see that the storm, instead of dampen- earthquake-like heaves of the snow, ing the ardor of our men, only furnished Lewis' head emerged through the top them with a new subject for lively con- of a drift, his face assuming a curious versation.
expression of astonishment as he glanced As the night was by this time far around and saw neither men, dogs, nor advanced, we smoked a supplementary sledges. A general upheaval of the pipe, and prepared to go to our snowy snow, however, soon followed, and one beds. I do not mean to convey the idea by one the buried individuals emerged. that the preparation was at all elabo- Day dawned slowly and gloomily, with rate. Each individual put on a heavier but little prospect of an abatement of fur“kuchlanka,” or sleeping shirt, the storm. Believing the river on which crawled, feet first, into a capacious we were camped to be the Paren, we reindeer-skin bag, pulled it up together decided to ascend it in search of an old with his fur hood' over his head, and, abandoned Korak yourt of which we slept.
had heard, and which would probably I lay for a long time awake, listening be the rallying-point of our lost comto the deep hoarse bass of the wind rades. Packing the sledges, therefore, through the tree-tops, and thinking of and digging out our buried dogs, we what the far-away ones at home would moved slowly up the river among the say could they look in upon our lonely trees, sending forward two men on snowcamp through the drifting snow, which shoes to break a road for our heavy went hissing into the embers, and be sleds. The depth and softness of the told that the little motionless heap snow soon exhausted both dogs and in one corner, already half buried in men, and about noon we were coma white shroud, was their son and pelled again to camp without discoverbrother.
ing any traces either of the yourt or of I awoke some time in the night half the missing party. We began to feel suffocated, and in a profuse perspira- no little anxiety concerning them, as we tion; but in attempting to rise up on knew that they had no provisions at all one elbow, brought such an avalanche of except some rancid seal's blubber, which snow down into my neck and face, that I they carried for dog-food, and in such was compelled to lie still and perspire, a storm the prospect for their finding us as the lesser of the two evils. I supposed, or reaching a settlement was at best of course, that I was covered with snow, very problematical. which would account for the unusual Scal's blubber, I knew from experiheat; but I did not think that I was ence, would sustain life; but I think buried so deeply as I found myself to be even that determined optimist, Ford, in the morning, when, after several un- would call it a decidedly unpleasant successful attempts, I succeeded in dig- "experience," if not a hardship, to live ging out. Not a man, nor a dog, and upon such a greasy raw diet for a weck hardly a sledge was to be seen, and or ten days. From our noon-camp we only two or three little mounds indi- all started on snow-shoes, with a day's cated the positions of my buried com- provisions, intending to search along rades. The snow, during the night, had the river for tracks of the missing drifted into our cellar, until it was filled sledges, and determining to leave no
foot of ground unexplored, from our dark were rewarded by the sight of a camp to the mountains north of us, in low earth-covered yourt, with smoke is. which the river had its source. The suing from the hole in the top, and two almost innumerable "protoks,” or chan- sledges standing before the door. Our nels, however, into which it was di- newly-found comrades knew nothing vided, and the softness of the snow, in concerning the four sledges which were which even with snow-shoes we sank still missing. They had seen nothing to the knee, made it an extremely fa- of them since the storm of the previous tiguing labor; and I returned at night, night, when the whole party had been tired and discouraged, to camp. As I broken up. Early on the next morning came in sight, however, of the smoke I sent two sledges down the river, with from the camp-fire, a joyful shout an- instructions to look for traces along the nounced a discovery. Fresh traces of edge of the steppe; but they returned unsledges had been found only about three successful, and it was not until late the hundred yards from the island on which following evening that the missing men we were, but on another protok. Rous- made their appearance, in an exhausted, ing up our tired dogs, we resumed the half-starving condition, having been lost search with renewed energy, and just at in the storm threc days without food.
All day the Wind was busy building towers,
Wherein he counted with his love to dwell
He builded, working by a secret spell.
Towers of cloud, and many a minaret,
In the blue calmness of the West he set.
That should delight his love, but when eve came,
His palace burst into a sudden flame.
In honor of the coming of the guest,-
And wrapped in fatal splendor all the West.
And built a palace wherein Hope should dwell;
Yet held strange echoes of a past farewell.
Wherein I thought an idol might be set;
A strain crept in of some far-off regret.
Leaned from her turret, beckoning me niglier
My palace shrivelled in a passionate fire.
We cannot be disheartened, Wind nor I.
Happier for mortals were it, could she die !
JOIN AND BRIDGET – A TALK ABOUT NAMES.
Ούνομα σον λέγε τηνο και ούνομα πολλάκι τέρπει.
(THEOCRIT. Idyll. xxvii. 40.)
By any other name would smell as sweet.”
THESE words have been so often translation. We venture even to say, quoted, that it would be quite natural that poets do not take at random their if people, out of respect for the poet, names of fiction; although few may be should be indifferent—which they really as deliberate as Petrarch, who in his are not-in refer nce to names. Th sonnets plays so much upon the name more so, as the same idea occurs in of Laura, that it makes the impression Julius Cæsar, where Cassius says: that he loved Laura's name more than “Brutus and Cæsar ... write them herself; or that he loved her only on together, yours is as fair a name," etc. account of her harmonious name. Few,
Is there really nothing in a name? too, may be as fantastical as Bojardo, It is in one place the passion of love, who, hunting once for deer and at the in the oiher the passion of hatred, which same time for a name for one of his says that there is no difference between heroes, suddenly turned back from the one name or another. There is some- hunting-ground, and ordered all the thing in a name; and it seems quite bells to be rung out of joy. He had natural if, in the above-quoted passage not shot any thing, but he had found of Theocritus, the shepherdess asks the out the long-scarched name
Rodoshepherd, who offers to marry her, to monte. tell her his name.
Have not the names What is in a name? But is not the of Romeo and Juliet something charm- catastrophe of the whole piece depending? Does it not seem as if all the ent upon two names, Montague and Casweetness of the piece, as if all the soft- pulct? Without those two names, there ness of the Italian sky, were reflected would be no drama with the names of and reëchocd in those names? Sup Romeo and Juliet. A name is a repose, for an instant, the two names to membrance. While the mere name of be John and Bridget—it is a prejudice, Romeo would, in the mind of Juliet, certainly; but would those names have awaken a thousand sweet reminiscences the same charm ? It is a prejudice: -in the same way as one tune recalls a Gretchen, in the original “Faust,” whole song-in her father's heart the awakens all our interest, although it is mere sound of Montague would call the same in German as Madge or Mag- forth all the feeling of hatred associgie in English. But no! Even that ated with that family-name. name seems to be chosen with design.
66 That which we call a rose, by any It is exactly that diminutive form (the other name would smell as sweet”diminutives are at the same time what we cannot help it, we must mar even they call caritatives, expressions of that poetical flower with a grammatical fondness) of an unadorned name, which, remark. In like manner as we contest like a miniature photograph--or rather the identity of different names, we are phonograph-gives a true picture of bound to say that there is a difference touching simplicity and innocent purity, between the name of the rose and that and is in so far more adapted to the of Romeo. Romeo is a proper name, character it represents than the proud while rose is an appellative. Two " Margareth” or Marguerite ” in the persons, John and Freddy, for instance,
could easily change names with cach the red one, or the fiery star, Venus the other, their names being proper names, bright one, Saturn the Tardy. When, without any relation to their quality; again, Aldebaran has its Arabian name but we could not make a rhinoceros on account of its following the Pleiads, and a butterfly change their names. it could just as well be called their The name of the rhinoceros could not be Leader, and may-be they-Aldebaran given to the butterfly, as it has no horn and the Pleiads — don't know any on its nose; nor could any of the thing about each other, and each one names of the butterfly be applied to the goes its own way. It is out of the same rhinoceros, as every one of them ex- idea that we are told, in the Koran, that presses some quality belonging to the Adam knew the names of the animals, butterfly and not to the rhinoceros. but the angels did not. As man has at The Greek Psyche (on account of its least some affinity with the animals, and symbolic relation to the soul), the Latin could therefore form an idea about Papilio (from the folding, like a tent), their quiddities and qualities, he could the Spanish Mariposa (never resting), give them the right names; but how the Italian Farfalla, the Swedish farfall should an angel know any thing about (a reduplication, to imitate its always an ox or an elephant ? being on the wing), the Anglo-Saxon A proper name is a proper noun in fiffalde (the same as the German Falter, so far as it belongs only to one individthe Dutch Vyfevouter, from the folding ual and not to a whole species; it is of the wings), the Dutch Witje (the not common, but is owned by one only. little white, from the color of a very They are proper names in more senses common species), the German Schmet than one. They express propriety. A terling (from the vibrating motion) and man could not call a table otherwise the provincial names of Fluchter (flyer), than do other people, but he could Fledermaus (Flitter-mouse, in high Ger- give to his own son whatever name he man, the same as in English, the name pleased. And so the propensities, pecuof the bat),—those and other names liarities, and oddities of persons are to could not be given to the rhinoceros, be seen in the names they give their nor the name of butterfly, as the rhino- children. Some one would heap on the ceros does not fly and has nothing to do head of his son the names of all the rewith butter; nor could we bestow on publican heroes; another would considthe rhinoceros the family-name (if we er all proper dames as too common for may say so) of the butterfly, viz., Lepi- his offspring, and would look out for dopteron (scale-winged), as it has no some name which somebody had some wings at all.
thousand years ago, and nobody sinoe. An appellative noun is a proper noun A passionate phrenologist in England in so far as it expresses some pecu- called his son by the name of a reliarity. To confer an appellative upon nowned German phrenologist, Spurzsome object, we must know something heim, a name which certainly had great about its quality. When it is said, in influence upon the boy's bump of venethe 147th Psalm, that the Lord calls all ration, but which the bearer himself the stars by names, the meaning seems
could hardly pronounce. to be, that He knows the quality of The proper name takes out one perevery star, how and what it is. We, of son from the species. The degree of course, give names to the stars; but as relationship between persons is marked we are not much informed about them, by the manner in which they call each we give them proper names, borrowed other. There is our friend John Smith. from individuals. It is only in a few First we called him Sir; getting more exceptional cases that we call a star acquainted, we called him Mr. Smith, a by an appellative, from some uncssen- name belonging to the whole family. tial attribute. So the Chaldeans, the And now, as he is our intimate friend, Hindus, and the Greeks called Mars and as we know the precious qualities
of his individuality, we call him John. be much better than a monument of We have therefore three degrees of
stone." proximity : positive, Sir; comparative, The High-priest was right. The Mr. Smith; superlative, John. It is great Alexander could not wish a better for the same reason that a child is memorial than those little Alexanders, often called by his parents with another who were to immortalize him. Alexname than that which he has in society, ander wept on the grave of Achilles, for and that a member of a society is called not having a Homer to transmit his by a nickname. Assuming the privilege name to posterity. But, while the of giving a private name to a person is name of Achilles lias only a faint existan act of appropriation: a driver or a ence in the name of the hero of finance, conductor is no individuality for us; Achilles Fould of Paris, in the names of he is a species; we therefore call him some renowned horses, of some obscure Driver. In one of the novels of Al. men, and of a humble plant, Achilleaphonse Karr, we find a young man who the name of Alexander resounds in is compelled by circumstances to give thousands of rames. Persons crowned lessons in music. In a letter to his sis- and not crowned, renowned and not ters he says that nothing is to him more renowned, are bis namesakes all over the humiliating than to hear people say, at world, as well as cities of that name. his entrance, Here comes the music- Mutilated as the name appears in the teacher, instead of saying, Here comes Hungarian Sándor, in the Persian IskanMr. Such-a-one. He was no individu- der, in the Scottish Saunders—the same ality, he was a species.
as even a broken mirror reflects the sun, A proper name is, as we said before, they all reēchu the name of the great a remembrance. In the Bible the words conqueror, who really filled the world " name and “ memorial "
with his name. parallels and synonyms to each other. As we are going to say something A name is a memorial. We are told about the original meaning of proper that Alexander the Great, going to war, names, we must of course, first of all, sent word to the Jews to erect him a mention the first man, Adam. But monument, which he hoped to find on Adam, in the original text, is not a his return from the expedition. He proper noun, but an appellative, somecame back (we suppose from India) times even with the article. The first some years afterwards, but there was no man is called man and the man. Only monument. Angry and astonished, he in the old translation, and in the book summoned the High-priest to come be- of Tobias, Adam is treated as a proper fore him. The High-priest came, hav- noun. Among the later namesakes of ing children in his suite. The king Adam we should hardly find a renowned asked him ironically if he had forgotten name except the secretary of Voltaire, his order. “Sire," the High-priest who is celebrated in consequence of the said, “it is contrary to our religion to pun of his master : “ Gentlemen, I intromake any image or statue. But, look duce to you Mr. Adam; but, mind, he here!" And he turned round to the is not the first of all men." Adams and children, and asked one boy, and then Macadam are surnames. To the name another, and then another : “What is of Mac-Adam we all could lay a claim, your name?" “ Alexander," answered as it means nothing else but Son of each boy, one more, one less distinctly, Man. according to his age. “Sire," said the One would think that at least every High-priest, you see we have fulfilled one of Adam's descendants had a proper your command, by calling every boy name of his own, but it seems not. who was born during your absence, Herodotus and Pliny tell us about a with your name; and as those names people in Africa who had the collective will go down from generation to gen- name of Astantes, but no single proper eration, those living monuments will names. On the other hand, it is an