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he was recalled in disgrace, it must at all events our space forbids any such indulgence, and be admitted that his recall was looked upon as we shall think ourselves fortunate if we can such by a large party in Prussia, and by the give our readers any sufficient notion of their Government of Rome. Only “the express general contents. will of the king interfered to prevent disgrace

Christian Carl Josias Bunsen was born in and mortification being added in order to give Corbach, in the principality of Waldeck, on bitterness to the unavoidable fall.” A message the 25th of August, 1791. He was, as his reached him at Trieste from the Cardinal- biographer naïvely remarks, "the child of Secretary of State to let him know confiden- parents advanced in life, who had married (in tially that the Pope would not receive him, 1790) for the sake of companionship and though he was not to be officially infurined mutual care in old age, and probably little of this determination. The reader will find in anticipated such blessing upon their union." these volumes sufficient material to form an The mother died in 1819, the fatber in 1820; opinion as to the merits of the questions at both parents living to see their son established issue between Prussia and Rome, which led life and on the high road to distinction and to this final rupture: it is not our purpose to honor. The father appears to have been a give here the details of the dispute nor to man of character, energetic, decided, and judge how far Bunsen was to blame for the conscientious, and with a strong desire to give turn affairs took; all we wish to show is, that his son all the advantages of education that these twenty-two years--the best part of life, he perceived him so well fitted to improve. from the age of twenty-five to forty-seven

He stinted himself in order to lay up money were virtually thrown away in this balf-po- to meet the expenses of his son's university litical existence, for which he was so ill education, and by dint of hard work and strict suited, and for which the result proved him economy," he had laid aside a lundred thalers, 80 unfit. None of his schemes, at least none which, when added to the fifth part of the that were of national importance, came to any yearly stipend allowed by the Government of thing; of all his political labors he reaped Waldeck—for Buusen had to share this alnothing but disappointment and the hatred of lowance of fifty thalers with five fellow. the dominant parties in both countries; and students !-enabled Bunsen to enter the Uni. the only material intellectual result of his versity of Marburg, where, however, he re-, studies in the Eternal City was a single book, inained only a year, finding it too small for “The Description of Rome," a work which he the opportunities he needed. Singularly had no desire to write, but in which he be- enough, the mother of Bunsen seems to have came entangled by his earnest wish to help a left but little trace upon the life of her son. needy friend, and which during eleven years At her death he speaks of her with filial —from 1818 to 1829–proved a most serious affection, but nothing indicates that, spiritually embarrassment and impediment to progress in or intellectually, lie was under any special oblihis own favorite pursuits. This was the be- gations to her. His half-sister Christiana – ginning, and the end was like the beginning. for Bunsen's mother was his father's second He was born with a wonderful love and apti- wife-seems to have exercised the strongest tude for study, but the greater part of his life moral influence upon him of all with whom was passed, not in study, but in the perform- he came in contact in his earlier years. She ance of political duties—ministerial, diplo- was a woman of most marked and independmatic, and advisory-for which he had neither cnt character, and the story of her life is one love nor aptitude, and which resulted in a full of romantic details, But we have no series of melancholy failures. And it may space to more than allude to it here. In 1809 even be doubted if his studies, far-reaching Bunsen left Marburg for Göttingen, where and unwearied as they were, have given to the Heyne, “full of years and of honor, received world any books or any discoveries of any and treated him with paternal kindness, per. enduring value. Truly, it seems as if Bunsen's ceiving from the first that he had to do with epitaph should be that which is so falsely writ- a student of uncommon gifts and acquireten on the tomb of Keats: “Icre lies one mients." Bunsen was at this time cighteen whose name is writ on water."

years of age. Heyne seems to have exercised Great is the temptation to give a full ac- a strong and healthful influence over his mind, count of Bunsen's long and active life, and to and a few allusions to him in the scanty rec. cxtract from these two crowded volumes ords of this most interesting period of our many pages of their overflowing wealth of subject's life explain the secret of that influanecdote and insight into public affairs. But ence in the similarity of character and habit

of mind of the scholar and his master. In by what looks like an accident, although 1813 binsen writes to his friend Agricola, Bunsen, with his peculiar and most deeply, from Göttingen:

earnestly held views of Providence, would Poor and lonely did I arrive in this place.

never have looked upon it in that light. It lleyve received me, guided me, bore with me, was while he was travelling to Florence to encouraged me, showed me in himself the ex- meet Mr. Astor ample of a high and noble energy and inde

that he was placed in momentary embarfatigablu activity in a calling which was not

rassment by his resemblance to Napoleon I. that lo which his merit entitled him. He

and his family, at one of the stopping-places might have superintended and administered

of the Diligence between Lyons and Marseilles. and maintained an entire kingdom without

He was called out by the police from the table more effort and with yet greater efficiency d'hôte, where he sat with his companion of the than the University for which he lived : he

Diligence, and subjected to close examination was too great for a mere philologer, and in

as a supposed Napoléonide, baring, in spite of general for a professor of mere learning in the probibition, crossed the frontier from Gerage into which he was cast; and he was more

many: the testimony, however, of all his distinguished in every other way than in this.

fellow-travellers to his having occupied a place Consider what it was to have guided the stud.

in the Diligence in their company all the way ies, influenced the mental cultivation of two

from Paris, and of one of them that he had generations during half a century !--and,

seen him at Paris, was finally admitted to be what is more, to have estimated and rated at

satisfactory. its just value a fur higher condition of intellectual development with a measure of insight After Mr. Astor's departure he remained for and devotedness just the reverse of what was some time in Florence awaiting the arrival of attributed to him by the narrowness of opin. Niebuhr, whom he had met in Berlin the ion founded only on the casual and insignifi- previous year, and with whom he had entered cant utterances of his mind. And what has

at once into relations of deep intellectual he established or founded at the cost of this

sympathy. He writes to Lücke on the occaexertion of faculties?

sion of his first meeting with the historian : It was in February, 1810, that Bunsen was

It would be hard to describe my astonishrecoinmended by Heyne as teacher of the

ment at his command over the entire domain German language to our countryman Mr.

of knowledge. All that can be known seems William B. Astor, and thus commenced an

to be within his grasp, and every thing known acquaintance that soon ripened into a friend- to him to be at hand, as if held by a thread. ship which was never broken, and which led And, later, to Agricola, from Florence : to important results in Bunsen's education, First, it insured his independent position at

You must imagine what I feel, in wandering

with Niebuhr orer the ruins of the ancient, the University, and Mr. Astor look so much

pre-Roman, Etruscan magnificence, and then pleasure in the society of his young teacher

again among the splendid monuments of the that he afterward sought bis companionship destroyed liberty of the modern Athens, the in his travels through Gerinany and, still city of Dante and Machiavelli. What can be later, in Italy. On their return he invited more venerable and affecting than the melay. Bunsen to Paris, and then to Rome, but in choiy, the mourning of a great man over the accepting this last invitation he got no further

human race? (Bunsen alludes here to Niethan Florence, for on meeting his friend there

bubr's constitutional hopelessness and despair he wis informed that his father bad suddenly re

over the problem of human life in history and

in the present.) It is like the Divine Spirit in called him to America; and the two young men

human form, beholding with human sadness parted not to meet again for furty-one years. the rain rushing of the generations of men Mr. Astor warmly urged upon his friend towards an abyss; or like Promethens witnessto accompany him to America ; but Bunsen, ing and deploring from his rock the gradual whose mind was at that time absorbed in extinction of the sparks he had kindled. And oriental studies, begun in Paris, and pursued

with all this wide grasp of contemplation, there with his all-devouring German zeal,

what a clear and single cye has Niebuhr for could not be persuaded to think of any new

every thing individual, what a certainty in his

knowledge of fact; in a word, what inward plans until his scheme of visiting India and

completeness ! there studying the parent language and the parent civilization on its native ground had While in Florence, Bunsen supported himbeen carried out. This second visit to Italy self by giving instruction in French to an was made in 1816, and his long residence English gentleman by the name of Cathcart, there may thus be said to have been begin who, like Br. Astor, and, indeed, like every


one who caine into intimate relations with tendency with respect to Athens. . . . When him, had been strongly drawn to him, and one comes to be better acquainted with the was never wearied with exploring the curiosi- aristocracy of Athens, the cruelty and insoties of Florence, and afterward of Rome, in

lence of their conduct, the absence of all coun

teraction of democracy, except by the steady his company. We must pass rapidly over the

oppression of an oligarchy, and to discover long period of Bunsen's residence in Rome.

their panegyrists to consist of fools or rascals, He went thither partly by the advice of Nie

or at best of coxcombs, like Xenophon,-then bubr, who encouraged him to hope for assist- one understands that there was no alternative ance from the Prussian Goverument in the between a democracy, such as Demosthenes prosecution of his studies, but he was enabled craved, purified by a return to simplicity of to go there, in the first place, by the employ- life, strengthened by warlike exercises, and by ment furnished him by his pupil, Mr. Cath

the dismissal of corrupt orators and magiscart, who continued bis studies for some time

trates, and the admission of Alcibiades as

tyrannos. longer under Bunsen's direction. Shortly after his arrival, he became acquainted with

And then follows an admirably clear state. the family of his future wife, Miss Wadding

ment of the position of Plato in relation to ton, who with her father and mother and two

his times, showing a power of insight that it sisters were living in Rome. In February,

is greatly to be wished had been applied to 1817, he writes to his favorite sister Chris

the writing of history, but which, alas, we tiana, and tells her of this new acquaintance ;

are not often to meet with in the field into in April lie informs her that he is in love,

which circumstances now drive Bunsen. His and on the 1st of July he was married. From

life in Rome had, at the beginning, a little this time Bunsen's private and domestic hap- leisure, and much enjoyment, although the piness was uninterrupted, except by the death

former was soon swallowed up in the increasof one child who was taken away in infancy, ing duties of his position. During Niebuhr's and late in his life by the miserable accident

absence, in 1823, he was advanced to the that crippled in a moment his daughter Ma- post of Chargé d'Affaires ; then, during a tida. In a life of seventy-nine years there are

visit to Berlin, in 1828, he was made Privy few men who have so few afflictions to mourn

Counsellor of Legation, and continued in over. In November of the same year, 1817, charge of the embassy, as Resident Minister, Brandis, Niebuhr's assistant in the Legation,

until his recall in 1838. being obliged to return to Prussia, Bunsen

Among the events full of interest to Bunsen offered to fill his place, and thus began his

and his wife in these days, were the creations long diplomatic career which ended only six

of Thorwaldsen's genius which abounded in

the years 1820, 21, and ’22. Once they were years before his death, in 1860. We wish we

fortunate enough to find bim .. in the act had space here to quote the beautiful prayer

of adding the last touches to the clay in which found in his journal, and written there at the he bad modelled his statue of Mercury. He beginning of his life in Rome. It will be dilated then upon the course of sensations found at page 120 of vol. i., but, like much and images, rather than of reflection which that is of the highest interest in this book, we

had brought him to fix upon the position of a can only refer to it at this time. We must,

sitting figure in perfect repose, but in an evihowever, make room for an extract from a

dently animated promptitude for action, as letter to Brandis, in which he takes leave as

upon a subject to which he would delight in

giving shape, if he could find a situation to it were of the favorite branch of study of his

furnish it with a full, and intelligible, and University.days—“the last instance, or nearly satisfactory meaning. “And then,” he said, so, of studying in learned leisure, Soon after “I hit upon Mercury, who, having played on this date, the task-work on the 'Description the Pan-pipo to subdue Argus into slumber, at of Rome' drew him more and more into a the instant of observing that his purpose has vortex; and when once free from this, the been accomplished, is removing the musical subjects of his life's meditation engrossed all

instrument from his lips (which are thus not

hidden nor disfigured), and with the right the powers and time not claimed by his

hand is grasping the sword's bilt, but, still, office."

motionless, is watching lest the eyes should I have passed the last week in great enthu- open again.” The conception of Christian art siasm for old Lysias, having entered more was foreign to the mind of Thorwaldsen, and closely than before into his life and political only in compliance with the wishes of his character, as it may be elicited from his un- native Sovereign did he steel his courage to doubted Orations. I begin now to un- the attempt after having failed in accomplishderstand the justness of Niebuhr's democratic ing for the King of Bavaria a group of the


chree women at the sepulchre-the design of was admirable, and that the assertion was which he destroyed in utter dissatisfaction.”

unfounded, that he had not taken precautions The account of Bunsen's studies in the against a possible neacssity of retreat after ancient choral music of the Latin Church, in the battle.” About this time we begin to which he became greatly interested;


bear of Bunsen's acquaintance with Dr. Artive of the burning of the church S. Paolo nold, begun in Rome the previous year, but fuor le muri (16th July, 1823), which he and now first carried on by letter. This acquainthis family witnessed from their house on the ance was from the first a friendship, and it Capitol; the death of Pius VII., and the lasted until Arnold's untimely death, in 1848. election of his successor Leo XII., with the In 1828 we find Bunsen writing from Rome ceremony of the adoration of the new Pope that two thirds of his time is devoted to the (that being the literal expression), when the purchase of works of art for the Prussian Pope is actually placed upon the High Altar, Governinent. Among these are mentioned a and adgred by the higher clergy during the second Raphael, an early work, and several Te Deum; the glimpse of Madame Recamier fine early Florentine pictures, with a special -we have ready had a glimpse, but only a commission to purchase vases in Corneto, glimpse, of Güthe ;-his intercourse with Ca- Apulia, and Sicily. Among a crowd of perpaccini and the many interesting details of sonal details concerning people of less public the character of that reniarkable man; his interest, take this likeness of Chateaubriand : acquaintance with Overbeck and Julius “The sight of Chateaubriand, just arrived as Schnorr-Overbeck, whom Madame Bunsen French ambassador, has been a gratification calls a heavenly-minded man, seemingly be- of curiosity, and nothing more. He is a vain cause he withdrew from all society with those being, standing in the midst of a room full who did not share his religious opinions !-the of guests in his own house, with eyes fixed on reader can hardly fail to find these details the ceiling, as the only mode of looking over interesting. In 1827 Bunsen was summoned their heads, for he is low of stature, and to Berlin for the ostensible purpose of bring though he avoids speaking, he yet presents ing with him the Raphael-The Madonna of his face to observers. The head and features the Lante Family—which he had recently are well chiselled, on a scale too large to be brought for the King of Prussia for the sum in proportion to the rest of his figure." of £1,700; but in reality his presence was Again, in 1832, “we saw Sir Walter Scott needed at the capital for political consultation often during the first week of his being here. and advice. On this period we cannot linger, The first meeting with bim was a shock, as I although some of the events show Bunsen in was not prepared for his dificulty in speakhis very best light as the real statesman in ing; but though his animation is gone, his the largeness and elevation of his views, conversation is much of the same sort as though hardly as the politician. At this time formerly, most interesting and o:iginal." occurred, perhaps, the most serious event in Knowing that popular poetry had always Bunsen's public life--his forcing the King's attracted him, Bunsen sought out the German attention to his protest against the compulsory ballads of the War of Liberation in 1813, attendance of the Catholic soldiers in the and after giving him an idea of the sense, army to the services of the Protestant Church, made his sons sing them. Scott was evidently and his perseverance until the King promised pleased, and observed of that noble struggle, a reform of that abuse. Lighter matters are quoting a verse of the Requiem, Tantus the details of his social life at Berlin. He labor non sit cassus." He called the two boys hears Sontag sing for the first time in to him, and laid a hand upon the head of each, “ Ioconde,

,” “the music of which is too insig with a solemn utterance of “God bless you!” nificant for her talent, but she sings like a There is a brief but interesting mention made nightingale and is very engaging." He goes to of Bunsen's acquaintance with Rio, the a lecture by Alexander von Humboldt on French writer on art, and of Rio's enthusiasm Physical Geography—"one of the most inter- in the study of the Welsh literature, he himesting that could be imagined ; never had I self being a native of Bretagne; and indeed, heard a man before communicate within so Bunsen seems to have met and entered into short a time such an amount of fact and of sympathy with all the scholars and literary general views, both new and important." He men of his time. In 1838 he leaves Rome mcets General von Grollmann, the first mili- and makes his first visit to England, to which, tary head in the army. “As to Waterloo, he after a short interval spent in Switzerland, he insisted that Wellington's choice of position was to return in 1841, and remain as Minister

VOL. II.-24


Plenipotentiary until 1854. Nothing can be style of a rich Roman of the time of Augustus richer than that portion of these volumes that original drawings by Raphael and others relates to his residence in England during this after dinner, vases before; the beautiful long period. What a splendid procession of Titians, &c., of the dining-room ingeniously names passes before us in this review! Al- lighted, so that the table alone was in shade." most every famous man in England, in whiat- When in Switzerland he writes: “ Professor ever department, is mentioned in some char. De Wette was present . . . his appearance is acteristic way. “I have been to Rogers, and shrunk and withered, with deep furrows of saw his beautiful house and collection. It is reflection and of sorrow in his countenance, not that poets are wealthy in England, but and the expression of high and spiritual seri. rich men write verses, i. e., measured prose. ousness. ... His life is ebbing out-his soul He is an amiable old man in manners, in

full of doubts and his heart full of grief, whom the habits of mercantile life have help- without friends and without a community to ed to counteract that corrupt voluptuousness belong to.” extending to intellect, so usual among old The sccond volume is taken up with the bachelors delighting in the fine arts.” “I narrative of Bunsen's residence in England as made Lord Mahon tell me about his own Minister from Prussia, and is full of interest works and studies. Among other things, he, ing details concerning public men and events, mentioned that the Duke (Wellington) is so

details too numerous for us ever to attempt a fond of children that he has always those of

selection. The most interesting parts are some relation for a month at a time in the those that relate to the Queen and Prince country, and plays with them for hours at Albert. Bunsen's report of the Queen confootball, letting them plague him as much as firms the public notion of her high character they please, and is like a child himself and her devotion to duty. We are also among them.” “ As to Carlyle's Lectures, they brought into the thick of events during the are very striking; rugged thoughts, not ready Revolutions of 1848, and learn much as to made up for any political or religious system;

the political manæuvres of the times. The thrown at people's heads, by which most of

chief interest of the volume lies in the in. his audiences are sadly startled.” “ Buckland sight it gives us, not merely into the religious is persecuted by bigots for having asserted opinions of Bunsen, but into the position of that among the fossils there may be a pre- the religious parties in England, at least of the Adamic species. "How,' say they, “is that High-Church Party, of the followers of New. not direct, open infidelity? Did not death man and Pusey, and of what Miss Cobbe calls come into the world by Adam's sin ?' I sup

the first Broad-Church Party, to which, if to pose then that the lions shown to Adam were any, Bunsen belonged. His name is some. originally destined to roar throughout eter- times associated with Rationalism, but most nity !” He is at Oxford on the day when improperly. He had no sympathies in that degrees are conferred. “ All the doctors and direction, and seems to have had no relations heads of houses marched in; they were differ

with the leaders of the party. He left England ently greeted-some with applause and some in 1854, and the remaining six years of his with hisses; but on the appearance of Dr. life was a brief happiness of rest from politics, Arnold, applause long and loud took place,

and devotion to his favorite studies, We with but one solitary attempt, soon drowned,

commend these volumes to our readers; they at disapprobation.” Then came the confer- present a deeply interesting period of a varied ring of degrees; among the names are Her- and important life, and if the record, as we schel, Bunsen, and Wordsworth; then the began by saying, leaves no very cheerful imreading of poems and prize essays—"An pression on the mind, but seems rather to be English poem on the Religions of India and the brilliant chronicle of disappointments and their anticipated fall before the preaching of

failu perhaps it is only so, as every picture the Kingdom of Peace, by Ruskin, whose must be of a human life that has been passed beautiful architectural drawings I have seen." in the pursuit of losty and ideal aims in the “I had a delightful dinner-party at Rogers' midst of the difficulties and impediments that Pesterday, with Gerhard, Hamilton, West- beset the greatest souls in proportion to their macott, Williams, &c., &c.; all quite in the grentness.

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