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from now this science will have attained sometimes in a prickling sensation in & remarkable growth. It will have the fingers and arms, sometimes in headmuch to do then with the historic ache, and again in general exhaustion. events of the world. Man, and all his The effect passes off rapidly when the actions, will be governed, more or less, bands are removed from the machine. by this wonderful magnetic power. It The negative temperament experiences has been always latent; but all sciences no sensation when working with a corare dependent on previous ones. This responding positive agent; but if the will be a natural outgrowth of various positive quality in the other is not suffisciences. This follows electricity and ciently powerful, or if he be likewise a astronomy.

negative, fatigue ensues in the strongest 2. Have you any thing to do with negative magnet. I am always overthe magnetic pole?

come with extreme drowsiness when P. Yes, I am dependent on it.

working in this way, though I can conAt this point we were called out, to tinue the practice for hours, without look at the Aurora Borealis, which was sensation, when the balance of the two irradiating the northern sky with lam- magnetisms is perfect. bent light. Some one suggested that It is much to be regretted that we the activity of Planchette might be ac- have not had more opportunities for counted for by the electrical influences trying the effect of different combinaabroad; so that, on our return to the tions upon the machine; as, upon one parlor, we interrogated it on this sub- occasion, curious results were produced ject, asking whether it was affected by by a stranger, who, after watching the Aurora,

Planchette's evolutions for some time, P. Yes; it affects the minds of all placed his hands upon her with the here. The peculiar condition of the Flirt. A remarkable perturbation at atmosphere engenders clearness and a once took place. The instrument dashconnection of all intellectual power. ed violently backward and forward

Q. Would you be affected by a mag- across the paper, and wrote, with imnet in the room !

petuous vehemence, in letters of great P. A magnet would not affect the size, “It is too strong; leave off, off, off!” minds of men.

It is only the condition and became completely uncontrollable, of the atmosphere that affects the intel- not only for the moment, but for three lectual magnetism.

days after, though the gentleman deQ. Has it any connection with the parted at once; refusing to write any demoniac possession ?

thing but nonsense, even with those for P. No; there is no connection what- whom it had previously responded; ever. Besides, I don't believe in the and covering the paper with scrawls, demoniacal theory.

and the words, “ Hall, Hall, Hall,” the 2. What do you think of it?

name of the gentleman who had beP. Nothing but insanity. It was an witched it. It tore holes in the paper extraordinary case, made to influence with the point of the pencil, jumped up the superstitious mind.

and down on one leg, and even ran off Q. What of the devils of Moozine ? the table several times. It had, during P. Only an extreme case of insanity. this attack, which it called its “sickQ. Is insanity, then, contagious ? ness," moments that it called its “lucid

P. Rarely. In this case, however, it intervals," during which it explained was; for the minds of many people that it must be left on the table, that were predisposed for that condition. the false magnetism might

At this point the séance broke up, the through the legs." Flirt having become exhausted.

At the end of three days it respondWe have found, as a general thing, ed to our questions about its health, that the positive magnetic agent feels with the words, “Well, well, well!” the physical effects of the operation and a huge exclamation-point at the

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end, to give emphasis to the declara- to the influences of nature ? Is a blocktion. It then explained that the power head, with three legs, the archetype of of Mr. Hall was rather mesmerism than abstract thought ? Is it possible that magnetism; and that such an influence the Delphic tripod may have been the was fatal to its organization. Upon Planchette of the period, and that the inquiry, we learned that the gentleman profound and wonderful answers of the in question had formerly possessed mes- oracle may have been procured by the meric power, and had occasionally ex- same means we now employ to amuse ercised it upon various individuals. an idle hour ?

These are but a few of the curious If this theory of atmospheric influphenomena of which we have been wit- ences be true, have we not a clue to the nesses; but I have no doubt that, when extraordinary manifestations of those it is generally known that intelligent great eras of literature, when many

can be obtained to sensible minds of rare genius have burst together questions, others who, until now, have into marvellous blossom May we not treated this curious little toy with con- owe the Augustan and Elizabethan tempt, will be induced to give it atten- Ages to some prolonged auroral inflution, as perhaps capable of throwing ence, producing the necessary condilight upon many of the manifesta- tions of intellectual power that led to tions which the superstitious mind has such results as Horace, Virgil, Jonson, ascribed to spiritual agency, and the Shakespeare, and the other human Planscientific observer scouted as imposture. chettes have achieved ? May not the Intelligent minds may find subject for cycles of magnetic force return, like experiment and investigation in this comets, at eccentric intervals ? And simple bit of machinery, and amuse

who knows but the Dark Ages may ment may at least be afforded by its have been the perihelion of its orbit, as curious readiness and marvellous apti- the Augustan Age may have been its tude; while the philosopher may find apbelion? a new topic of thought, in the consider- These suggestions open a wide field ation of this problem of a floating and for the speculative mind, and we trust combined intelligence brought to bear we may be excused in view of the presupon an inanimate agent, which our ent tendency of even the British scienmagnetic friend seems inclined to sug- tific mind of our day. We do not think gest.

we are much in advance of Professor Are we, then, all Planchettes, worked Tyndal, whose late scientific discourse, upon by the active intellectual principle even in these progressive days, bas exafloat in the “circumambient" air, and cited so much attention on both sides are our grades of mental power only indi- of the water, We take shelter behind cations of our magnetic responsiveness

his robes.

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STONEWALL JACKSON.-AN HISTORICAL STUDY.*

!

No field of literature is more fruitful treatment of subjects. It is a philoand advantageous than biography. It sophical tendency, a correct school; for, affords the writer the opportunity of after all, since persons create events, combining the most various elements history is profoundly and logically of interest, and of mixing, in a season- nothing more than a collection of biable manner, the most serious lessons ographies, a narrative of many lives, of philosophy with the lighter charms instead of one. The practical realizaof literature. No other author has tion of this school is a superior graphic broader and more abundant materials style of historical composition, in which than the biographer. He has but com- events are grouped around certain leadmenced his task when he has only put ing figures, and the narrative is disin orderly narrative the events and inci- charged through the dramatic action dents of the life of his subject; he has of a few prominent characters. This, in yet to explore the personal character, in fact, is both the true philosophy and which this life has its true significance the true art of history; it obtains the and interest, to study it in the subjective, true unity of narrative; it makes disand make of it a purely psychological tinct, vivid impressions; it combines inquiry; and even beyond this, he has, artistic with logical effects, and heightnecessarily, to determine the reciprocal ens the interest of the reader with nearrelations, the connecting influences be- ly every element admitted within the tween this life and its times, the gen- domain of the intellect and of the emoeral historical condition in which it tions. The effect of this school has been flourished. “For," as the acute German to lessen the merely convenient or conphilosopher Goethe says, “the main ventional boundary between history and point in biography is to present the man biography, to bring them more closely in all his relations to his time, and to together, and to identify them in point show to what extent it may have op- of dramatic interest. The modern hisposed or prospered his development; torian is no longer the dull, vapid what view of mankind and the world chronicler; he discovers the true logical he has shaped from it, and how far he sources of his narrative in particular himself may be an external reflection persons; he makes his

pages successions of its spirit.”

of vivid and interesting biography; he It is in this just conception of biogra- arranges his story in dramas and picphy that we at once comprehend its ex- ture-galleries; and he finds, with these traordinary literary advantage in uniting aids, that he has obtained, not only opportunities of philosophy with the art better advantages to inform and inof narrative, and in occupying a field struct his readers, but also the means to of the most various interest. The bi- entertain their fancy and cultivate their ographer is properly philosopher, dram- emotions. In this view, it may be said utist, historian. Indeed, a remarkable that the true historical interest of any tendency of the modern school of his period of time has come to be, not so tory, which has been developed since much in the multitude of events, as in Macaulay's adventure, is to approach the number and variety of personal the style of biography, and to appropri- characters which compose the story. It ate its interest in dramatic and vivid is the biographical test of the interest

of narratives. The curiosity of the reader has become dramatic; he wishes

to know the men who figured on the leaders, by one of their most prominent historians. -El. Putnam's Magazine.

stage of a particular period, in what

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* Our readers will doubtless be interested to see what is said of one of the most famous of the Rebel

respect they were novel and admirable, ferred to one of them as of surpassing how they acted upon each other and fame, we may take this name apart, as circumstances, what missions they rep- at least one conspicuous centre of bioresented, what problems they worked graphical interest in the war. We refer out, what conditions they effected. It to STONEWALL JACKSON. Around this is this dominant biographical interest man, whose fame has already gone, on which has brought into existence a new those quick messengers, the wings of school of history, and erected a new battle, to the ends of the world, there standard of criticism ; and we cannot must necessarily congregate, in the fuhelp admitting that its tendencies are ture, some of the most impressive memphilosophical and improving.

ories of the war; and his biography, We preface so much to the consider- especially the study of his peculiar ation of the literary records of our re- character, becomes at once a dominant cent war. It has been customary to subject of historical interest, and a speak, and not without a mixture of standpoint of narrative. Whoever may vanity, of the great figure this war will hereafter write profoundly and philomake when the future historian comes sophically a history of the Southern to deal with it elaborately, and to ex- Confederacy, must take Jackson as a plore its operations. Yet, huw meagre central figure; and he must mingle his the biographical interest of this strug- biography, at least the characterization gle; how scant in its illustrations of of the man, with many parts of his any conspicuous virtues or novelties of story, thereby dramatizing, coloring it, personal character ; how unfruitful of and binding up the attention of the great or remarkable men! It is in the reader with personal sympathies and dominant feature of historical interest heroic aspirations. that the late war, of which we usually It will be the especial and exact task speak in so many superlative phrases, is of the military historian, the expert singularly and fatally deficient. It is critic, to adjust Jackson's peculiar fame remarkable for immense physical phe- in arms and to determine its details. nomena, rather than for intellectual and It is just that his life should be regarded moral display. What is wonderful in from a high and critical military point it is the extent of physical masses, the of view, for here is its excellent and alcloaca populorum, stupendous sums of most exclusive interest; and, besides, it money, monuments of carnage; but how is remarkable how much he has already paltry and flowerless its crops of men, suffered from the inaccurate and overhow few its productions of genius, how drawn estimates of incompetent critics. slight those illustrations which make up His only considerable biographer (Dr. the personal, heroic interest of history! Dabney, a Presbyterian clergyman) has It produced, of course, if only by the fallen into the lamentable error of rerule of comparison, some military ce- garding the religious and even sectarian lebrities—these even few, and one only character of his hero as the chief interof surpassing fame ; but we look in vain est of his life, and subordinating to it for the intellectual contagion of a great his wonderful military career and his excitement, for those tongues of fire with character as a master of war. So far is which men speak in a great war, for this estimate in error, that we may even those thoughts of orator, poet, and venture a remark, which will probably priest which burn along the opposing be novel and distasteful to many readers lines like signal-fires, and make of mod- —that the religious element in General ern war a conflict of inspirations as well Jackson's life has come in for an undue as of arms.

share of public attention; that it was We do not propose to invite here in- among the least admirable parts of his vidious comparisons between the mili- character; and that it was singularly tary leaders on either side in the late and painfully deficient. war. And yet, as we have already re- of this aspect of the life of the great

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Southern commander, the writer has death-bed, and of walks and exercises had occasion, in some historical sketches of active charity.” of the war, to deliver an opinion, perhaps Havelock distributed tracts in the as unpopular as it is novel. He says, British army; Vickers comforted the “ There are considerations which make dying in the trenches, and held prayerJackson's piety of very partial interest. meetings within the range of the eneIt is true that he was an enthusiast in re- my's guns. We do not hear of such ligion, that he was wonderfully attentive noble and amiable offices performed by in his devotions, and that prayer was as Jackson. His religion lacked in active the breath of his nostrils. To one of benevolence; it was a cold, introspecthis friends he declared that he had ive religion, subjective in its experiences, cultivated the habit of praying with- severe, no doubt, in its self-discipline, out ceasing,' and connecting a silent correct in its faith, but with few works, testimony of devotion with every famil- few visible testimonies of zeal in the iar act of the day. Thus,' he said, usual rounds of Christian duty. His . when I take my meals, there is the religion was in no way mixed with the grace. When I take a draught of wa- administration of his command. In his ter, I always pause, as my palate receives military intercourse he was the military the refreshment, to lift up my heart to commander. On the field of battle he God in thanks and prayer for the water was the passionate, distinct, harsh comof life. Whenever I drop a letter in mander, where sharp and strident orthe box, I send a petition along with it ders were inexorable as messengers of for God's blessing upon its mission, and fate. He had no religious appeals or upon the person to whom it is sent. exhortations to make to his men; if he When I break the seal of a letter just prayed in action, it was in invariable received, I stop to pray to God that He silence; he never dropped a word of may prepare me for its contents, and regret on the conquered field, such as make it a messenger of good.' But, spectacles of death have often moved notwithstanding the extreme fervor of benevolent men to utter; he never comJackson's religion, it is remarkable that forted the dying, or visited the hospite kept it for certain places and com- tals; he had no peculiar schemes of panies; that he was disposed to be soli- benevolence in his army (beyond the tary in its exercise ; and that he was usual Sunday preaching); he was no singularly innocent of that Cromwellian winner of souls, no messenger of converfanaticism that mixes religious invoca- sions and revivals; in brief, he was uttions with orders and utterances on a terly deficient in those active and priestbattle-field. He prayed in bis tent; he ly offices which the popular mind assodelighted in long talks with the many ciates with tbe Christian hero. He was clergymen who visited him; he poured warm enough in his self-communions, out the joys and aspirations of his faith in prayer, and in intercourse with a in private correspondence; but he sel- very few intimate friends ; but his relidom introduced religion into the ordi- gion was essentially a selfish, intellectnary conversation of his military life; ual fanaticism, that seldom appeared and he exhibited this side of his char- out of his meditations, where it was acter in the army in scarcely any thing excessively nursed. It did not go forth more than Sunday services in his camp, on the divine errands of charity. It and a habitual brief line in all his offi. was a religion curious rather than lop. cial reports, acknowledging the divine able. There was probably but little of favor. He was very attentive to these philanthropy in Jackson's composition. outward observances, but his religious He did not have the charming amiahabit was shy and solitary; he had bility of Lee; he was disposed to renone of the activity of the priest; we crimination with his officers, stern and hear but little of his work in the hospi- exacting in his commands; he was nattals, of private ministrations by the urally of an excessive temper, harsh and

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