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I found that poverty is, in fact, the sum ness and inordinate desire, and that of all wretchedness, the cause to its those who have it nerer cease from victim of all hatred, a very pit of misery, and weariness, and painful slander and ill report. I discovered, labor; so that they are more easily too, that when one is poor he becomes induced to make the most distant and an object of suspicion to those who had laborious journeys in search of wealth, before confided in him; he is judged than the liberal man is to stretch out hardly by those who once thought well his hand for money when it is offered of him. If another commits an offence, to him. There is nothing like content. he bears the blame. There is no quality This, at last, I came to see; and then I praised in the rich that is not condemn- went from the house of the hermit, and ed in him. His courage is called fool dwelt in the open field, where the dove hardiness. Is he generous ? he gets the became my friend, and so I was led into name of a squanderer. Is he humane? this new friendship between me and the he is called weak. Is he grave ? they raven, who told me of the loving inticall him stupid. Death itself is better macy that existed between him and than the want which drives one to thee, and invited me to go along with beggary-especially to beg of the ava

him to your place.

This I was very ricious and the vile; and for the noble- willing to do, and I will be to thee a minded it were easier, and more agree- true brother, and gladly make my resiable, to thrust his hand into the mouth dence near to thine.own. of the viper, and swallow down its The field-mouse ceased speaking, deadly venom, than to ask alms of the when the tortoise replied with great miserly churl. But to return to my kindness : I have listened, said she, to story. I saw the guest take the dinars, your words, and to the very interesting and divide them with the hermit, who story you have told us. There is only put his part in a purse, and laid it by

one thing I wish to observe. Begging his head. As it grew late, therefore, your pardon for saying it, there seems and the shadow of the night came over yet to linger in your mind something them, I had a strong desire to get hold of a longing remembrance of the things of it, and carry it back to my hole; for you have renounced.* Know, then, that I thought that this would restore my excellence of speech becomes perfect in strength, or, at least, bring back to me

excellence of act; for the sick man who my friends. So I crept up to the her knows the remedy for his disease, remit as he slept, and had got very near ceives no benefit from his knowledge his head, when I saw that the guest was unless he takes the medicine. It gives wide awake, with a stick in his hand,

him neither rest nor ease. Now, therewith which he struck me a cruel blow

fore, put your wisdom and experience that quickly sent me back. After the

in practice, and be no longer sad on acpain had ceased, the strong desire to count of the scantiness of your means + get the dinars sent me out again, as (that is, think no more about the di before; but lo, the guest was still on nars); for one who has true fortitude, the watch, and hit me another blow

and is held thereby in honorable esthat made the blood come, and knock

teem, even though he have not money, ed me heels over head, until I fell faint

is like a lion who inspires awe even ing in my hole, with such torturing pain as made the very name of money * The Arabic text here is so very defective and so odious to me, that I have never since confused, that the vers'on of the sentence, as given, heard an allusion to it without think

1 The tortoise seems to intend here a very gentle ing of those dinars--so much of distress

rebuke to mousie for his long moralizing, intimaland terror they caused me. Then I ing that he is like some other good people, who, thought with myself again, and found though really converted, have still a little hanker

ing after a world renounced, -showing this even in that the wretchedness which abounds

their expressed contempt for it, and in their sentiin the world comes mainly from greedi- mental fondness for talking about its ranitics.

VOL. II.-6

is taken from the Greek of Simeon Seth.

when he is lying down; whereas the and may you ever have as much joy as rich man without manliness, and who you have given. For the good are ever is little thought of in the midst of his watching over and helping the good. wealth, is like a cowardly dog which Especially is it the case that, when such nobody cares for, though he has a rich a one stumbles, or falls into trouble, it collar about his neck, and rings upon is only one like him that gives him the his feet. And let it not grieye you your hand; as when the elephant sinks in being in a foreign land; for the wise the marsh, it is only another elephant man in exile is like the lion, who, let that can draw him out. him go where he will, his strength goes Now, whilst the raven was in the with him. So think well of what you midst of this speech, there suddenly have done for yourself; for if you do dashed in among them a gazelle, run80, good will seek thee even as water ning very swiftly, and giving them all seeks its descent. Success belongs to a terrible fright. Down sunk the torthe diligent and the prudent; but as toise in the water; away scud the for the slothful and the shiftless, no mouse to his hole; up flew the raven good goes with him, any more than and lighted on a tree. Then he soared with the young woman who marries an high in the heavens,* that he might see old and withered man. For there are if any one was in pursuit of the gazelle. five things, it is said, in which stability Nothing, however, could he discover, and truth are not to be expected. They and so he called to his friends, who are, the shadow of a summer cloud, the thereupon came out again from their friendship of the wicked, the love of retreats. When the tortoise saw the women, the tale of a liar, and wealth gazelle looking eagerly to the water, rapidly grown. Wherefore the wise man Drink, said she, if you are thirsty, and will not be sad on account of the little be in no fear, for there is nothing here that he possesses; for bis wealth is his to cause you dread. Then the gazelle understanding, and the treasure of good deeds he has sent on before him * (to

* This kind of language shows great antiquity. the day of judgment): of this, he trusts It is an Old Testament style of speech. We say, that he shall never be robbed, whilst he

" birds of the air ;” the scriptural term is every

where (in the Hebrew), “birds of the heavens.” It has no fear of being charged with any

cime from the idea of birds actually flying up to the false account for what he hath not done. heavens, the abode of the celestial powers. Hence He is not the one to be neglectful of his

afterwards, when superstition obscured the purc old

patriarchalism, the wide-spread idea of divination latter end, knowing that death is ever

by birds, as having some kind of intercourse with unexpected, and hath no appointed the heavenly beings. Thus, in Greek, there is the time. You need not my admonition,

same word for bird and omen. We see it, too, in

the Latin aus(avis)picium. This higher knowlsince you are yourself so knowing; but

cdge of the birds was supposed to be obtained by us I thought to do you right, for you are in watching the direction of their flights, listening our brother now, and all that we can

to their notes, or examining their vital parts in

sacrifice, The raven, especially, was always reteach or give is thine.

garded as a far-seeing, prophetic bird. This has When the raven had heard what the been supposed by some to have had some connec

tion with Noah's employment of him as a messen. tortoise said to the mouse, and how

ger from the ark. It was also the bird sent to feed kindly and elegantly she had replied to Elijah We need not attach much importance to him, he was vastly delighted. You this; but, at all events, the keen sight of birds, in have made me very glad, said he; you

their great elevation, is used, in the Bible, to repe

resent surpassing or superhuman knowledge. Comhave conferred a great favor upon me; pare Job xxvii. 7: "a path which no fowl know

eth," and v. 21 : “it is hid from the birds of heaven."

The language is employed to denote * This" sending on of good decds" beforc one is great inscrutableness ; referring to that bidden or A peculiar Mohammedan and Koranic phraso ; and higher “wisdom" which this sublime chapter repmust, therefore, be regarded as an accommodation resents man as seeking in vain through all nature. of something of the same general import in the Compare, also, Ecclesiastes x. 20 : “For a bird of Indian or Persian. It resembles, however, very the air (Heb., vird of the heavens) shall carry the much the New Testament idea of “laying up voice, and that which hath wings shall tell the treasure in heaven."



drew nigh, and the tortoise saluted are holes into which the mouse can run; him, and wished him health, and said but as for thee, O my slow friend, there to him, Whence came you to us? I is no hurrying thee, nor even moving have been, said he, in the wide desert, thee. It is on your account, therefore, where the riding huntsmen are ever that I especially fear the huntsman's chasing me from place to place. This coming. Said the tortoise, There is no day, in particular, I saw an old man living away from one's friends; for when coming along, who I was afraid might friend parts from friend, he is robbed be one of them, and so I fled as usual. of his heart, he is deprived of his joy, Don't be trightened, said the tortoise ; his eye is darkened. The tortoise was for we never see any huntsmen liere; proceeding in this strain ; but before and we will give you our love, and a she had finished her words, the huntsplace to live in ; and here is water and man drew nigh, and this was just at pasture in plenty, if you can be content the time when the mouse had finished in our society. Bu the gazelle stayed the cutting of the net. Immediately with thein, and there was a shally place the gazelle made off with himself, the where they all used to meet together, raven went soaring up in the air, and and had much good discourse, and told the mouse took refuge in one of the each other instructive stories. So they holes of the desert. Nothing remained lived on, until at last, one day, the but the tortoise. She was creeping off, raven, and the mouse, and the tortoise, when the huntsman came up and found were together in the arisha, but the bis net cut to pieces. Looking round, gazelle was missing. So they waited, right and left, he espied her moving and waited, hour after hour, but he slowly along, and immediately seized came not. It was a long me, and and bound her. In the meantime the they began to be very much afraid lest raven, the 'mouse, and the gazelle, bad son:e harm might have happened to made no delay in getting together as him. At last the mouse and the tor- soon as possible, after they had seen toise said to the raven, Your eyes are the huntsman bind the tortoise. And sharp; fly up, and see if there is any their grief was very great, and the thing near to us. Then the raven soared mouse began to talk wisely, and said : very high in the heavens, looking keen

We can

never know that we have ly out, and, lo and behold! the gazelle passed through all trouble until we lay afar off entangled in the nets of the have been in the worst of it'; and he huntsman. Down he flew swiftly, and vas very right, who said that one told them what had happened. Then should never cease his efforts to keep said the tortoise and the raven to the out of difficulty; for when he has once mouse, Here is work for you; we must stumbled, he will keep on stumbling, despair, without your assistance, of giv- though he were walking on the smooth ing any help to our brother. Come on, and level plain. Oh, how I fear for the then, and aid him all in your power. tortoise, that best of friends, whose The mouse started immediately with friendship, instead of being mercenary, all speed, and when he came to the or seeking any reward, is a generous gazelle, Alas! said he, how came you in and noble friendship-stronger, indeed, so sad a case as this ? for you are one than that of a parent to his child-& of the sharp-eyed, and should have friendship that death alone can destroy. looked out. Said the gazelle, What Alas, for this body of ours, * so loaded can sharpness do against the Fates ? Whilst they were in this talk, the tor- * The mouse's philosophizing here suggests somo toise came crawling up, and the gazelle


of the questions of the early Greek schools about

the continual flux of matter, and change of bodily said, Alas! what possessed you to come? forms—“ Does any thing sland?" It has, however, for if the huntsman gets here by the still more of a Buddhistic look. Some of the terms

used by the Arabian translator show that he did time the mouse has gnawed the ncts,

not fully understand it. It is clearer in Simeon we must leave you to the foe; for there


with miseries, ever coming and going, dare. During this time I will be gnaw. ever flowing away, where there is noth- ing the cords of the tortoise, with good ing that stays, or remains the same ;- hope of getting her loose before the like the rising and setting star, one ever huntsman comes back. The raven and following the other, no rest, but change the gazelle did what the mouse advised forever; or like the pain of wounds that them. The huntsman went in pursuit, are ever breaking out anew, so bleeds and the gazelle led him on until he had afresh the heart that is wounded by the got very far away, while the mouse aploss of friends after it has enjoyed their plied himself to the cutting of the cords, society.

and the tortoise had time to get off to Then the gazelle and the raven said a safe hiding-place. When the huntsto the mouse : Surely we are anxious, man came back, blowing and weary, as well as you; but your talk, though and found the cords cut again, he fell indeed it is very eloquent,* will give no to thinking over the matter, and all *help to the tortoise; for it is truly said about the gazelle that he had been exthat men are tried in adversity, chil- pecting to catch, and the curious condren and kindred are tested by poverty, duct of the raven, until he began to and brothers are proved by evil fortune. think himself utterly muddled * in his True, said the mouse, but I can do understanding. He could not imagine something more than talk; I see a way how it was,

s—his cords all grawed to to get us out of this trouble. It is this: pieces, and no one in sight; whilst the let the gazelle go and fall down in look of the place grew lonely and weird. view of the huntsman, as though he was Surely, said he, this must be the devil's wounded; and then let the raven territory, a land of Jins and sorcery. pounce down upon him as though in- So he went away without hunting any tending to eat him; whilst I will dart more. But the raven, and the gazelle, on, keeping near the huntsman, and and the mouse, and the tortoise, all watching him very closely; it may be came together in their shady retreat, that he will throw his stick at him, safe and sound, and rejoicing in their and, for that purpose, lay down the tor- good fortune. toise, giving his whole attention to Then said Bidpai, the pbilosopher, you, that he yet may get possession of unto Dabschelim, the king: See how the gazelle. When he comes near, then these creatures here, even in their smallstart up again, and run on a little way, ness and their weakness, were able to just far enough to keep up his eager deliver themselves from the bands of ness, and make him think that he will destruction-and that, too, time after be able to catch you; so, leading him time, because they had love in its on farther and farther from us, keeping purity and constancy, and were ever one side of him, and just as near as you ready to help each other.

And so

MAN, on whom is bestowed reason and * This looks again as though the gazelle and the judgment, who is inspired to distinraven meant to be a little quizzical, on our very

guish good and evil, and gifted with friendly, but rather overrighteous, mouse. We hare

discernment and knowledge, — HE, speciinens of such continual moralizing, without much rhyme or reason, in the discourses that pass above all other beings, is designed for between Don Quixote and Sancho Panza. Indeed,

society, and fitted for friendship and all through, Cervantes secms to present it as a trait of the common Spanish discourse. They may have

mutual help. got it from the Arabians, who manifest this tenden- This, 0 King, is the story for which cy very strongly in their ethics, poetry, and legends.

you asked—a picture of true friends, The original unabridged Arabian Nights tales are full of it. In a sublimer form we see something of and of the happy life they led. this rhapsodic Oriental sententiousness in the long speeches of Job's friends.

* Arabic, choulal,--all mired up, as we say.


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The interest of readers has been made himself master of one of the drawn very much of late to the land of southern provinces of the land. EmAbyssinia, partly in consequence of boldened by the stroke of success, he the barbarous manner in which two soon collected an inmense army, and representatives of the English govern- swept through the whole length and ment have been treated by the Emperor breadth of the country. His noble Theodore, and partly by the sudden and presence, engaging manners, his bright amazing reverses which have fallen on mind, and his large promises, won the the head of that half-barbarian, and confidence of the people everywhere, yet strangely powerful and enlightened and in a short time he was master of monarch. We propose, in this article, the situation. His rapid rise may, in not to deal with a matter so complex, many respects, be likened to that of the in any exhaustive fashion, but merely to first Napoleon, whom, indeed, he not a bring out its salient features.

little resembles.

The same

destiny" The Emperor Theodore was not a line- which Bonaparte used to plead, the al descendant of the line of Abyssinian youthful Kasai heartily believed in, and kings, although he was accustomed to

the one became Napoleon and the other take great pains to prove himself so, Theodore by entire surrender to the On the other hand, he was the offspring sway of this faith in the future. of “poor but respectable” parents, his The best account of Theodore that I mother being a vender of the favorite have®met is by Mr. Plowden, and is so medicine used by those afflicted by that graphic and entertaining that I need scourge of the land, the tape-worm. make no apology for inserting it here. The line of rulers which became extinct when Theodore ascended the throne in

“The king,” he says, " is young in years,

vigorous 1853 made its boast to have sprung from

all manly exercises, of a striking

countenance, peculiariy police and engaging the union of Solomon and the Queen of

when pleased, and mostly displaying great tact Sheba; but there is no reason to believe and delicacy. He is persuaded that he is desthat it was especially ancient, or especi- tined to restore the glories of the Ethiopian ally honorable in its origin. The coun

empire, and to achieve great conquests. Of try has been for fourteen centuries, how

untiring energy, both mental and bodily, his

personal and moral daring are boundless. The ever, nominally Christian, it having latter is well proved by his severity towards his early been traversed by agents from soldiers, even when these are pressed by hunAlexandria, and maintaining, under the ger, are mutinous, and he is in front of a pow. name of the Coptic Church, many of erful foe; more so even by his pressing reforms the rites which characterize the Roman

on a country so little used to any yoke, whilst

engaged in unceasing hostilities, and his supCatbolic body at the present day. The

pression of the power of the great feudal chiefs, population of the country is supposed at a moment when any inferior man would to be about three millions. These were have sought to conciliate them as the stepping. governed, previously to 1855, by rival stones to empire.

“When aroused, his wrath is terrible, and princes, of whom Ras Ali was the chief.

all tremble; but at all moments be possesses a At that time young Kasai (subsequently perfect self-command. Indefatigable in busithe Einperor Theodore), then a subal

ness, he takes little repose night or day; his tern in the employ of Ras Ali, began to ideas and language are clear and precise; hesidistinguish himself by his activity, in- tation is not kuown to him; and he has neither telligence, and capacity. He rapidly councillors por go-betweens. He is fond of rose in the royal favor, and on being splendor, and receives in state even on a cam

paign. He is unsparing in punishment—very entrusted with a division of the army, necessary to restrain disorder, and to restore he turned it against his sovereign, and order in such a wilderness as Abyssinia. He

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