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cies treated the plebs more kindly, by (threats of) judicial investigations.' 17. neque illīs, etc.: "and yet those who won the victory could not have enjoyed it long, but becoming weakened and enfeebled, would have had their power and liberty alike wrested from them by some more powerful man.' 19. quī plūs posset: a veiled allusion to Pompey. For the popular party as well as the aristocracy afraid that Pompey would return with his army to set up a military dictatorship. In fact, if Pompey had been a resolute and unscrupulous man, he would have had little difficulty in changing the republic into an empire, and doing in B.C. 62, without any struggle, what Caesar sixteen years later accomplished only with great bloodshed.

21. Fuēre tamen : resuming the narrative, which was interrupted in § 36. 23. quem.

necārī iussit: the patria potestās gave a Roman father the right to expose, sell, or even kill his children. Of course such cruelty was seldom practised. But there is more than one instance of this sort in Roman history, where the father's stern patriotism could not abide a traitor to the state, though he were his

See Vergil's Aeneid, VI, 819–823. 27. sed cüiusque modī, etc. : 'but men of every class, provided they were of use in war.'

own son.

Ambassadors from the Allobroges are urged to send aid to the conspir

acy; they, however, disclose the plot to Cicero. Sections 40–41.

$ 40. 29. P. Umbrēno : Cicero refers to Umbrenus as a freedman; see Cicero, 37, 17. Slaves might be freed outright by their masters, out of gratitude for some service, or they might be allowed to keep their savings until they amounted to enough to buy their freedom. Such freedmen, with the help of their masters, might obtain the citizenship ; and although the stigma always clung to them, many of them became successful men of business. Later, under the Empire, some freedmen became favorites with the emperors, and were men of unbounded wealth and influence. cuidam implies contempt.

31. pūblicē privātimque aere aliēnö oppressos: what with (1) the indemnity to be paid to the Romans for having waged war with them, (2) the exorbitant taxes, which had to satisfy the greed of the tax-gatherers (pūblicānī) as well as the government, and (3) the magnificent gifts, which were expected by Roman officials from the governor down to the humblest of his train of servants, it was no wonder that the provinces were overwhelmed by debt. Moreover, the

ready money in most cases had to be borrowed from Roman speculators (negotiātorēs), like the Umbrenus mentioned in this section, who exacted a most outrageous rate of interest from the provincials. For example, Cicero, in one of his letters, mentions an instance where 48 per cent was demanded on a debt.

Page 31. 6. malīs : dative. 12. sui: B. 209, 2; A. 221, a; H. 457 ; G. 377. 16. consilī: what cases does Sallust use with aliēnus? See Vocab. 17. ab Romā: the use of the preposition is a colloquialism ; it serves to make the expression more exact. 18. Gabīnium : as Umbrenus was but a freedman, the presence of Gabinius would give greater authority to his arguments. 21. pollicitās operam suam : “having promised their aid.'

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§ 41. 26. Haec: object of volventibus.

Page 32. 1. Q. Fabio Sangae : nothing further is known of him, except that he was a descendant of Q. Fabius Allobrogicus, who conquered the Allobroges in B.c. 121. A province often put itself under the patronage of the conquering general, who thus became its representative at Rome. This relation frequently remained, as in this case, in the general's family for several generations. In like manner cities and communities usually chose some one to look after their interests at home. Thus Cicero was the patronus of the town of Reate; see Cicero, 34, 14.

Plans of Catiline's accomplices throughout Italy, as well as in Rome.

Sections 42-43. § 42. 9. quos . . . dīmiserat : see 19, 6–9. 13. Q. Metellus Celer : see 21, 20. 14. ex senātūs consulto : see 27, 5–8.

CICERO.

Page 31. 1. hominēs Galli: as though Cicero said, 'men — and that, too, Gauls,' thus suggesting that the characteristic bravery and fickleness of the Gauls counted for much in their decision on this matter. ex civitāte male pācātā: Piso put down an insurrection of the Allobroges in B.C. 66, but only five years later they were in reb on again.

3. rērum: 'advantages.' 4. ultro: 'without any solicitation on their own part.' ā patriciis hominibus: patrician families still retained considerable distinction. Catiline, Cethegus, and Lentulus were of patrician descent. 5. id: the preceding clauses — ut . . . anteponerent — are summed up in this pronoun.

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15. in citeriore Galliā: according to Cicero, Murena was in Gallia Trānspadānā, i.e. in ulteriore Galliā. The weight of authority is with Cicero.

§ 43. 18. ut vidēbātur: 'as it seemed to them.'

19. ex agro Faesulāno : an emendation for in agrum Faesulānum, which is obviously a mistake of a copyist, as Catiline had already reached Faesulae ; see 27, 4. 20. L. Bēstia, tribūnus plēbis, contione habitā : as the tribunes were not inaugurated into office until December 10th, the assembly could not have been called for any date earlier than that. What was a contio ? See Vocab. 22. optumo consulī: this was a somewhat stereotyped expression. And yet, coming from a political opponent like Sallust, it certainly shows that the historian bore him no ill will. 24. ea : sc. negotia. 26. duodecim: Plutarch says 100. quo: in order that.' 29. alius autem alium : sc. aggrederētur.

Page 33. 1. familiārum : this use of the plural is rare, familiās being the usual form with both the singular and plural. Sal-, lust here imitates the historian Sisenna. quorum, etc. = quorum māxuma pars erat ex nobilitāte. 2. parentis interficerent: the patria potestās gave the father such absolute authority over the son that the latter could not own any property in his own right. Whatever he might acquire was in the eye of the law at the disposal of the father. Hence might arise the desire of the sons to kill their fathers. 5. diēs prālātando : Cicero says that the massacre and conflagration were set for the Saturnalia, which began on the 17th of December. 6. facto, non consulto ... opus : cf. 1, 14–15. 8. aliīs = cēterīs; the ablative absolute is concessive. in cūriam: "on the Senate.' 9. manū: see Vocab.

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The ambassadors, after shrewdly obtaining written evidence against

the chief conspirators at Rome, set out for Gaul, and were arrested on the Mulvian bridge. Sections 44-45. § 44. 12. cēterös : sc. coniūrātorēs. 16. eo : i.e. to Gaul.

CICERO.

Page 32. 1. praesertim qui: 'especially since they.'

Page 33. 1. Quem = Catilinam. pellabam: what is the force of the imperfect? B. 260, 3; A. 277, c; H. 530; G. 233. 12. ut: repeated for the sake of clearness.

Page 34. 1. exemplum : as we have seen in § 34, this word is used to denote .an exact copy.' A careful comparison of the letter as reported by Cicero below with this as given by Sallust will show that they are identical in thought and in several expressions. It is probable, therefore, that Sallust reproduced the letter exactly, while Cicero merely quoted from memory. 2. Qui sim = 'What sort of man I am,' while Cicero's Quis sim = 'Who I am.' But such nice distinctions would hardly be observed in a hurriedly written letter. The student, however, will be interested in noting the shades of difference between the corresponding expressions, e.g. cognoscēs and sciēs; memineris virum esse and Cūrā ut vir sīs, etc. 3. Fac côgitēs : in letters, fac followed by the dependent subjunctive is often substituted for the simple imperative. in quantā calamitāte sīs : “how desperate your situation is.' 4. ratiónēs: 'interests.' 5. ab înfimis : i.e. from the slaves, whose assistance Catiline had at first rejected on the ground that it would disgust the aristocracy to be associated with them in any enterprise ; cf. Cicero, 36, 7. 6. mandāta verbis : "verbal instructions.'

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§ 45. 9. nocte: December 2d. 10. L. Valerio Flacco : son of the consul under whom the Lēx Valeria was passed ; see note to 24, 24.

The son had served in the army in Cilicia and Spain. In the year after the conspiracy he was governor of Asia. When, on his return to Rome, he was accused of extortion, he was successfully defended by Cicero. 11. C. Pomptīnā: he had taken part in the Servile War. Two years after the conspiracy, B.C. 61, he was propraetor of Gallia Narbonensis, and defeated the Allobroges when they rebelled against Rome.

11. praetoribus : although the city praetors were primarily concerned with the administration of justice, they might be called upon to perform occasional military service, especially in providing for the safety of Rome, this being their especial care. 13. cētera, etc. : as for the rest, he permitted them to do whatever might be necessary.'

CICERO.

Page 34. 1. Erant: sc. litterae, 'the letter.' 8. qui, etc.: 'being men who had only the most noble and exalted views of their duty to the state.' 12. interesset: observe that Cicero, too, sometimes uses a singular verb with two subjects. Why ? Eodem: adverb. 14. ex praefectūrā Reātinā: see Vocab., and note to 32, 1. 16. tertia ferē vigiliā exāctā: about 3 A.M.

16. ad id locī : “to this very place.' B. 201, 2; A. 216, 3; H. 441 ; G. 369. But the partitive genitive dependent on a word governed by a preposition does not occur in Cicero or Caesar.

Trial of the chief conspirators before the Senate. Sections 46-47.

Page 35. § 46. 12. tantīs : such influential.' 14. perdundae rei pūblicae: ruinous to the state'; for construction, cf. 5, 21.

Page 36. 3. scrinium: a cylindrical box or case for letters.

sum.

§ 47. 6. quid, etc. : construe, quid consilī habuisset aut quā causā id habuisset. 7. fidē pūblica : an assurance that he would not be punished, if he turned state's evidence. 10. tantum modo: sc. sē as the subject of solitum (esse). 11. Gabinio: for information about this man and the other persons here mentioned, see Vocab., and the notes to $ 17. 14. praeter litterās sermõnibus: not only by his letter, but by the conversations,' etc.

15. ex libris Sibyllīnīs: the story is that an old woman once offered to sell a set of nine books to Tarquin the Proud for a large

The king refused to buy them, whereupon the old woman burned three of the books, and offered to sell the remaining six for the same price she had asked for the nine. When this also was refused, she burned three more, and again asked the same price for the remaining three. The king's curiosity was aroused. He bought the books, which, on being examined, were found to contain certain prophecies concerning Rome, in Greek hexameters. They were supposed to have been written by the Hellespontic Sibyl, in the time of Solon and Cyrus, at Gergis on Mount Ida. They were thereafter guarded most carefully in the Capitol, and only consulted at the order of the Senate, in time of peril. When the Capitol was burned, in B.C. 83, the books were destroyed. But the Senate had a collection

CICERO.

Page 35. 5. ipsi: the ambassadors and Volturcius. 10. crēdo, etc.: a sarcastic allusion to Lentulus's proverbial sleepiness; see Cicero, 33, 3.

Page 36. 8. id : sc. ut faceret; id is in apposition with the preceding clause, ut accederet. 10. erat: why indicative in indirect discourse? See note to frequentābat, 10, 15. 14. data: why neuter ? B. 235, 2, 6, B; A. 187,b; H. 395, 2; G. 286, 1. 16 sibi: the conspirators. 17. sibi: the Gauls.

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