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evil passions.' 23. opulentia : 'its (the republic's) resources could stand negligence.' 26. sed haec, etc.: "but whether these advantages, of whatever sort they are, shall be ours, or with ourselves shall fall into the hands of our enemies.' 31. eo: on this account.' 32. Sint: hortatory. quoniam, etc. : “since such is our practice.'

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Page 47. 7. dīvorso, etc. : ' that the wicked, proceeding by a different journey from the good, inhabit.' 17. si in tanto omnium metū sölus nön timet, etc. : i.e. if Caesar alone did not fear the conspiracy, it must be because he was interested in it, and that would make it all the more necessary for Cato and the rest of the Senate to be alarmed on their own account. 19. habētöte : when habeo means .consider,' the future imperative is used instead of the present. 22. iam, etc. : at once they will march defiantly upon you.' 30. animus : “a mind unbiassed in council, untrammelled by sin or passion.'

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Page 48. 2. omnia, etc. : “ ambition obtains all the rewards of merit.' 5. eo fit, etc. : "hence it happens that an attack is being made on a defenceless state.' 11. hostibus : dative. 12. Misereāminī cēnseo : “you would pity them, I suppose.' 14. Nē : • Verily.' 16. Immo vērā: sc. eam timētis. 24. A. Manlius Torquātus bello Gallico: elsewhere his name is given as Titus, not Aulus; and this stern act of his is declared to have taken place in the war with the Latins (B.C. 340). In, a campaign against the Gauls in 361, Titus Manlius obtained his surname Torquātus by slaying a gigantic Gaul in single combat and stripping him of his chain (torquis). This may have caused the confusion in Sallust's account. 32. iterum : implying that he had taken part in the first conspiracy.

Page 49. 10. cum: is this a conjunction or a preposition? Why? 15. dē, etc. : as upon those who have been caught actually committing a capital crime.'

Digression : Rome's greatness due to a few men of power; Caesar

and Cato compared. Sections 53-54.

§ 53.

17. Postquam Cato adsēdit: from other sources we . learn that Cato also advocated the confiscation of the prisoners' property, but that Caesar objected to this so strenuously that at last he obtained Cicero's consent to leave it out of the motion. So intense was the feeling aroused against Caesar by his suspicious plea for the prisoners' lives that several equitēs drew their swords against him as he left the senate-house; see 39, 17-22. 22. mihi is to be taken with lubuit, multa with praeclāra facinora. 24. forte, etc. : 'I chanced to be inclined to study what it was chiefly that had sustained them in such great undertakings.' 26. legionibus : this word is rarely used to denote forces other than Roman. contendisse : sc. populum Romānum. 29. gloriā belli Gallos ante Romānās fuisse : “that the Gauls had surpassed the Romans in military glory'; such a defeat as that of the battle of Allia (B.C. 390) had produced a very wholesome respect for the valor of the Gauls.

:

Page 50. 3. vitia sustentābat: cf. 46, 17–24. sicuti effētā parente : 'like a mother whose productiveness was exhausted.' 7. obtulerat and fuit: similar to epistolary tenses.

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$ 54. 10. Igitur : Well then.' genus : Caesar was of the patrician Julian gens, while Cato belonged to the plebeian Porcian gens. aetās : Caesar was five years older than Cato. 11. alia aliī: (each had attained it (the renown) by different qualities'; properly, alter is the word to be used of one of two persons, but it is obviously better to violate that rule than to write alterī after alia. 15. nihil largiundo : "by never offering a bribe.' 19. neglegere and (20) dēnegāre are historical infinitives. 21. bellum novom : i.e. a war in which he would not succeed some other commander, like the Gallic War. Pompey, on the other hand, had won his greatest successes against Sertorius, Spartacus, and Mithridates, by superseding some other general in command. 24. sed, etc. : 'but with the resolute in courage.'

Execution of the five conspirators. Section 55.

§ 55. 28. in Catonis sententiam discessit: see note to 40, 4.

Page 51. 1. in carcere : a prison on the north side of the Forum, opposite the temple of Concord, reserved for prisoners who had been condemned to death. As will be seen by the illustration on page 51, it consisted of two chambers, one below the other, the only ingress in ancient times being by a manhole in the centre of the roof of each dungeon. The existence of a natural spring (c) in the lower chamber has given rise to the theory that it was originally a “well house," built to guard the water supply of the citadel. As the floor was but little above the level of the Tiber, it was often flooded, producing the dampness and filth so vividly described by Sallust. When Jugurtha was thrust into this dungeon, he exclaimed, “By Hercules, how cold your bath is !” Triumphal processions on their way to the Capitol usually halted near the prison until the announcement was made that the principal captives had been strangled in this gruesome dungeon.

Tradition declares that St. Peter and St. Paul were confined in this prison by Nero, and that the spring burst forth miraculously from the floor, that water might be provided for the baptism of the two jailers and forty-seven prisoners who had been converted under the apostles' preaching. The visitor to the church of San Pietro in Carcere, which now stands above the prison, is led down by modern stairs into both these damp and gloomy dungeons, and is shown the exact (?) spots where the apostles were chained, as well as where Jugurtha and the Catilinarian conspirators were strangled. It is often called the Mamertine prison, -a mediaeval name which it got from a statue of Mars (Mamers), which stood in a street close by.

1. Tulliānum : as Ancus Marcius, the fourth king of Rome, was said to have built the upper chamber, the Romans made a natural but most improbable — inference that Servius Tullius, the sixth king, added the lower dungeon, and that from him it received its name, Tulliānum. 2. ubi paululum adscenderis ad laevam : the most reasonable explanation of this doubtful passage is that after being lowered to the floor of the first chamber, one had to go a few steps to the left to reach the hole into the Tulliānum; and that, since the roof of the Tulliānum was vaulted, the floor above it might have had a corresponding slope, thus accounting for the word adscenderis.

4. camera lapideis fornicibus iūncta : the construction shows that it belongs to a period before the principle of the arch was known in Rome, as the vaulted roof is made of stone slabs, each overlapping the one under it. 7. vindicēs rērum capitālium trēsviri. 10. exitium : an archaism for exitum. 11. eodem modo supplicium sümptum est : Cicero, it is said, waited outside the prison until he was informed that the execution was over. This he announced to the bystanders with the single word, “vīzērunt,” and then went on

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Catiline's army; its movements to avoid Antonius.

Sections 56-57.

$ 56. 14. duās legionēs: as Catiline had assumed the powers of a consul, he was bound to have two legions, which was the regular force for each consul to command in the field. With 1000 troops in each legion (see 52, 3-4), he could have only 100 in each cohort.

Page 52. 1. sociīs : sc. coniūrātionis. 3. numero hominum explēverat: a full legion might number 5000 to 6000 men, but at this time the average was 3600 to 4000. 9. vorsus : note that the adverb is used with in. 12. servitia ... cüius : a relative pronoun in the singular with a plural antecedent is very rare. It probably arose from thinking of the slaves as a class.

Page 53. § 57. 6. in agrum Pistoriēnsem: Catiline marched along the Apennines to the neighborhood of Pistoria, 17 miles northwest of Faesulae. From this point there were two passes into Cisalpine Gaul,-one through the valley of the Renus to Bononia, the other following the Scultenna to Mutina. The former is the easier and more direct way, and is the route traversed by the modern railroad from Pistoja to Bologna. 7. in Galliam Trānsalpinam : probably to the Allobroges.

9. ex difficultāte rērum, etc. : surmising that Catiline, on account of the difficulties of his position, would be meditating the very plans mentioned above.' 13. quā, etc. : ‘(down) which he (Catiline) must needs descend in hastening to Gaul.' 14. qui māgno exercitū sequerētur : i.e. Antonius could move faster, because with his large army he did not need to wait for stragglers, and because he was marching through a level country; whereas Catiline could ill afford to leave a single man behind, and, moreover, was marching through mountainous districts. 16. cõpiīs

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CICERO.

Page 62. 1. Gallicānis legionibus: a permanent force stationed in Cisalpine Gaul. 4. collēctum : agreeing with exercitum (line 1). ex senibus dēspērātis: Sulla's veterans. 5. lüxuria : 'high livers’; the abstract for the concrete; see note to 9, 22–23. vadimònia dēse. rere: i.e. they preferred to forfeit the bail which their friends had furnished as a guarantee that they would appear for trial at a certain time. 6. quibus hi si eis. 7. Ēdictum praetoris : with reference to debt. 10. praesidia: 'garrisons.' 11. gladiātori: i.e. Catiline.

hostium sēsē clausum: he was prevented from going northward by Metellus Celer, and from going westward to the coast by Antonius. 18. praesidi: reënforcement.'

Catiline's speech to his soldiers. Section 58. § 58. Outline of the speech. — I am aware, soldiers, that a commander's eloquence has but little effect on his army; for a man's behavior in battle is predetermined by his character. But I have assembled you for a word of advice and explanation.

You know that Lentulus's slowness has not only brought us disaster in the city, but has prevented me from proceeding to Gaul. Meanwhile our situation here has become perilous. Our only hope is to cut our way through the enemy. Therefore be brave. Victory will open all Italy to us; defeat means our utter ruin. Besides, we are fighting for fatherland, for freedom, for life; they only for the aggrandizement of a few families.

You might have lived on in exile, or in disgrace and misery at Rome. But you chose to be men. Then be bold and face the enemy.

When I think of your determination and valor, -ay, and of your desperate necessity, too, - I am filled with hope. The enemy cannot surround us in this narrow pass. But even if we are overpowered by numbers, let us not be taken captive to be slaughtered afterward like cattle, but let us quit ourselves like men and die, leaving the enemy to mourn a costly and bloody victory.

22. compertum ego habeo : cf. note to compertum habēbat, 20, 20. 31. quoque et quo.

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Page 54. 4. sī, etc. : see fero in Vocab. 15. supervacāneum est: it is a matter of no interest.' 19. potuistis, etc. :

some of you, after losing your property, might have lingered in Rome, watching for the bounty of strangers'; i.e. being dependent on their patron's daily dole, or on the bribes of some candidate for a magistracy. 21. haec : this enterprise.' 30. Nam: introducing the answer to a possible objection, which the speaker does not state. As though he imagined some one remarking, “ But the enemy outnumber us so completely"; and answered, “ That need not give you any anxiety. For,” etc. 31. Quod si, etc. : •But if fortune is jealous of your valor,'. - a euphemistic expression for "But if it is your fortune to be defeated."

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