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a school slate. Two of these were generally held together by wire fastenings, so as to open and close like a book. For tracing the letters on the wax, a stilus was used. This was a metal or ivory instrument pointed at one end, looking not unlike a modern pencil when ready for use.

The other end of the stilus was rounded so that it might be used to erase the characters on the wax. After the letter had been written, the tabellae were closed and wound with thread, which was passed through two holes bored in the middle of the tablets. Then, as softened wax was dropped upon the knot, the writer's seal was applied, both as a safeguard against the letter being opened and as a proof that it was genuine. Letters were also written on papyrus with

exemplum : 'an exact copy'; this is probable from the use of several words and phrases which do not occur elsewhere in Sallust; e.g. in novo consilio, dius Fidius, 'statum dignitātis, meīs nominibus, honore honestātos.

pen and ink.

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Page 26. § 35. 1. L. Catilīna Q. Catulo: the formula used in beginning a letter varied according to the formality to be observed. The most common form was the one before us, with the addition of the letters S. D. (salūtem dīcit, “sends greeting '). The omission of these letters indicated a closer acquaintance, as also the use of the abbreviation SAL. (salūtem). In exceedingly formal letters, the immediate ancestry on the father's side and the titles of both writer and receiver were given ; e.g. M. Tullius M. F. M. N. Cicero Imp. S. D. C. Caelio L. F. C. N. Caldo Quaestori Mārcus Tullius, Mārci filius, Mārci nepās, Cicero Imperātor salūtem dicit Gāio Caelio, Lūcī filio, Gāī nepātī, Caldo Quaestūrī. fidēs rē cógnita: 'faithfulness known by experience.' Catulus had helped to secure the acquittal of Catiline in his trial for incest with Fabia; see § 15. 2. commendātionī: «appeal' to look after Orestilla (see 26, 17–18).

3. Quam ob rem : i.e. his confidence in Catulus's loyalty. 4. novo consilio: sudden change of plan,' viz. his determination to go to the camp of Manlius. satisfactionem : "explanation,' contrasted with defensionem, "formal defence,' which should be unnecessary between friends.

8. statum dignitātis: the consulship. pūblicam miserõrum causam suscēpi: ‘I undertook to cham

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Page 26. 1. vi et minis: hendiadys; 'threats of violence.' 5. tanti: B. 203, 3; A. 252, a; H. 448, 1; G. 380, 1, R. 7. sānē: concessive.

pion the cause of the poor before the people.' 10. aes alienum meīs nominibus : literally, debt (recorded) under my own names,' i.e. items of the sums Catiline owed, recorded under his name on the pages of his creditors' ledgers; hence, his personal debts.'

11. aliēnīs nominibus : sc. aes aliēnum ; debts recorded under others' names, for which Catiline declared himself responsible. 12. persolveret: B. 280; A. 311, a; H. 552 ; G. 258. 13. non dīgnos hominēs : like Cicero and Murena. honore honestātos: an archaism. 14. Hoc nomine Quā causā; this use of nomine for causā is common in letters. 15. satis honestās pro meo cāsū spēs : a hope that was quite honorable, considering my misfortune.' 16. vellem: an epistolary past for present. B. 265 ; A. 282; H. 539, 1; G. 252. 18. per ; 'in the name of.' 19. Havētö: the future imperative was often used in the everyday speech of the people.

The Senate, learning that Catiline had joined Manlius, declares them

both public enemies and orders Antonius to lead an army against them. (Digression: Explanation of the eagerness of the people for a revolution.) Sections 36–39.

Page 27. $ 36. 1. C. Flāminium : nothing further is known of him. 2. in agro Arrētīno: the harsh treatment of this district by Sulla for siding with Marius had, in all probability, increased their hostility to the aristocracy, and prepared them to favor any movement, however desperate, which aimed to overthrow the hated optimātēs. 3. aliīs imperī insīgnibus: such as the curule chair (sella curūlis), and the scarlet cloak (palūdāmentum) worn by generals. 6. diem : when is diēs feminine ? sine fraude: without punishment,' an archaic expression which might very likely have been found in the Senate's formal decree. 7. praeter: an adverb. demnātīs: dative, dependent on licēret. 12. cum: concessive. 16. perditum irent: B. 340; A. 302, R; H. 633, 2; G. 435, n.1. duobus dēcrētis: ablative absolute, denoting concession. 18. patefécerat: the subject is quisquam. 19. tanta, etc. : 'so violent was the disease which like a plague had seized upon the minds of most of the citizens.'

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Page 27. 3. ūnius: viz. Pompey, who had exterminated the pirates on sea and conquered Mithridates on land.

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§ 37. 21. aliēna mēns : "a diseased mind,' continuing the figure in the preceding sentence. 22. fuerant: i.e. had been accomplices before the plot was disclosed. omnino: "generally.' 23. Id adeo, etc. : • And this especially they seemed to do because it was their nature.' 24. quibus : sc. antecedent it as the subject of invident.

Page 28. 1. turbā, etc. : 'get their living amid rioting and insurrection without trouble, since beggars subsist easily, and at the same time have nothing to lose.' 2. Sed urbāna plēbēs : " But the city plebs,' in distinction from the lower classes throughout Italy, of whom he has been speaking thus far. 3. Primum omnium : compare the five classes mentioned by Sallust in this section with the six enumerated in the Cicero, 28-29. 5. patrimoniīs āmissīs: a substitute for quī patrimonia āmīserant, for the sake of variety.

8. ex gregāriīs militibus alios senātörēs vidēbant: as fully half the Senate perished or fled into exile because of his proscriptions, Sulla filled many of the vacancies with his veteran soldiers. 9. alios ita dīvitēs : L. Luscius, one of Sulla's centurions, is said to have amassed a fortune of more than $100,000 as the fruit of his plunder. 12. quae, etc. : 'who had withstood poverty by the wages of their hands in the fields.' 13. largitionibus : although it was against the law, candidates for office, in order to popularize themselves, often provided corn at a nominal rate for the people, besides furnishing feasts, games, and gladiatorial exhibitions, free to all. These were prīvātae largītiānēs; while the same, if given by the aedile, were pūblicae largitionēs.

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Page 28. 1. est eorum:'consists of those.' māgno in aere aliēno: with concessive idea, “although in great debt.' 2. possessionēs: ‘landed property.' dissolvī, etc.; "they cannot part with it on any account,' i.e. they cannot bear to sell enough of their estates to clear themselves of debt. 4. premuntur: ‘are overwhelmed,' i.e. they are too heavily in debt to be able to pay it off by a sale of their property. 5. rērum potīri: 'get cont of affairs.' B. 212, 2; A. 223, a; H. 458, 3; G. 407, n.2 (d). 6. perturbātā: sc. pūblicā. 8. est aetāte iam adfectum: 'shows the hand of time.' 10. coloniis: see note to Sullae dominātione, 20, 12. 11. üniversās: 'on the whole.' 18. in ... spem ... impulērunt: ‘have induced ... to entertain ... hope.' 20. sānē: altogether.' 21. premuntur: sc. aere aliēno. ēmergunt: 'get their heads above water.'

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Page 29. 2. malum pūblicum : disorders among the people.' 3. māxumā spē: of the greatest ambition.' rei pūblicae, etc.: cared as little for the state as for themselves.' 5. jūs lībertātis imminūtum erat: the Lēx Cornēlia L. Sullae proscrīptione, B.C. 81, ordained that the children of proscribed persons should not be candidates for state offices, and that the sons of proscribed senators should bear the burdens of the senatorial order, and yet should not enjoy its privileges. 6. haud sānē alio animo : with very similar feelings.' 7. quicumque, etc.: whoever belonged to a party other than that of the Senate.' 9. Id adeo malum : viz. bitter party struggles resulting from the renewed activity of the popular party, which had been given a new lease of life in B.c. 70, by the restoration to the tribunes of the power taken from them by Sulla eleven years before (see next section).

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§ 38. 12. tribūnīcia potestās : Sulla had abolished the right of the tribunes to propose laws, address public meetings, or hold any other office after the tribunate. These rights were restored to them in the consulship of Pompey and Crassus, B.C. 70. adulēscentēs : there was no fixed limit of age for the tribuneship, although ordinarily the quaestorship (to hold which, one had to be at least 28 years of age) preceded it. 13. summam potestātem : not military authority, but unlimited veto power in the interests of the people over the Senate, the comitia, or over any other Roman magistrate. 17. senātūs speciē, etc. : 'under the guise of supporting the Senate, but in reality for their own aggrandizement.'

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Page 29. 2. vadimoniis, iūdiciis, proscrīptione bonorum : the three steps in the legal proceedings against a bankrupt, viz. (1) the secur. ity given by the debtor to guarantee his appearance in court on the day of trial; (2) the judgment or sentence; (3) the sale of property in case the debt was not paid within the appointed time. 9. Postrēmum autem genus est: sc. postrēmum. 'But the last class is not only last in order, but lowest,' etc. 12. immo vērā, etc.: ‘nay, rather his dearest bosom friends.' 13. imberbős: a proof of their effeminacy. bene barbātos: ‘full bearded,' from foppishness, since the Romans of that time wore a long beard only as a sign of mourning. manicātis et tālāribus tunicis: ordinary tunics extended to the knees only, and were either sleeveless, or had short sleeves. 14. vēlis : their togas were so broad and full that they looked like 'sails.' 15. vigilandi labor: 'the labor of their wakeful hours.'

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Page 30. 1. post illa tempora : i.e. B.C. 70. 2. honestīs nominibus : • with honorable pretexts'; explained by the following clauses, the first alluding to the popular party, the second to the senatorial party.

§ 39. 8. ad bellum maritumum atque Mithridāticum : in B.C. 67, the Mediterranean was infested by pirates. From their strongholds in Cilicia they swarmed out to plunder vessels and terrorize the coast cities of Greece and Asia. They had even become so daring as to venture up the Tiber and carry off the children of Roman officials, in order to secure a large ransom.

Pompey had broken with the aristocratic party altogether in the year of his consulship (70), and now, as a victorious general, was the idol of the common people. When, therefore, Gabinius, a tribune of the plebs, proposed a law (67) giving Pompey command of the war against the pirates, Pompey received the appointment by an overwhelming popular vote, notwithstanding the bitter opposition of the optimātēs. In the war that followed, Pompey exhibited remarkably clever generalship, sweeping the seas of the marauders in the incredibly short period of three months. In the next year, while he was engaged in settling affairs in Cilicia, the Manilian law was passed, transferring to him the command of the war against Mithridates. After quickly conquering this most formidable enemy he reduced Syria to a Roman province, and in the year of the conspiracy was occupied in subduing Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, and Palestine.

9. plēbis opēs imminūtae, paucorum potentia crēvit : of the two prominent men, after Pompey, in the popular party, Crassus possessed the influence that comes of wealth, but lacked political sagacity, while Caesar had not as yet shown any strong leadership. Hence Pompey's departure left the party without any great leader, and to that extent gave the optimātēs a certain advantage. But Sallust goes too far in saying that, after Pompey went, “the resources of the plebs diminished, while the power of the oligarchy increased.' As a matter of fact, the plebs gained several signal victories over the optimātēs during Pompey's absence. That, however, does not detract from the main point Sallust is making in this chapter, viz. that the spoils of office were secured altogether by the nobility, and that this was one reason why a conspiracy to overturn the existing government appealed very strongly to the common people.

12. cēterās, etc.: 'while they overawed all who in their magistra.

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