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Rome in the north corner of after the defeat at Thapsus in the Forum.

B.C. 46, rather than submit to careo, -ēre, -ui, -itūrus, with Caesar, he committed suicide

abl., be deprived of, do without, at Utica, whence he was called abstain from.

Uticēnsis. carptim, [carpā, pick], adv., Catulus, -ī, m., name of a family piecemeal, in parts, for differ- of the Lutatian gens; Q. Lutāent periods.

tius Catulus, consul B.C. 78, Carthāginiēnsis,-is, [Carthāgā], was a highly respected leader

m. and f., Carthaginian. of the senatorial party. Carthāgõ, -inis, f., Carthage, a causa, -ae, f., cause, reason, mo

powerful city on the north tive, occasion; eā causā, on coast of Africa, near the mod- this account; causā with preern Tunis.

ceding gen., for the sake of, cārus, -a, -um, adj., dear, pre- on account of; in law, judicial cio

process; causā cognitā, after Cassius, -a, name of a Roman a judicial investigation.

gens; L. Cassius Longinus, caveo, ēre, cāvī, cautus, be on a senator, was one of Catiline's

one's guard ;

cavēre ab, chief conspirators.

guard against, take precaucastra, -ōrum, n. pl., camp, en- tions against; cavēte foll. by campment.

subj., beware of, take care not castrēnsis, -e, [castra], adj., of to, see that you do not.

the camp; latrocinium cas- -ce, enclitic particle with demon. trēnse (brigandage with a force appended to pronouns,

camp), i.e. open brigandage. as, hice, hūiusce. cāsus, -ūs, [CAD, fall], m., acci- cēdē, -ere, cessī, cessus, with

dent, chance; mishap, mis- dat., yield, give way, retire, fortune, disaster.

retreat, resign, submit; loco caterva, -ae, f., crowd, band, cēdere, abandon one's post; company.

result, happen; prosperē cēCatilīna, -ae, m., name of a dere, succeed.

Roman family of the Sergian celebrò, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [celegens; L. Sergius Catilīna, L. ber, celebrated], celebrate, Sergius Catiline, see Introduc- honor, make famous. tion.

Celer, -eris, [celer, swift], m., Cató, -ōnis, [catus, shrewd], m., a Roman cognomen in the

name of a Roman family of family of the Metelli, see Methe Porcian gens; M. Porcius

tellus (2). Cato, great-grandson of Cato celeritās, -ātis, [celer, swift], the Censor, was famed for his f., quickness, swiftness, speedy firmness and integrity ; at the action. time of Catiline's conspiracy, celeriter, [celer], adv., quickly, he was a prominent senator ; speedily.

cēna, -ae, f., dinner, the princi- cervix, -icis, f., neck, shoul

pal meal of the Romans, usu- ders. ally beginning about the middle cēterum, [cēterus), conj., for of the afternoon and lasting at the rest, now, besides, further; least several hours.

but, yet, still. cēnseo, -ēre, -ui, cēnsus, (rate, cēterus, -a, -um, adj., the other, estimate); of the senate and

the rest. its members, be of opinion, Cethēgus, -i, m., name of a Ropropose, recommend, move, vote, man family in the Cornelian decree; sometimes ironically, gens; C. Cornēlius Cethēgus, suppose.

a senator, was one of the most cēnsor, -āris, [cēnseõ], m., cen- reckless of Catiline's follow

sor, a Roman magistrate. Two ers. censors were elected every five Chīlo, -ōnis, m., name of a Royears to hold office for eighteen man family in the Annian months; their chief duties were gens ; Q. Annius Chilo was to enroll and tax the citizens, one of Catiline's accomplices. let contracts for public works, Cicero, -ōnis, [cicer, chick-pea], and supervise the morals of m., name of a Roman family

senate, equites, and people. in the Tullian gens; M. Tulcentum, indecl. num. adj., a lius Cicero, the orator and hundred.

writer, was consul in b.c. 63. centurio, -ōnis, [centuria, com- Cimber, -brī, m., name of a Ro

pany of a hundred soldiers], man family in the Gabinian m., centurion, commander of gens; P. Gabīnius Capito (see a centuria, corresponding to Capito) is called Cimber Gabi

a sergeant in a modern army. nius by Cicero, 35, 8. Cēpārius, see Caepārius. Cimbricus, -a, -um, [Cimbrī], cerno, -ere, crēvī, crētus, [CER, adj., Cimbrian, of the Cimbri,

part], see, perceive, discern. à people of Northern Gercertāmen, -inis, [certā], n., many, who with the Teutones

struggle, contest, dispute, con- threatened to invade Italy,

tention, quarrel ; rivalry. and greatly alarmed the Ro1. certo, (certus], adv., cer- mans by defeating several of tainly, assuredly, fully.

their armies. However, in B.C. 2. certo, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [cer- 101 they were utterly defeated

tus], fight, struggle; vie with. by Marius at Campi Raudii. certus, -a, -um, (cerno), adj., Cinna, -ae, m., name of a Ro

certain; sure, true, reliable; man family in the Cornelian definite, particular, special ; gens ; L. Cornēlius Cinna, pro certo, assuredly, positively; consul in B.c. 86, on the death pro certo habētote, be assured; of his colleague Marius, bealiquem certiorem facere, in- came virtually sole ruler of form, apprise.

Rome for three years.

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circiter, [circus, circle), prep. clāmor, -āris, [cal, call), m.,

with acc., and adv., about, a shouting, shout, uproar, not far from.

clamor, shouts. circum, [circus, circle), prep. clārus, -a, -um, [cal, call], adj.,

with acc., and adv., around, clear, manifest, plain, evident; about.

brilliant, illustrious, distincircumclūdō, -ere, -clūsī, -clūsus, guished, famous, glorious.

(circum + claudő, shut], shut claudo, -ere, clausī, clausus, in, surround, hem in.

[Clav, lock], shut up; hide, circum-dō, -dare, -dedi, -datus, conceal; hem in.

put around, surround. cliēns, -entis, [for cluēns, part. circum-eo, -ire, -īvi or - iī, circu- of clueo, hear], m., dependant,

mitus or circuitus, go around. client, one who, retaining his circum-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus, freedom, placed himself under

bear around, carry around. the protection of a wealthy circumscrīptor, -āris, (circum + patron, who provided him with scrībā]; m., cheat.

food and clothing, but in turn circum-venio, -īre, -vēnī, -ven- required him to be at his beck

tus, surround, beset, press and call at all times. hard ; attack, waylay; en- Cn., abbreviation for Gnaeus. snare, entrap, entangle, in- co-, see cum- in composition. volve.

co-aequo, -āre, -āvi, -ātus, citerior, -ius, [citer from cis, on [aequo, make level], level.

this side], adj., on this side, co-alēsco, -ere, -alus, -alitus, hịther, nearer; Hispānia cite- [alēsco, increase, inceptive rior, Hither Spain, i.e. the from alā), become united, eastern half; Gallia citerior, unite, blend, coalesce. Cisalpine Gaul, in Northern co-arguo, -ēre, -uī, [arguo, Italy.

make clear], prove guilty, concito, [citus), adv., quickly, vict. speedily.

(coepio, -ere, obsolete), coepī, citus, -a, -um, (part. of cieo, coeptus, (com + AP, lay hold],

move), adj., quick, swift, rapid. begin, commence. cīvīlis, -e, [civis], adj., of citi- coerceo, -ēre, -uī, -itus, [com +

zens, of one's countrymen, arceo, shut up], restrain, concivil.

trol. cīvis, -is, m. and f., citizen, coetus, -ūs, [co-eo, go together],

fellow-citizen, fellow-country- m., meeting, assembly. man, countryman.

cogito, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [com civitās, -ātis, [civis], f., body of + agito), consider, reflect,

citizens, citizens; state, com- think. monwealth.

cognātus, -], [com + GNA, beclādēs, -is, f., disaster; slaugh- get], m., kinsman, blood-relater, massacre.

tion, relative.

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cognitor, -ōris, [cognosco], m., color or colős, -õris, m., color,

advocate, defender, voucher, complexion. sponsor.

com-, see cum- in composition. cognosco, -ere, cognóvī, cogni- comes, -itis, (com + I, go], m.

tus, (com +(g)nösco], become and f., companion, comrade. acquainted with, hear, ascer- comitātus, -ūs, [comitor, accomtain, find, learn, examine, pany], m,, company, retinue, investigate ; understand, com- train, escort. prehend; recognize, acknowl-comitia, -ōrum, [com + I, go], edge, identify; in perf. tenses, n. pl., an assembly of the know, be aware; causā cõg- people to elect magistrates, nitā, after a judicial investiga- enact laws, etc., election. tion.

comitium, -ī, [com + I, go], n., cögő, -ere, coēgī, coāctus, [com the comitium, an open space in

+ ago), bring together, col- the north corner of the Forum, lect, assemble.

where the comitia cūriāta were cohors, hortis, [com + HER, held.

grasp], f., (enclosure, cattle- commeātus, -ūs, [commeo, go yard, crowd), company, divi- back and forth], m., provision, cohort, the tenth part of sions, supplies. a legion, usually about 360 com-memoro, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, men ; cohors praetoria, body- call to mind, remind; menguard of the general (who was tion. originally praetor).

commendātio, -ōnis, [commenco-hortor, -ārī, -ātus sum, en- do], f., recommendation, comcourage, exhort, urge.

mendation. collēga, -ae, [com + LEG, be commendő, -āre, -āvī, -ātus,

fixed], m., colleague, asso- [com + mando), commend, ciate.

commit, intrust, confide. colligo, -ere, -lēgī, -lēctus, [com comminus, [com + manus], ady.,

+ LEG, gather], collect, assem- hand to hand, at close quarble, gather.

ters, in close combat. colloco, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [com com-mitto, -ere, -mīsī, -missus

+ loco], place, post, station. (bring together in fight); proecollubet, -ēre, -lubuit or -lubi- lium committere, begin the en

tum est, [com + lubet], im- gagement; commit, perpetrate. pers., with dat., it pleases, it commodo, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, is agreeable.

[commodus, fitting], furnish, collum, -ī, n., neck.

supply, provide, produce. colo, -ere, coluī, cultus, till, cul- commodum, -i, [commodus, fittivate ; cherish, practise.

ting], n., convenience, advancolonia, -ae, [colonus], f., colony. tage, interest. colonus, -1, [colo], m., member com-moror, -ārī, -ātus sum,

or citizen of a colony, colonist. tarry, delay, wait, stay.

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com-move), -ēre, -mõvi, -mõtus, cado), fall, be slain ; col

move greatly, stir, rouse, dis- lapse. turb, excite.

concito, -āre, -āvi, -ātus, [freq. commūnico, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, from concio, call together),

[commūnis], with cum, com- rouse, . stii, excite, instigate. municate, share, identify; con- con-clāmō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, sult, concert with.

[clāmā, cry out], with acc. com-mūnis, -e, [mūnis, service- and inf., cry out, call out,

able], adj., with cum, com- shout. mon, in common.

concordia, -ae, [concors, of the com-parā, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, pre- same mind], f., harmony, con

pare, make ready, furnish, pro- cord ; Concordia, -ae, f., Convide, procure, collect, obtain, cord, Goddess of Concord, in raise.

whose temple, on the northcom-pello, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus, west side of the Forum, the drive, force, compel.

senate often met. comperiā, īre, perī, -pertus, con-cupīsco, -ere, -cupīvī, -cupi

(com + pariõ], with acc. and tus, (cupīsco, inceptive from inf., find out, ascertain, tearn, cupio], long for, greatly de

discover, prove, authenticatē. sire, covet. com-pleo, -ēre, -ēvī, -ētus, (pleo, con-currõ, -ere, -currī (-cucurrī),

fill], with abl., fill up, fill, -cursus, with ad, hasten to, complete.

flock to; with cum, rush tocomplexus, -ūs[complector, gether, meet, engage in battle, embrace], m., embrace.

fight. com-plūrēs, plūra (-ia), gen. con-cursus, -ūs, m., crowding to

-ium, adj., pl., several, a num- gether, assembling, concourse. ber, many.

concutio, -ere, -cussī, -cussus, compositē, [compānā, arrange], [com+quatio, shake], alarm,

adv., in studied language, in trouble, confound, dismay. elaborate style.

condemno, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [com com-prehendo, -ere, -hendī, + damno], convict, condemn,

-hēnsus, (prehendő, grasp], sentence.

take into custody, arrest. condicio, -ōnis, (com + DIC, com-probo, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, es- show], f., terms, conditions ;

tablish, attest, confirm, verify. condition, lot, circumstances; con-, see cum- in composition. task. cònātus, ūs, [conor), m., at- con-do, -ere, -didī, -ditus, found,

tempt, endeavor, effort, enter- establish. prise.

con-dōnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, with con-cēdo, -ere, -cessī, -cessus, acc. and dat., pardon, over

with in and acc., pass over look, be indulgent. into, pass under.

con-dūcē, -ere, -dūxı, -ductus, concido, -ere, -cidi, - [com + hire.

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