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rest, an old hat, which had lost its crown as completely as the late king of France. When another, we believe Mr. Tyrwhit, died in a similar adventure, the Africans took an inventory of his property, with a view to restore it. They were sorely puzzled in making out this paper, and in utter despair, described a couple of tooth-brushes as two scrapers made of

* pig's hair,' and set down his spectacles as two looking-glasses for the nose. Now one of the sages, who lament that our wants are increasing, would say, How fortunate these Africans, who know not the want of hats, spectacles, or toothbrushes ! But they make a pretty obvious mistake. The Africans know the want of these things as well as we, but they know not how to supply it, and we do; so that the balance certainly leans in favor of civilized life.

The common prejudice is, that we should endeavor to dispense with the thing wanted. When the thing wanted is not by any means to be had, as in the case of the child crying for the moon, it is clearly the best and almost the only way, to try to do without it; but when it is a want that can be supplied without creating other wants, by drawing off from other resources, it is best to make exertions to supply it ; for example, the backwoodsman, who weeps as he endeavors to read by the pine torch,-candlewood, as it was called by our fathers-will do well to work a little longer and harder, for the means of buying candles, if they are within his reach. Yet it is mournful to see what slender thanks are given to any one who endeavors to increase the comfort of the human race. Let any one try the experiment, and he will fare like the reformer, who endeavors to eject the pig from an Irish cabin, and finds reason to regret that he ever meddled with a character so important. Jonas Hanway first appeared with an umbrella in the streets of London, and though a popular and respectable character, he was looked upon with a feeling very

a similar to that with which the ancient prophet of that name was regarded; he was beset in such a manner, that the instrument of defence from the rain saved him from a more pelting shower of earthly hail, and he went his way rejoicing to escape without a broken head.

What effect our wants have in quickening the mind to action, may be seen in the advance of the arts of life compared with those of taste. When the latter have reached a certain height in any department, they stand still; any great effort retains its pre-eminence for ages; the Parthenon in architecture, the Venus in statuary, and the Iliad in poetry, are exertions of power, which men, instead of attempting to rival, are content to gaze upon with wonder and despair. We do not say the same of painting, because portrait-painting, which restores the absent and the dead, is almost a necessary of life; and it is precisely that which keeps on with the most unwearied improvement. Meantime, the arts of life have no rest in their advancement; every year throws the skill and success of its predecessors into shade; some new and unimaginable discovery is perpetually eclipsing all that have gone before it; and by a pretty exact inverse proportion, Amos Cottle is to Homer, as the arts of life in Homer's day to those of our own.

But we have not space for these general remarks, and will, therefore, proceed to give some slight account of those arts by which our imperative wants are supplied. We place food first in order, because it is the most essential; many have contrived to live without houses, and even without clothing, without suffering much either from delicacy or climate, but we never have heard of any people who have subsisted without food. It is then, decidedly, the most momentous of the arts of life, which professes to supply this craving; and in justice to our race, we must say, that it is generally treated in practice with all the attention and solemnity which its abstract importance deserves.

One of the earliest of arts in this department, was that of making bread, as appears from the Scripture account of Abraham. It does not appear that flesh was eaten before the flood; though the division of animals into clean and unclean subsisted before that time; and the teeth and stomach must have been carnivorous from the beginning, unless, in accordance with Darwin's theory, we allow that long and faithful practice has brought them to their present form. Meat in warm climates is less desirable, than any other kind of food; the hecatombs annually sacrificed in our country, would have sustained an Oriental nation for years. Corn was at first eaten without any preparation, while it was still soft in the ear; and without any other preparation than grinding it in a mortar, when it had become hard. In the mortar, it was rather ground than pounded, so that the change was not great, from the mortar to the mill. The rude mill which was in use in the days of the patriarchs, is not yet out of date in the East.


It was composed of two stones of a circular form, of which the upper had its lower surface concave, to fit the convex upper surface of the nether mill-stone. In the upper stone was an upright piece of wood, with a cross stick at the top of it. Two women kneeled down, facing each other, and with their left hands kept the upper stone in rapid whirling motion, while with their right, they poured in corn through a hole in the upper stone. The flour fell out at the sides, and was passed through sieves of rushes. That which was not ground sufficiently fine, was put into the mill again.

This kind of mill was so easily constructed, that it was often used, even by those who were acquainted with better. A pair of old Roman mill-stones, of this description, were dug up in Yorkshire, at the beginning of the last century ; their diameter was twenty inches. It must not be inferred from this, that they were unacquainted with water-mills, for these are described by Palladius and Vitruvius; and we know also, that cattle-mills were very common at Rome. The practice of employing slaves for this purpose, was more agreeable to the feelings of the masters of the world; but it gradually gave way to the superior advantages of the larger constructions. Many orders, with respect to mill-slaves, are found among the records of Rome, and they were still in use in the time of Theodosius. No distinct account of public water-mills is found, till the time of Arcadius and Honorius. Then, they were built upon the aqueducts, which conveyed water into the city. Floating-mills were invented by Belisarius, when Vitiges besieged him in Rome, in 536. By cutting off the supply of water in the aqueducts, he deprived the city not only of that element, but bread. The Roman General, accustomed to military expedients, proposed to the inhabitants to anchor vessels in the stream, and suspend wheels between them in such a manner that they might be turned by the tide. Mills were constructed in this way, and though heavy and slow in their operation, they answered the purpose till the siege was raised. One would have thought that the expedient of applying the force of the wind to this purpose, would have suggested itself in ancient times, since the use of sails in navigation was well known, but we find no account of this whatever. Some have thought that wind-mills were introduced into Europe by the Crusaders on their return from the East; but we fear that those strange expeditions cannot have the praise of


rendering this service to mankind, for it is tolerably clear, that they were known in Europe before the Crusades began. They were the occasion of a dispute in the end of the fourteenth century, which illustrates curiously enough the manners of the times. The Augustin monks at Windsheim wished to construct a wind-mill not far from Zwolt; but their measures for that purpose were arrested by the Lord of Woedst, who declared that the district was in every respect under his control, and positively forbade their proceeding. The monks in their distress bethought themselves of the spiritual pretensions of the Bishop of Utrecht, and laid their case before him. Extremely incensed by this laical encroachment, he held forth a statement, in which he maintained that the right to all the wind in the diocess was vested in his own person, and directed the monks to put up their mill in whatever place they thought good.

The means of preparing bread, by an easy and not unnatural association, remind us of butter. We find this article mentioned in Scripture, but we presume that no one thinks it bore much resemblance to what now passes by the name. It is thought by the best sacred critics to have been milk cream, or some thick cream. It was evidently used for the purpose of bathing the feet, and is spoken of as a luxurious indulgence. The oldest account of the preparation of butter, whatever the substance was, is found in Herodotus; but he does not describe, and, probably, did not know it minutely; all he tells us is, that it was separated by shaking the milk till the richest part of it subsided. Strabo mentions that it was used by the Ethiopians; but he does not say what it was, nor for what purpose it was used. We learn from Plutarch, that a Spartan lady paid a visit to Berenice, the wife of Dijotarus, and one being perfumed with ointment and the other with butter, they openly expressed their disgust to each other. TI

prepares us for the statement of Hippocrates, that butter was efficient as a medicine, probably, of the emetic kind. But we need not be particular in this criticism, for it is sufficiently clear, that neither Greeks nor Romans used it in cookery ; they valued it as an ointment and medicine, not as food.

As we have said, flesh does not seem to have been so essential an article of food in the earliest times known to history, as in ours.

It was not often served up, unless there was a stranger present. For this reason, the various prohibitions of Moses were less severe to the Jews of ancient than of modern

times. He forbade their eating a kid boiled in its mother's milk, because such was the practice of those idolaters, from whose example he wished to preserve them. It would also appear that some kinds of flesh were thought to produce, or favor leprous disorders.

When an animal was to be slain, the business of preparing it fell to the lot of the master of the house, even if he were a prince or king; to this beginning, may possibly be traced the prejudice, which regards butchery on a magnificent scale as the chief glory of great men, and it is much to be regretted, that their operations had not always been confined to the domestic limits, within which they were useful and happy. The King Alcinous would, probably, have hesitated as little to kill and cook an animal, as the Princess Nausicaa to wash the clothes of the royal household. As for the kinds of meat that were eaten, the bill of fare was as extensive as in modern times; in the East somewhat more so, locusts being a common article of food ; they are still used, though less valued as a luxury. A traveller in the last century remarked to certain Arabs, that he wondered at their eating insects so disgusting; to which they replied, with some show of reason, that it savored of affectation in a person who could swallow an oyster, to be startled by any thing in the way of eating.

Among the Greeks various kinds of bread were eaten, and the profession of the baker was held in high esteem, insomuch that one of the craft was thought worthy of the notice of Plato. A specimen of these choice preparations will be enough for our readers,—rather more than they would wish to eat. One favorite kind was flavored with poppy-seed; another was made of four and honey together with oil; another was made of flour and water boiled, with a seasoning of pepper, cinnamon, saffron and cheese.

The fishes were as closely connected with a taste for loaves as in the patriotism of modern politicians. This seems strange to us in New England, whose forefathers sentenced themselves to a dinner of fish once a week by way of a necessary bounty to encourage the trade. The passion of the Athenians for fish was carried to an extreme, which might seem excessive to those, who do not know the gratitude of republics to all who render them similar services. Two young Athenians were knighted on account of the excellent salt-fish sold by their father. Fish was the food of the Greeks on their

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