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his Daughter ; and visited and administered medicine to three others in the village; the last of these, a Young Woman, seemed disposed to treat the matter with contempt—calling it “Amma's Sickness,” and the medicine, “Amnia's Medicine : " I exhorted her to think more seriously, and to seek help of God. So much distress I never witnessed before, as in this visit ; and I felt
powerfully impressed with the duty of
as to live. As I came home from this distressing visit, I heard drums beating at the temple where I saw the Woman, from which I concluded ihat she was still there; and that ceremonies were being performed for her, to appease the Augry Goddess, and procure her restoration. Dec. 11, 1821.-Mr. Toussaint, a Medical Man from Jaffna, called on me, and accompanied me in going round to see the sick: medicine was dispensed to many persons. We were walking about for three or four hours. Dec. 16, Sunday.—Service in the morning as usual. Went out, in the afternoon, to Kykooler; but had no Congregation. I found sick people, to whom I gave medicine. In the temple, I witnessed a distressing sight —no less than nine persons were laid there, to obtain help from the Idol God. The attention of the people is now more turned than it was to their idols, ceremonies, and superstitions: and they are, in consequence, more indifferent with regard to medicine. Dec. 17. – Applications for me
dicine still continue. Many deaths occur. Some who take medicine recover: others do not; and because all do not find benefit, the people do not feel confidence in the medicine, but carry most of their sick to the temples, and call on their Idol Gods for help. Some whom I found at the Kykooler Temple to-day were dead: others who were there were somewhat recovered; and their friends, who were attending them, boastingly exclaimed of their idol, “Pootharayar has been gracious to us t” Dec. 18–Accompanied Mr. Toussaint to see the sick. A poor man was just able to get up to my house for medicine for his Wife, himself labouring under the disease, when the Doctor arrived. He stated that a Brahmin had called on him to ask for a tree which stood on his premises, to assist in building anew a temple for the Devil Viraven. Near this place, a large temporary building was raised to this demon, when the sickness prevailed two years ago ; and the people boast that the disease was stopped, in consequence of the ceremonies which were made at this temple. A small temple has long stood here, sacred to this demon ; but as it is in a ruinous state, the people are urged, by the craft of the Brahmins and the fear of the sickness, to build it again. The Brahmin had told this man, that he had had a divine monition, that this tree must be given to the temple; but the poor man being unwilling to part with it, Viraven himself came to him, a night or two after, and seizing him by the throat in his sleep, would not loose him, till he had promised him the tree A little after, his Wife was taken sick of the prevailing disease ; and, yesterday, he took her to the temple: but this expedient failing, he thought himself deceived, and applied to me for aid. We went with him, and saw the tree which had been newly cut down. The poor man was in a pitiable plight: his relations had all left him through fear, and there
was ne one but himself to take care of his Wife, and he was scarcely able to stand. Medicine was given her, but with little hope of her recovery : she afterward died : the poor man seemed to feel much tenderness for her. We went on from thence to Kykooler, and were much grieved to see the ceremonies, and solemn parade, and prostrations around the idol temple. The people seem to be madly bent on their idols and idolatrous superstitions, and feel confident that Pootharayar will help them, although the very persons thus employed are, from day to day, attacked with the disease. I was much grieved to see the persons whom I had been instructing every Sabbath for some time past, and even the Children of the School, adorned with the badges of Heathenism, and wearing beads as a charm to keep off the sickness. I spoke to some of them who were in the temple, of the folly and absurdity of their practices; and reminded them of the Saviour, whom I had preached to them : but they seemed to feel little desire to hear of Him The sick in the temple refused to take medicine. Dec.20, 1821.—Went round again to see the sick, with Mr. Toussaint. One man, whose female relative had been sick, was much displeased because we pressed to see her; for they often hide their sick, and say they are well, because they will not take our medicine. He said, his god had helped her, and he wanted not our assistance. I reminded him of the Supreme God: but he said he would trust in Pootharayar, and him only ; and if they died, they died Some who had been restored by the use of medicine, were gone to the temple, to acknow
so that if they are restored by the help of medicine, it is commonly ascribed to the power of their idols.
Dec. 23.-Being unable to cellect a congregation at Kykooler, I went again this afternoon to Narduterru. While the Schoolmaster was out collecting the people, two Old Men came and sat down by me, desiring to know who this Christ was, of whom they had heard me speak; for it appears they supposed him to be the same with their Kirtman (or Kristna, as it is sounded in North India) a name of Vishnoo in one of his incarnations. I took the opportunity of pointing out some of the striking differences in the life and character of each, and thus endeavoured to show that they could not be the same. I also spoke of the necessity of the alonement which Christ came to make. They appeared to listen with eagerness to what I said, and did not attempt to cavil; their only object seeming to be, to know who Jesus Christ was, though doubtless curiosity alone prompted them to make the inquiry. I was much pleased with them, and prayed that their curiosity might be sanctified. I preached to an attentive little company and
afterward gave them some Tracts,
and returned home revived. Dec. 27.-Found a Native Doctor willing to look after the sick of this neighbourhood, whom I sent to Mr. Hooper, the Collector, who engaged him on behalf of the Government, to attend to the sick during the prevalence of the Epidemic. Dec. 30, Sunday.—The Old Brahmin, whom I have before mentioned, stood at the window, and heard most of my Discourse. I afterward had him in, and talked with him about the nature and character of their gods: he told me that they were like ourselves, only a superior order of beings ; that there were none of the inferior gods, who might not bo charged with faults—and that they could not be trusted, but that Brahma was superior to the other deities. Some weeks since a woman brought two fatherless children to me, wishing me to take and support them. I proposed taking one on a future day; and, for the present, to give her a small weekly sum toward their support. On Friday last, when the Mother came for the week's money, I chose to take the Boy, and proposed to call him by the name of my youngest Brother who died some months since, my friends having informed me that they subscribe to support a child of that name. The Mother seemed pleased with this; feeling the more confidence, probably, that he will be taken care of. I feel happy in thus making a beginning toward fulfilling the wishes of the Society in taking Native Children and hope, when my friends arrive from Trincomalee, that I shall be better able to carry the plan into effect.
The people are now occupied in sweeping and adorning their streets and lanes, as they did two years ago. They begin again to make little booths at the entrance of the houses and corners of the streets ; with a little
offering underneath, censisting of an earthen pot, cocoa-nut, flowers, &c. to appease the angry deities and demons. They talk of devils going about the streets, in companies of thousands and tens of thousands at a time ! Such is Heathenism —even in its best state; for this is said to be taught in their Sacred Books, which the poor deluded devotees implicitly follow. How great will be the change, when they shall be freed from their slavery and bondage by the Gospel Hasten, O Lord, the happy day ! Dec 31, 1821.—On the last day of the year, I had the pleasure to attend at the formation of a Branch Bible Society : that which has hitherto subsisted here having been known by the name of the Jaffna Sub-Committee to the Colombo Auxiliary Society. The Meeting was conducted with great propriety and spirit, and appeared to give much satisfaction to all present: C. E. Layard, Esq. Provincial Judge, was in the Chair. The subscriptions promise a considerable improvement of the funds.
Since the Note was printed, which, at É. 197, refers to this Appendix as containing Mr. Marsden's Journal, at large, of his Third Visit to New Zealand, it has been considered, that the copious digest and extracts of this Journal, which have been printed in the Missionary Register for September and October, will have given the Members such a satisfactory and interesting view of this Visit as to render the printing of the whole here unnecessary. The Committee will, however, subjoin some remarks with which Mr. Marsden concludes his Journal, and which have not before appeared ; and they may, probably, through the medium of the Missionary Register, hereafter give a few other extracts.
Instructions to Mr. James Shepherd, on his proceeding from New South Wales to New Zealand.
You a practical skill, in Gardening to introduce into cultivation, by and Agriculture, will enable you the New-Zealanders, wheat, barley,
maize, and otherg rains; vines, fruittrees, and useful vegetables. You will instruct them in the dibbling of wheat, by which two-fifths of the seed, required in the broad-cast way, suffices. In the pursuit of these objects, no opportunity should be lost of impressing on the minds of the Chiefs, a sense of the Society's solicitude to make the New-Zealanders acquainted with every art and production, fitted to minister to their wants and increase their comforts. You may make them to understand, that it is not one benevolent person in England, but many that feel deeply interested in their welfare; and that when death removes one English Chief who may be their friend, another immediately occupies his place, and pursues the object with equal ardour. The Society having it in view not merely to establish a Rope Work in New Zealand, but to promote the exportation of the Material for the supply of Rope and other Works at home, you will direct a steady attention to the plant common in the country, termed by Botanists Phormium Tenar. Mr. Marsden's late travels in New Zealand have brought to light the existence of seven varieties of that plant, and further research will no doubt add to the number. One of them is distinguished by the convenient peculiarity of its boon, or useless vegetable matter, being easily separable from the fibres required for mechanieal purposes. The others most probably possess distinctive properties, which may render them fit objects of attention; as while one variety may be superior for cordage, another may answer better for linen, and a third for the use of the papermaker: you should, therefore, have at least an acre of suitable land prepared, and plant in it roots of the different varieties. Specimens of fibre, of a silky lustre, and softness, are brought from the southward: you should endeavour to ascertain the place of its growth, and obtain one
or more roots from which to propagate it. The Society being desirous of a quantity of the raw material being sent home, you may encourage the Natives to bring it for sale, and draw. on the store-keeper for articles to barter for it. It is intended that Mr. John Cowell, who has been sent out by the Society. for the establishmentofa Rope Work in New Zealand, shall shortly proceed thither, in order to the discovery of a proper situation for his business. You are already in tolerable possession of his ideas on the advantages to be desired in such a situation; and his time and labour may be economized, by your having attended to the object previous to his arrival. Your travels or inquiries relative to it need not extend beyond the Bay of Islands, the inlet of the Ocean at Shukeangha, and the mouth of the Thames, You will persevere in your atten: tion to the New-Zealand Language, and its various dialects; and endeovour to contribute your share toward a complete Vocabulary and Collection of Phrases, which the Society is desirous of forming. By itinerating among the Natives, you will have greatly increased means of adding to your knowledge of them and of the country, and of gaining their affections. For many reasons, the Committee recommend your moving from place to place, and visiting the various Chiefs. The Natives frequently making distant excursions, for war, traffic, or the gratification of a curious and roving disposition, and their memories being tenaciousand correct, you have thus the means presented you of extending your acquaintance with the geography, localities, and physical and moral circumstances of the country, far beyond the limits of your own travels. By persevering in your researches, and carefully reducing the informa: tion to writing as soon as obtained,
you will, in a moderate time, accumulate a mass of materials, which, with the contributions of others, may put the Society in complete possession of facts, with the views and opinions of its experienced Servants in regard to its objects. Those objects should be constantly in your view; and, though your time will not be mis-spent in obtaining such information as may have no apparent utility beyond the gratification of a liberal curiosity, your principal attention should be directed to the acquisition of facts, calculated to throw
light on the means of civilizing the people among whom you go to reside, and of introducing among them the Gospel of Salvation. '
You may not witness any spiritual fruit from your labour; but it is not the less a labour of love, and of a Missionary nature. You engage in a preliminary work, which appears to be a necessary prelude to the proclamation of the glad tidings of peace, through the blood of a crucified Saviour, to the benighted inhabitants of New Zealand.
Remarks, by Mr. Marsden, on the Authority possessed by the New-Zealand Chi
There are Chiefs who hold large tracts in New Zealand, as their hereditary right: yet their authority, over
the persons and property of those who
live within their jurisdiction, is very circumscribed. Over their own families, domestics, and slaves, they have the most absolute power. Upon their lands, a number of Inferior Chiefs generally reside by permission; who may be allied, in some way or other, to the Principal Chief, by family connections, intermarriages, or friendship. Each of these Chiefs carries on his own cultivation ; and has his own domestics and slaves, over whom the Principal Chief has no authority. Besides these, there are Free Persons who are poor and possess neither land nor slaves; whose families have been reduced by other calamities. Over these also, the Chief has no authority: they go whither they please, and live where they please, without interruption from any one. As the Chief is generally a military character, those who live within his jurisdiction look up to him, in times of counmon danger, for protection; and range themselves under his banmer, from motives of personal safety. He. on his part, conciliates their esteem and ensures their obedience, more by courtesy and kindness, than by command; knowing that he has
no authority to constrain them. Many of the Inferior Chiefs, with their domestics and slaves, as well as the Poor Freemen, will readily join the Principal Chief in his wars; in order to indulge their natural disposition for fighting, and in hopes of sharing the spoils. Was the Principal Chief to call upon any class of Free People within his jurisdiction to labour, they would pay little attention to his commands. He has no authority over them in this respect, nor any means to enforce obedience. The Principal Chiefs, as well as the Inferiors, are extremely jealous of the authority which they possess; though, individually, it is very small. Most of the Chiefs with whom I have conversed on the moral and political state of their country, are convinced that they want a Government: but there is no one Chief possessed of sufficient information, power, and influence, to enable him to establish himself as King over the rest; and the Chiefs are too proud and jealous, to invest their authority in the hands of any individual of their own country. The Chiefs at the River Thames requested that some European Soldiers might be sent to them, to assist them in protecting themselves from . the more powerful Tribes at the Bay of Islands, who have greatly the advantage over them from their fire