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arms. It is necessity, not choice, which induces them to solicit this assistance; and, perhaps, this uecessity may open the way and lay the foundation for the establishment of a regular government, in time. Though the Chiefs know that they want a Government, and are sensible that their country would be greatly benefitted thereby, from what they have seen, heard, and learned by their intercourse with Europeans; yet they never can accounplish such an important object, without the assistance of some civilized nation. If they lived under the authority of One Chief, he might form some regular government; but, under their feudal system, this can never be done. Though one Tribe, or whole districts, would willingly receive foreign assistance, to protect them from their more powerful enemies; yet, I think it very probable, that the body of the Chiefs would hesitate before they placed their country under the power and government of a foreign nation: they will never wish to be commanded, if they can possibly avoid it. Temmarangha is a man of very sound sense and deep reflection. He laments the state of his country, much more than any Chief whom I have ever seen; and is better acquainted with its miseries. He is a Chief of great consequence, and has been a powerful warrior; but is now anxious to put a stop to their destructive wars: during three months that he travelled with me, he used every argument with the Chiefs whom we meet, to induce them
to live in peace. He has often told me, that nothing but the high hand of authority can restrain some of the Chiefs from spoil and murder; and has observed, that, if he were King and had the power, he would take their heads off immediately, if they would not be quiet; and seemed to think that nothing short of that would put a stop to their cruelties. He is very anxious that Capt. Downie's recommendation to the British Government, to send a man-of-war to New Zealand, should be attended to ; as he hopes that his country will derive many benefits from such a measure; and, particularly, that it would prevent those Tribes, which are possessed of fire-arms, from ranging the seacoast, and murdering those who are notable to resist them. I am strongly inclined to think that the Chiefs at the Thames, at Wyecoto, and further to the southward, who have no means to procure arms and ammunition, will be driven, from mere necessity, to place themselves under the protection of some Civil Government, should they have it in their power to do so. Should such an event ever take place, and security be given to persons and property, New Zealand will then become a Civilized Nation in a short time; and Agriculture and the Simple Arts will flourish. The climate and other local circumstances are so favourable for the production of all the comforts of civil life, that it will rapidly rise in importance, and its inhabitants abound with plenty.
Mr. Marsden's Remarks on the River Thames.
Among other things which I have noticed, it may not be uninteresting to state my sentiments of the River 'Thames, and of the land on its banks and in its neighbourhood, as an Agricultural Settlement. The residence of the Arekee, or Head Chief, is situated about one hundred miles, or perhaps more, from Point Rodney, the entrance of the
river. I should call Rowpah the head of the Thames. Here the river divides into two branches, nearly of equal size; the one comes from the right, the other from the left. At Rowpah, there is sufficient water for small vessels, drawing not more than six or seven feet. The tide runs up a few miles above this Settlement. I went ten or twelve miles up the western branch in a canoe; when the water became shallow, and the river opened into an extensive plain. I have little doubt but that this branch of the river has its source in natural springs, which rise in this plain. The eastern branch I traced much farther by land ; and found, after tracing it up through deep glens and craggy rocks, that it had its source in natural springs, rising in a similar plain, extending to the borders of Mercury Bay. On or near the banks, both of the main river and of the branches, there are large forests of various kinds of trees, generally of the cypress kind, and very lofty. They extend, with very little interruption, forty or fifty miles. I also observed several small navigable branches which run from the interior, as 1 passed along the main river. There is every kind of timber that could be wanted for building and agricultural purposes. The land, in general, is very rich; and would produce the heaviest crops of grain ; and there are hundreds of acres on its banks, which might, with little trouble, be cultivated with the plough, as the whole is of a light rich soil, completely free from stones. In many places, I observed that the river overflowed its banks in heavy rains; but the water cannot remain long on the ground, from the free outlet which it has into the sea ; nor did it appear to rise very high. The river is nearly eight or ten miles wide, where the fresh water falls into the salt. I inquired of the Natives, if the river ever overflowed its banks. They informed me that it did in the rainy season; but that the water never remained one day upon the land; I was inclined to credit this account, as they planted the banks with potatoes in various places, which I observed were not destroyed; and, in some places, I noticed the native-huts standing near the edge of the water, and not swept away. As the land, in general, is very kevel, as well as the banks of the river
(something similar to the Thames in England, and the low land in Kent and Essex), there are many swamps; which would require to be drained, before the ground could be converted to use. There is at present, however, abundance of land, sufficiently dry, to support a large population. As an eligible situation for a large Agricultural Settlement, the Thames commands many other local advantages; such as fire-wood, plenty of thatch for houses, and native flax without end for ropes and lines, and shell and other fish in the greatest abundance. There is a considerable population, which would, by their labour, when furnished with proper tools, contribute to the general good. I have no doubt but that the Chiefs would be very ready to locate portions of their lands to any Europeans, who would settle among them. The Natives have not the means to cultivate their land: they have neither tools, nor seed to put in the ground : the most that they can produce is a potatoe or cabbage ; and they never can extend theiroperations of agriculture further without the proper means. These observations apply only to the fresh-water river, and the land on its banks. The banks of the salt-water river are very high; and only small portions of land, in the coves, can be conveniently cultivated. The river is also so wide and open to the sea, though more than thirty miles from it, that ships cannot anchor with perfect safety, in the winter season. There is a good harbour on the eastern side of the river, about twenty miles from the fresh water, where any ships may lie in perfect safety, and where I left H.M. Ship Coromandel. Upon the whole, I have seen no situation in New Zealand comparable to the River Thames, on the banks of the fresh water, for an extensive and advantageous Agricultural Settlement. On the western side of the Thames, at a Settlement called Mogoeah, up the river Wyeroa which #.
itself into the Thames, and about thirty or forty miles from the latter river, there is exceedingly fine land, and a great population. This land is not liable to be flooded; and, from the nature of its soil, could be cultivated at little expense. The Natives grow immense quantities of potatoes; which, with fish, form their principal food. The above remarks will be sufficient
to give you an idea of the Thames, and what it will more than probably rise to in length of time. The period is, I hope, near at hand, when those extensive plains will stand thick with corn, and the lofty pines break forth into singing; and the voice of joy and gladness be heard in the dwellings of those poor Heathens, who are now
literally sitting in darkncss and the
shadow of death.
Ertracts from the Communications of the Rev. John Butler.
Feb. 5, 1821.—On Wednesday last, the Chief Rewa, and a great many of the Natives of our district, set out on a war expedition. I endeavoured to dissuade him, by all the arguments in my power, but to no purpose. He assured me, however, that he would neither kill nor destroy any person or thing, unless the party which he was going to visit began first. In a few days he returned ; and I find that he strictly adhered to his promise, for he did not fight at all. Feb. 17.—The Natives employed in fencing, farming, &c. go on remarkably well. We have enjoyed great peace and tranquillity, among the Natives in general, for some time. There has been but very little sicknessamong them this summer; so far as I am able to learn. In the summer months, diarrhoea is often very prevalent among them. When ill, they will apply for tea and other little comforts; but at the same time assert, that it is the God of the White People who afflicts them. They have no notion of a God of Love and Mercy. How dreadful is Heathen Darkness : I have often endeavoured to convince them of the absurdity of this notion ; by pointing them to the works of creation, and the goodness of God in providing food for every living thing. [Some Convicts had concealed themselves on board a Whaler, and had escaped on shore. Mr. Butler speaks of two of these men in the fol1owing extract.] March 6.-I found two of the Convicts in the hands of a Chief, who was
'feel for their misery.
then in the very act of consulting with his friends about killing them. I instantly interfered, and begged them to hear what I had to say. They replied, “They are nothing but slaves and thieves : they look like bad men, and are very ragged : they do not belong to you, and we think they are some of King George's bad cookeys.” I told them that they were so : but then they must not kill them : for, if they did, King George would be very angry. I further stated, that I should be exceedingly sorry to see such cruelty ; and that the great God would be angry with them. After a great deal of discussion, their passion abated, and they agreed not to kill them ; but the Chief, who had them in possession, said, that they should go back to his place, and work for him four months, and then he would give them up to go on board any ship that would take them to King George's Farm at Port Jackson; and that if they worked well, he would be very kind to them and give then plenty of victuals. I replied that I hoped they would all be very kind to them, which would make my heart glad. I then made the Chief a present of a large tokee, and distributed somefish-hooks among
his friends ; and they seemed much
pleased. The prisoners stood by trembling, and begging of me to do all that I could for them. Indeed their case grieved me to the heart. I never saw two more deplorable objects in my life. I endeavoured to pass by all their iniquity, in order to I counselled them to go willingly with the Chief and do all in their power to oblige him, until something could be done for them. After some further conversation, the Chief set off in his canoe, taking the prisoners with him. .April 7, 1821.-The Sawyers, who are cutting timber for my house, go on very well. Mrs. Butler cooks for them, and we give them all the encouragement in our power. I hope to have a house to live in, by Christmas next. The Natives employed in husbandry go on well: they are partially clothed with European garments, and are continually begging for more. These may seem but little things; but they are not to be despised. It gives me pleasure to see them anxious to abandon their native filthiness, for the cleanliness of civil life. There is a great and manifest change for the better, among all the Natives of this large district, since we have been with them. I hope the dark night of Heathenism, which has so long enveloped New Zealand, is nearly at an end. The general aspect of things, like the reddening streaks of the East, foretel the approach of the glorious Sun of Righteousness, to illuminate and bless this dark and benighted people. My Son Samuel is busily employed among the Natives, and improving them in every possible way. April 9.-Mr. F. Hall, Samuel Butler, and myself went into the bush with our Natives, to collect the cattle and examine them. We had the pleasure of seeing them look remarkably well. April 10,—I set out, accompanied by Mr. F. Hall, on a journey to Wyemattee. As nearly twelve months had elapsed since my last visit to this large Native Settlement, I felt desirous of seeing it again, especially at the present time, it being their harvest; and I wished to satisfy myself, as nearly as I could, of the quantity of Indian Corn and Sweet Potatoes raised by them this year. Moreover,
rage them to habits of industry, and to instruct them in every practicable way. Nothing tends more to conciliate their affections, and to gain their confidence, than such visits. We had the pleasure of seeing a much larger quantity of corn and potatoes than was grown last year. Every where, we were received with the greatest kindness: every one seemed desirous of shaking hands with us, and of accommodating us with the best he had. April 19.—We were visited by a Chief, named Shourackee, whose place is about seven miles down the river, towards the mouth of the harbour. He has been away a long time, on a war expedition toward the South Cape of New Zealand. The chief place of action seems to have been at a district called Enamatteeora, about 400 miles from the Bay of Islands. He has brought away forty prisonersof-war as slaves, several of whom were in his canoe: they were men of noble stature: they appeared much dejected. Several women that he had taken, were also in the canoe; one of whom, a Chief's daughter, he had made his wife. Her father had been slain in battle, and his head was in the canoe with several others : when it was held up as a trophy, the poor creature lay down in the canoe, covering herself with her mat. I asked the reason of his visit, when he said, “ I am come to see you—you are a god, and I am a god.” Such is the pride and ignorance of Heathenism I shuddered at the expression, and endeavoured to humble his pride by the most convincing arguments; well knowing, however, at the same time, that nothing could do this but the grace of God. April 26 — I have, at this time twelve Native Cultivators, eight Sawyers, and three hewers of wood and drawers of water. And although we have a great deal to put up with, from their innumerable queries and excessive talkativeness, yet I have abundant reason to be satisfied with them. My general title among them is “Father;” and Mrs. Butler's, is “Mother.” Both in a temporal and spiritual sense, our united prayers are, that we may become such to them in very deed May 8, 1821.-Moodee why, Chief in the Shukeangha, came to me, begging to have some seed. I gave him as much as I thought he would sow in the season; and promised to visit him and his people, and to see the wheat when growing. May 25.-Our great Chief, Tarriar, came to the Settlement yesterday. He dined and breakfasted with us. He was very importunate for an adze, some fish-hooks, a file, a knife, and a blanket. I gave him all that he requested, except a blanket which I informed him that I had not to spare at present. He was much pleased, and said he would never more steal from the Missionaries or be angry with them. Tarriar was considered the greatest savage in New Zealand: he is still a savage, but has greatly improved since we have been at Kiddeekiddee. * We have reason to believe that Tarriar killed three Slaves at Wyemattee last week, which were afterward eaten by himself and friends. This is a dreadful custom, prevalent among all the tribes in New Zealand when Slaves commit theft. Tarriar, I understand, caught them in the very act of stealing some of his sweet potatoes, and killed them on the spot. JMay 26.—For the last fortnight, we have employed, in cultivation, 17 Natives. The labour of clearing, breaking-up, and burning-off, is very great at first. I have, however, six acres of wheat, one of oats, and one of barley in the ground; which will produce, I hope, by the blessing of God, a plentiful crop. The Natives around us, and particularly those whom we employ, have become
sensible of the comforts of civil life: they are daily crying out for European garments, blankets, bread, tea, and sugar; with every other thing that is necessary for the well-being of man, in a temporal point of view : and shall they cry in vain, because they are poor and wretched, and have nothing to return? God forbid The Farmers and Sawyers under my care, have each a good suit of European clothes, which they earned by their industry. They manifest a desire to be clean on the Sabbath Day, which pleases me much. They applied to-day, as usual, for some soap, and the Sawyers appeared much disappointed because I had none left to give them : they all urged their claim, by saying that they did not like to be seen on the Sunday with a dirty shirt, while all the Europeans were “waakah pipi"; that is, very clean. June 30.--We have enjoyed peace and tranquillity for a long time; and we lay ourselves down at night to rest, with as much composure as if we were in a civilized country, and surrounded with guards. God is allsufficient! He will shew us greater things than these. July 6.—Since the 2d. we have been employed in preparing the land for oats, and afterward in sowing them. This is the last time of sowing them this seed-time. I have, in the whole, thirteen acres of wheat, barley, and oats. July 12.-We, this morning, heard of Mr. Kendall's arrival at Rangheehoo in the Ship Westmoreland, with Shunghee and Whykato, all in good health. Many prayers have been put up for them since their departure. July 27.-This afternoon, Ty wangha, my Native Foreman, was wantonly speared through the elbow and almost through the thick part of his thigh, while working in the garden. The man who had committed this rash act (through unfounded jealousy, as afterward appeared) walked offs he had not gone far, before he met a