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hensive than domesticae, used in the line above. Privatae res embraces the whole private life, while domesticae res is confined to that part of it which directly affects the family.

31. Libido, facinus, flagitium. Observe the force of the words in this climax.

33. Quem irretisses, whom you had ensnared. G. 503, I.

34. Ad libidinem facem, a torch for his lust. In the streets of Rome a slave usually carried a torch before his master at night, to light him on his way. The allusion in the text is doubtless to this custom. Catiline, Cicero means to say, is leading the young into scenes of debauchery and crime.

35.

Cum vacuefecisses; G. 521, II., 2.—Morte, by the death; Abl. of Means, not Time, implying that Catiline murdered her. 36. Nuptiis; Dative. — Alio incredibili scelere, i. der of his son.

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1. Quod; object of praetermitto and subject of sileri.

2. Ne videatur; Negative Purpose.

e.,

the mur

4. Praetermitto... omnes, I pass by the complete ruin of your fortunes, which. Omnes, though agreeing with quas, really belongs in sense to the antecedent. G. 453, 5.

5. Proximis Idibus, upon the next Ides, i. e., in six days. This oration was delivered on the seventh of November, accordingly the next Ides would be the thirteenth of the same month. Catiline was heavily in debt, and would be called upon on the Ides either to pay at once, or, at the latest, on the Calends (i. e., the first) of the following month.

6. Quae. Subject of pertinent.

7. Domesticam difficultatem, domestic difficulty, i. e., pecuniary embarrassment.

8. Summam rem publicam, the highest public welfare.

10. Spiritus, breath.

11. Jucundus. See Syn. L. C. 216.- Horum, of these, i. e., of the senators. Qui nesciat. The Subjunctive would be required even in the direct discourse. G. 503, I.

12. Pridie Kalendas; G. 437, 1.- Lepido et Tullo consulibus; Manius Lepidus and Volcatius Tullus, consuls in the year 66 B. C.

13. Stetisse cum telo, stood armed. He and his accomplices had formed the design of assassinating Cotta and Torquatus, the consuls-elect. See Introduction, p. 138. In comitio. The comitium was a part of the Roman forum.

15. Non mentem... tuum, no intention or fear on your part. The plan failed in consequence of a mistake on the part of Catiline, who gave the signal before his accomplices were ready for action.

PAGF

17. Commissa; subject of sunt, with obscura and non multa as 6 predicate, neither obscure nor few. -Non multa, not many=few. G. 637, VIII.

18. Designatum. Supply consulem.

19. Petitiones, thrusts, the technical term for the thrusts of the gladiator.

20. Ut... viderentur, that it seemed impossible to avoid them, lit., that they seemed not to be able to be avoided. Declinatione et corpore =declinatione corporis, technical language drawn from fencing or from the gladiatorial combats. The technical character of the language is also shown by the words, ut aiunt.

22. Tibi de manibus; Latin idiom instead of de manibus tuis. G. 384, 4, note 2.

23. Excidit et elapsa est; G. 636, V., 2.

24. Quae, this; G. 453. - Abs te; G. 434, note 2.- Devota sit; Indirect Question. Among the ancients, weapons were sometimes thus set apart for some definite use by solemn vows and rites.

25. Necesse; Predicate adjective with esse, whose subject is defigere.

27. Nunc vero, now indeed, in view of what has been said. - Enim, for. The impassioned oratory of the preceding chapter now gives place to a more calm and argumentative style.

28. Ut videar; G. 500.-Permotus esse. Why not permotum esse? G. 536, 2, note. Quo debeo. Supply permotus esse.

29. Ut misericordia. Supply permotus esse videar. - Quae nulla. Quae nulla, more forcible than quae non, may be rendered, none of which, or which not at all. G. 457, 3. — Paulo ante, a little while ago, just now.

30. Ex hac tanta frequentia, out of this so large assembly, i. e., of senators.

31. Hoc, this, i. e., to receive no greeting. - Post memoriam, within the recollection, lit., after, since.

32. Vocis contumeliam, the disgrace of an expressed rebuke, lit., of the voice.

33. Judicio taciturnitatis. This refers to the fact that no greeting welcomed him to his accustomed place in the senate. Observe the arrangement of the words: vocis contumeliam, judicio taciturnitatis. G. 562.- Cum sis oppressus; G. 517.—Quid, quod, what of the fact that?

34. Ista subsellia, the seats near you; G. 450. The seats of the senators are called subsellia, low seats, in contrast with the high curule chair of the consul. - Quod omnes... putas. Begin with the interrog

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ative quo: With what feeling, pray? The clauses with quod are in apposition with hoc, p. 7, line 1. G. 363, 5.

35. Tibi; G. 388, foot-note 1.-Constituti fuerunt. Here fuerunt is used instead of the more common sunt, to suggest that these plans of Catiline have been defeated. G. 471, II., 1, 2).

36. Simul atque, as soon as. G. 554, I., 2, note.

2. Tibi ferendum. Supply esse. G. 388, foot-note 1.-Servi mei. Why placed before si? G. 569, III., 1. — Si metuerent; G. 510.-Isto pacto; more forcible than ita; Abl. of Manner. - Isto pacto ut, as.

4. Tibi urbem. Supply relinquendam esse.

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5. Civibus; dependent upon suspectum and offensum. G. 391.Injuria, unjustly; Abl. of Manner.

6. Carere aspectu, to be removed from (lit., to be without) the sight. -Aspectu; G. 414, I.

7. Conscientia, from the consciousness; Abl. of Cause.

8. Agnoscas; G. 517. — Justum, as just, predicate adjective. 11. Odissent. Why Pluperfect? G. 510; 297, I., 2.-Nec=et non. G. 554, I., 2.

12. Aliquo, to some place; adv.

13. Nunc. Here Cicero sets forth the real case which, it will be observed, is stronger even than the hypothetical one given above.

14. Jam diu judicat; G. 467, 2.- Nihil; the object of cogitare, of which te is the subject.-Parricidio suo, her destruction. The term parricidium is chosen, because the country is here personified as the parent of us all, parens omnium nostrum.

15. Hujus auctoritatem, her authority. Hujus=patriae.
16. Quae, she. G. 453.

17. Agit, pleads. The country personified is thus represented as pleading with Catiline. -Tacita, though silent. G. 442.

18. Aliquot annis, for some years. G. 429.-Per te, sine te. Observe the difference in meaning.

19. Tibi; dependent upon impunita. G. 391.- Multorum civium neces. Catiline was a zealous partisan of Sulla during his bloody proscriptions. Vexatio direptioque sociorum; i. e., while governo of Africa in the year 67 B. C. See Introduction, p. 137.

21. Ad negligendas leges valuisti, you have been able to disregard the laws.-Quaestiones, prosecutions.

22. Superiora illa, those former deeds, in contrast with the present conspiracy.

24. Me totam, that I, the whole state, in contrast with unum te. This and the two following infinitive clauses form the subject of est ferendum. G. 538. - Quidquid increpuerit, whatever may have made a

noise, i. e., whenever any noise is heard; hence, on every alarm, however slight; a proverbial expression. - Increpuerit; Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse. G. 524.

26. Abhorreat, is free from. G. 503, I.

27. Mihi; G. 384, II.; 386, 2.

28. Verus, well grounded. Supply timor.

30. Loquatur, debeat; G. 509.

31. Impetrare, to obtain her request, expressed above in discede, eripe, etc. - Quid, quod, what of the fact that? Lat. Comp. 482.

32. In custodiam dedisti. Persons suspected of treasonable designs sometimes placed themselves thus voluntarily in the custody of some influential citizen until their guilt or innocence could be established.

33. Ad M'. Lepidum, at the house of Manius Lepidus. The usual preposition in this sense is apud. Manius Lepidus was consul with Volcatius Tullus in the year 66 B. C. See p. 6, line 12.

35. Domi meae; G. 426, 2.- Cum tulisses; G. 521, II., 2.

36. Me nullo... contineremur; in apposition with responsum. G. 363, 5; 539, II.-Iisdem parietibus, in the same house, lit., by the same house-walls. G. 420.-Parietibus, moenibus. See Syn. L. C. 377.

1. Qui essem; G. 517.

2. Contineremur; G. 524.-Q. Metellum. Quintus Metellus Celer is meant. He subsequently took an active part in the military preparations made against Catiline. See p. 14, line 31. He was consul in the year 60 B. C.

3. Virum optimum. In irony.-M. Metellum; Marcus Metellus, probably the brother of Q. Metellus Creticus, a friend of Verres, praetor 69 B. C.

4. Quem tu videlicet... putasti. In irony.

7. Videtur. The subject is the pronoun is, the omitted antecedent of qui. G. 445, 6. Qui judicarit; G. 503, I.

8. Custodia; G. 421, III.

9. Emori, to die, as justice demands.

11. Multis justis debitisque; Lat. Comp. 166, 3.-Suppliciis; Dative; G. 386, 2.

12. Refer ad senatum, refer the question to the senate, the usual technical expression for the action of the consul in bringing a subject to the notice of the senate.-Id, this, i. e., that the subject be laid before the senate.

13. Hic ordo; i. e., the senate. - Sibi placere, that it is their

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pleasure, lit., pleases them, a common technical expression in the decrees of the senate. - Decreverit; Perf. Subj. for Fut. Perf. Ind. of the direct discourse.

G. 525, 2.

15. Id quod; G. 445, 7. — Abhorret a meis moribus; i. e., I am too merciful, implying that if the question were referred to the senate a decree of banishment would be passed, whereas, without it, Catiline may go into voluntary exile. - Ut intelligas; Object Clause after faciam. G. 498.

-

- Hi, i. the senators.

e.,

16. Quid sentiant; Indirect Question. -
17. Metu; G. 414, I. Hanc vocem; i. e., exsilium.

18. Quid est; uttered after a short pause, during which the silence of the senate shows their approval of the consul's course. -Ecquid, at all; interrogative adv.

20. Auctoritatem loquentium, the spoken decree, lit., the authority (command) of those speaking. — Loquentium; this agrees with eorum, the omitted antecedent of quorum.

22. Hoc idem, this same thing, i. e., in exsilium proficiscere.-P. Sestio; Publius Sestius, the quaestor, subsequently very active in procuring the recall of Cicero from exile.- Si dixissem, intulisset. G. 510.

23. M. Marcello. Marcus Marcellus, consul 51 B. C., a bitter opponent of Caesar, by whom he was pardoned in 46 B. C., upon which occasion Cicero delivered his Oration for Marcellus, contained in this volume. Sec p. 84.-Consuli, though consul.

24. Vim et manus, violent hands, lit., violence and hands. Hendiadys; G. 636, III., 2.

26. Hi, equites Romani, ceterique cives; subjects of probant, decernunt, clamant, understood. Observe that the orator specifies the three classes of Roman citizens, those of the senatorial rank (hi, quorum), those of the equestrian rank (equites), and the ordinary citizens (ceteri cives) i. e., the Senate, the Knights, and the People.

27. Videlicet cara. In irony.

30. Studia, manifestations of zeal. G. 130, 2; Lat. Comp. 412.Voces, voices, doubtless in approval of the sentiments of the orator. Paulo ante. Perhaps at the words in exsilium proficiscere. 31. Quorum ego, etc. Begin with the antecedent clause, Eosdem facile, etc.-Abs te; G. 434, note 2.- Jam diu contineo; G. 467, 2. 32. Manus ac tela. These words, refer, doubtless, to the armed guards stationed by the consul, as private citizens were not allowed to carry arms. Ut te prosequantur, to escort you. Citizens going into voluntary exile were usually escorted to the city gates by their relatives and friends. Cicero sarcastically offers Catiline an armed escort.

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