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18. Incolumes. See Syn. L. C. 321.

21. Retorquet oculos, e faucibus ereptam. Catiline is here compared to a wild beast which looks wishfully back at the prey which has been rescued from it.

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1. Quam... ereptam esse, whose rescue from his jaws he mourns, 14 lit., which to have been snatched from his jaws he mourns. The clause cannot, of course, be literally rendered; we may, however, say, which he mourns to see snatched from his jaws. — Quae quidem laetari mihi videtur; contrasted with quam e... luget.-Quae; i. e., haec urbs.

2. Quod evomuerit. The city's reason for rejoicing. Hence the Subj. G. 516, II.

II.-V. Cicero's Defence against the Charge of too Great Leniency in having allowed Catiline to leave the City.

4. Quales... oportebat. This remark, though parenthetical, is very significant. The force of the Imperfect should be especially noticed, as expressing an obligation belonging both to the past and to the present; as all ought to have been, i. e., during the whole time. By this remark, Cicero suggests the first point in his defence, because, had all been such, Catiline's arrest and execution would have been an easy matter. The great difficulty in the case was the fact that the senators were divided in opinion on that question.

5. In hoc ipso, in this very thing, explained by quod ... emiserim. 6. Quod... comprehenderim. Upon whose authority is this reason assigned? G. 516, II. What would be the force of the Indicative? G. 516.

7. Non... mea culpa. By a common ellipsis, admissible both in Latin and in English, this appears as the conclusion of the condition, si quis, etc. The real conclusion, however, is something like this: My defence is this, or I reply.—Culpa; Predicate noun.

8. Temporum. Supply culpa.-Interfectum esse G. 636, V., 2.

affectum;

9. Idque, and this, i. e., the execution of Catiline. A me. Why not the Accus.? G. 374, note 4.

10. Hujus imperii. See note on hujus imperii, p. 5, line 15.—Res publica, the public weal.

11. Postulabat; G. 463, I. —Qui.....non crederent, who did not believe. See p. 11, lines 20 to 25. G. 503, I.

12. Defenderent. Supply ea.

13. Illo sublato; Abl. Absol.; by his (Catiline's) removal.

14. Non modo invidiae... periculo, not only at the risk of un

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14 popularity, but at the peril of life. Observe that with invidiae, periculo should be rendered risk, but with vitae, peril. — Invidiae meae, lit., my unpopularity, may be rendered unpopularity to me, or simply as above, unpopularity. - Periculo; Abl. of Manner.

16. Ne vobis quidem ... probata, as the fact (i. e., the existence of a conspiracy) even then was not proved to all even of you (to you all). — Ne vobis quidem; G. 569, III., 2. — Re probata; Abl. Absol.

17. Si morte multassem, if I should punish with death. Multassem, changed from the Fut. Perf. of the Direct Discourse. G. 525, 2. Fore ut non possem. Why is this circumlocution here used? G. 537, 3, note 1.

18. Rem huc deduxi, I brought the matter to this point.

21. Quem quidem... putem, and indeed how greatly I think this enemy, etc. Indirect Question, object of intelligatis. — Quam vehementer. Ironical. — Putem. See Syn. L. C. 576.

22. Intelligatis; Subjunctive in a Subject Clause, with ut omitted, subject of licet, the leading verb of the sentence. - Hinc, from this, viz., quod etiam moleste fero.

23. Quod exierit. The Subjunctive rests the statement upon report, and not upon the authority of the speaker. -Parum comitatus, too little attended, or more freely, with too few attendants. According to Plutarch, Catiline went to the camp of Manlius with a force of three hundred armed men, but this estimate probably includes those who were to meet him at Forum Aurelium. See p. 9, line 22.

24. Utinam eduxisset; G. 483, 1 and 2.-Tongilium, Publicium, Munatium. These men are known only as worthless characters, and as the companions of Catiline.

25. Mihi; Ethical Dative, here used in sarcastic irony. G. 389.In praetexta, in boyhood, i. e., in the boyhood of Tongilius. The toga praetexta was the gown worn by boys until they assumed the toga virilis at the age of seventeen.

26. Aes alienum, debt, lit., copper (i. e., copper money) belonging to another.

27. Nullum rei... motum... poterat. The petty debts of these men would not make them reckless and desperate. Reliquit quos viros! Catiline left his best men in Rome. Many of them were overwhelmed in debt (quanto aere alieno) and therefore reckless. Many were also influential (valentes) and of noble birth (nobiles). - Rei publicae; Indirect object of afferre.

28. Aere alieno; Abl. of Characteristic. G. 419, II.-Nobiles. See Syn. L. C. 233.

30. Exercitum; Object of contemno. - Prae Gallicanis legio

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nibus, in comparison with our Gallic legions, i. e., our legions in Cisalpine 14 Gaul. G. 331, note 1. Construe in this order: Itaque prae Gallicanis Legionibus... comparantur, ego magno opere contemno illum exercitum collectum, etc.

31. Quem Q. Metellus habuit, which Q. Metellus made, lit., had held. Quintus Metellus Celer, the praetor, had been recently sent int Picenum and the Gallic province to levy troops. The Gallic province here referred to was situated on the Adriatic Sea, between Cisalpine Gaul and Picenum.

33. Magno opere, greatly, also written as one word, magnopere. 34. Ex agresti luxuria, from rustic luxury, for from luxurious rustics; the abstract for the concrete.

35. Vadimonia deserere... exercitum, to forfeit their bail rather than to leave that army. Vadimonia deserere is to fail to appear in court on the appointed day of trial, and thus to forfeit bail.

36. Quibus ego... si=qui... si iis ego. —Non modo aciem, not to say the array.

1. Edictum praetoris, the edict of the praetor. The praetor urba- 15 nus, on entering upon the duties of his office, ordinarily issued a decree setting forth the principles which would govern him in his decisions. This edict would naturally set forth the consequences of forfeiting bail. - Hos; Object of eduxisset.

3. Qui fulgent purpura, who shine in purple; i. e., senators and knights. The toga of the former was distinguished by a broad purple stripe or border (clavus latus); that of the latter by a narrow stripe (clavus angustus).· Mallem... eduxisset, I would wish (lit., prefer) that he had taken with him as his soldiers. G. 499, 2.

5. Esse nobis. Supply pertimescendum. G. 388.

6. Hoc, on this account; Abl. of Cause, explained by the clause, quod... sentiunt.

7. Cogitent, scire, sentiunt. What is the direct object of each of these verbs?-- Sentiunt. See Syn. L. C. 576.

8. Cui sit Apulia attributa. According to Sallust, Catiline assigned Apulia to C. Julius. But see Third Oration, p. 30, line 16.

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9. Quis habeat Etruriam; i. e., Manlius. Quis agrum Picenum; i. e., a certain Septimius of Umbria, according to Sallust. We are not told to whom the Gallic district was assigned.

10. Quis... insidias caedis...depoposcerit. Cicero probably has L. Cassius in mind. See Third Oration, p. 30, lines 14 and 15; L. Cassium, qui sibi procurationem incendendae urbis depoposcerat. Sallust, however, names three in this connection-Cethegus, Gabinius, aud Statilius.

11. Superioris noctis; i. e., the night on which the meeting was

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15 held at the house of Laeca, called also in the First Oration noctem illam superiorem. See p. 3, line 36; also p. 4, lines 15 to 27.

12. Patefeci. Supply ea, referring to consilia.

13. Hi quid. Observe the emphatic position of hi before the interrogative quid. — Ne, indeed, truly; the approved form for nae.

15. Futuram. Supply esse.

16. Quod exspectavi, that for which I have been waiting. The antecedent of quod is ut vos ... . videretis. Ut videretis; Object Clause. G. 498, II.; 495, I. - Vos omnes. Why not vestrum omnes? G. 397, 2,

note.

18. Nisi si, except if, render unless. -- Catilinae similes, those like Catiline. G. 391, II., 4.

19. Putet; G. 503, I.— Lenitati; Dative of Possessor.

21. Exeant; Subj. of Desire. This line explains unum in the preceding line. - Desiderio sui, with grief at their absence. Desiderium is a longing for, mingled with grief at the loss or absence of. Desiderio, Abl. of Cause; sui, Objective Genitive, referring to the subject of patiantur.

22. Miserum tabescere, to pine away in misery. Miserum, though an adjective agreeing with Catilinam, may be thus rendered like an adverb. G. 443, note 1, (1).—Iter, via. See Syn. L. C. 156. — Aurelia via; Abl. of Means. This road led along the coast of Etruria to Pisa. Catiline went by this route to the camp of Manlius.

24. Rem publicam; G. 381.—Si quidem ejecerit; Subjunctive in Conditional Sentence. G. 509; 507, 3, note 2.

25. Exhausto. This word is appropriate in connection with the figure contained in sentinam.

28. Quis veneficus, what poisoner. Quis, though more commonly used substantively, may be used adjectively, when, as in this case, the inquiry relates, not to the character of the person or thing, but to the person or thing itself. Thus quis veneficus is not what kind of a poisoner, but what poisoner, i. e., which one. Secret poisoning was by no means uncommon at Rome. - Tota Italia; G. 425, II., 2.

30. Circumscriptor, defrauder, especially one who deceives and defrauds the young.

32. Se cum Catilina familiarissime vixisse, that he has lived on most intimate terms with Catiline. - Non; construe with fateatur.

33. Per hosce annos, during these years, i. e., for a few years past. Hosce restricts the period to the years which are now passing, or have just passed.

34. Per illum, through his agency. G. 415, I., note 1.

35. Jam vero, but again moreover. —Juventutis illecebra, power of alluring the young, i. e., to ruin.

36. Alios, aliorum, some, of others. - Amabat; G. 469, II. 1. Aliis, aliis; Indirect object of pollicebatur. - Fructum, the gratification.

2. Impellendo, by inciting them, i. e., by inciting the children to murder their parents for the property. In English, the thought may be better expressed by participles: not only urging them on, but also aiding them.

4. Ex agris, from the country. See Syn. L. C. 245.

7. Opressus; Participle limiting nemo.

8. Adsciverit; G. 503, I.; 495, VI.

9. Ut possitis. This Subjunctive expresses the purpose of an action readily supplied, as hoc dicam, I will say this, viz., nemo est, etc. In dissimili ratione, in different relations in life, i. e., in different spheres or situations in life.

10. Nemo in ludo gladiatorio=nullus gladiator. In the gladiatorial schools, slaves were trained under the direction of professional masters for the gladiatorial contests. - Paulo audacior, a little more audacious than usual. G. 444, 1.

11. Intimum Catilinae, a most intimate friend of Catiline. G. 441, 1. Nemo in scaena. Actors in Rome were generally freedmen or slaves.

12. Sodalem, boon companion. This is more specific than intimum, and refers especially to companionship in pleasure and enjoyment.

14. Exercitatione, by the practice; Abl. of Means. - Frigore... perferendis, to endure cold, etc., lit., accustomed (assuefactus), trained in enduring cold, etc. Abl. of Specification. In such cases, however, the Latin admits the Dat., or the Acc. with ad, instead of the Abl.

15. Ab istis; i. e., by the companions and admirers of Catiline. G. 450, 1, note. Cum consumerentur; Subj. of Concession. - Industriae subsidia... virtutis, aids of industry and means of virtue, i. e., this power of endurance, referred to in frigore et fame. perferendis, which might have been so useful in an active (industriae) and virtuous (virtutis) life, was utterly wasted (consumerentur).

18. Hunc vero. With these words Cicero resumes the thought from which he digressed on page 15, line 26, to characterize Catiline.Secuti erunt; G. 473, 2.-Sui comites; i. e., his associates and accomplices who remained in Rome after the departure of Catiline.

19. O nos beatos. This exclamation, it will be observed, is the conclusion of the condition si ... comites, si . . . greges, and is much more emphatic than the declarative form, erimus beati, would have been. On the construction of nos, see G. 381.

21. Hominum, of the men,, i. e., the men referred to in sui comites.

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