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province, Tigranes submitted without a blow, and the king of the Parthians offered his alliance to the victorious general. Pompey, on his return to Rome after an absence of seven years, celebrated his triumph with great pomp and display. The im posing pageant occupied two entire days.








1. Cicero, in his Introduction to this, his First Effort before the People, states the Reasons which have hitherto deterred him from appearing before them. He thanks them for the Praetorship to which he has just been elected, and promises to use his Influence for the Welfare of the State.

1. Frequens conspectus vester, the sight of your crowded assem. bly.

2. Hic locus, this place; i. e., the Rostra or platform in the Forum, from which the orator addressed the people. It was called Rostra (beaks) because it was adorned with beaks of ships captured from the enemy. Autem; repeat quamquam, and though. - Ad agendum. Supply vobiscum or cum populo, for treating with you, i. e., for proposing measures for the action of the people. Only magistrates had the right of thus submitting questions to the vote of the people (agere cum populo), but private citizens might address the people by permission from the presiding magistrate. — Amplissimus, the most dignified, as belonging to magistrates.

3. Ornatissimus, most honorable.

4. Hoc aditu laudis, from this avenue to fame, i. e., the Rostra G. 414.-Optimo cuique; G. 458, 1.



5. Vitae meae rationes, my plans of life. — Ab ineunte aetate, 60 from the commencement of active life.


10. Temporibus, exigencies, referring to their suits in court. neque... unquam fuit, and thus... has never been. Construe non, in

volved in neque =et non, with unquam, never. Ita refers to the course which Cicero has pursued. He tells them that they have lost nothing thereby, as others have ever been ready to advocate their cause.

12. Periculis, suits, lawsuits. - Caste integreque, honestly and justly, with an indirect allusion perhaps to the Cincian law, which forbade an advocate to accept presents from his client.

13. Fructum amplissimum, a most ample reward, i. e., the praetorship to which he had just been elected.

14. Dilationem comitiorum, the adjournment of the comitia, i. e., of the assembly of the people. In times of great political excitement, the comitia were sometimes adjourned through the influence of one party, to prevent or delay the consummation of the measures proposed by the other party. The interposition of a tribune, an unfavorable omen, or any informality in the proceedings, was at any time a sufficient reason for adjournment. During the recent election, the comitia had been twice adjourned in consequence of the popular excitement in relation to certain bills then pending. — Praetor primus; not first in rank, as no such distinction is here recognized, but the one first elected.

15. Centuriis cunctis, by all the centuries; i. e., by the people voting in companies called centuries. The whole assembly consisted of one hundred and ninety-four such centuries. Each century cast one vote, which was first determined by the majority of the individual voters in it. This was the popular assembly of Rome, and yet the whole power was in the hands of the wealthy, as they controlled one hundred out of the one hundred and ninety-four votes.

16. Quid praescriberetis; i. e., to follow Cicero's example.

17. Quantum vos... voluistis, as you have shown a desire that there should be by conferring honors upon me, i. e., as much as you have been pleased to confer upon me by electing me to the praetorship.

19. Ex forensi usu, from practice at the bar, lit., forensic, e., in the Forum.

3. Ei quoque rei, for this also; i. e., for oratorical ability, as im- 61 plied in dicendo.

4. Illud. Explained by quod in hac . . . nemini possit.

6. In qua possit; G. 500.

8. Virtute, worth, merits.

9. Mihi; G. 388. - Copia... modus, abundance of materials ... proper limit.



II. Statement of the Case. Plan of the Oration.

11. Ut proficiscatur; G. 499, 2, note. - Inde, unde, at the point from which.

13. Vectigalibus, tributaries; construe with infertur.

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14. Mithridate et Tigrane. See Introduction, p. 232. Alter relictus; i. e., Mithridates. Six years before the delivery of this oration, he was utterly defeated by Lucullus, but finally escaped to Armenia, and placed himself under the protection of Tigranes, his son-in-law. In the mean time, the Roman army, occupied with the rich spoils of Pontus, abandoned the pursuit. Thus Mithridates was left (relictus) undisturbed in his retreat. Alter lacessitus; i. e., Tigranes, who had been greatly exasperated (lacessitus) by the loss of his capital. See Introduction, p. 233.

15. Occasionem... oblatam esse. The disaffection in the Roman army, the recall of Lucullus, and the inefficiency of Glabrio, his successor, had furnished them such an opportunity. See Introduction, p. 233.- Asiam; i. e., the Roman province in Asia, embracing the western portion of Asia Minor.

16. Arbitrantur. The subject is alter, alter. - Equitibus Romanis. The Roman knights were the capitalists of Rome, and formed a distinct order, an aristocracy of wealth. They monopolized all lucrative enterprises and all commercial pursuits. Individually, or in companies, they usually bought up the public revenues.

18. In vestris vectigalibus

your revenues.


occupatae, invested in farming

19. Pro necessitudine, on account of the connection. By birth, Cicero belonged to the equestrian order. -Mihi; Dative of Possessor. G. 387.

21. Bithyniae. Bithynia, a country south of the Euxine Sea, was bequeathed to the Roman people by King Nicomedes III., in the year 74 B. C.-Vicos exustos esse, etc.; the import of the letters; dependent upon a verb of saying implied in afferuntur litterae. G. 523, I., note.

22. Regnum Ariobarzanis; i. e., Cappadocia, south of Pontus. 23. L. Lucullum. See Introduction, p. 233.

24. Huic qui successerit, he who has succeeded him ; i. e., his successor in command, M'. Acilius Glabrio, consul the preceding year. G. 453, 2, note 2; 524.

26. Unum; i. e., Pompey. By speaking in this way, Cicero intimates that Pompey does not need to be named.

27. Imperatorem, as commander; Predicate Accusative.

28. Neminem. Subject of metui, to be supplied. 30. De genere belli; construe with esse dicendum. 31. De imperatore deligendo; G. 544, 2. 32. Ejus modi; also written ejusmodi. 186, 4, note; 403. - Quod debeat; G. 500.

Predicate Genitive; G.

33. Ad persequendi studium, to zeal in (lit., of) prosecuting it.In quo; G. 453.

34. A majoribus; construe with tradita est. 554, I., 5.

2. Quibus amissis, if these are lost. G. 431, 2.



Cum, tum; G.


3. Pacis ornamenta, the ornaments of peace, i. e., whatever is requisite in time of peace, the comforts and luxuries of life. - Subsidia belli, the sinews of war, i. e., means of prosecuting war. - Requiretis, you will seek for in vain.

4. Multorum civium. Especially of the farmers of the revenues. See preceding page, line 17; quorum magnae res aguntur, in vestris vectigalibus exercendis occupatae. - A vobis; instead of the Dative, to distinguish the agent from the Indirect Object quibus. G. 388, note.

III.-V. The Glory of the Roman Name and the Welfare of the Roman Allies are in Danger.

8. Macula. This refers to the great massacre of Roman citizens in Asia, in the early part of the Mithridatic War. It is explained by the clause quod is qui uno die... denotavit. See Introduction, p. 233.Mithridatico bello; i. e., in the year 88 B. C. G. 429. - Penitus jam insedit, has already become deep-seated.

10. Quod is, qui, that he who, i. e., Mithridates.

11. Una significatione litterarum, by the import of a single letter. The messenger bore a written order from King Mithridates to all his satraps and governors in Asia Minor, to put to death on a certain day all persons of Roman or Italian descent found in their dominions. Eighty thousand lives are said to have been sacrificed upon that memorable day.

13. Scelere; G. 421, III.

14. Annum; G. 379.— Annum jam... regnat. G. 467, 2; Lat. Comp. 276, IV.

15. Latebris, in the retirement, referring to the remote and retired situation of Pontus and Cappadocia.

16. In vestris vectigalibus; construe with versari.

17. In Asiae luce, in the full light of Asia; i. e., in our province of Asia, where he can find no hiding-place, but is exposed to the eyes


62 of all. In luce versari is, of course, in contrast with latebris occultare.


Mithridates, taking advantage of the recall of Lucullus, had speedily recovered his lost possessions, and was even threatening the allies and tributaries of the Roman people.

19. L. Sulla. L. Cornelius Sulla, afterward the famous dictator, commanded in what is called the first Mithridatic War, i. e., from 87 to 84 B. C.

20. L. Murena. L. Licinius Murena commanded in the second Mithridatic War, from 83 to 81 B. C.

21. Pulsus; G. 549, 2.

23. Quod egerunt... quod reliquerunt, for what they did...for what they left undone. Propter id may be supplied before quod. Some critics, regarding quod as a conjunction, translate, because they were active ... because they left the work unfinished.

24. Sullam res publica revocavit. Sulla was in haste to return to Rome to reestablish his authority, as his old rivals of the Marian faction were masters of the city. He left his legate, L. Murena, in command in Asia.

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26. Reliquum tempus; i. e., after the recall of Murena. Non ad oblivionem veteris belli, not in allowing the former war to be forgotten; i. e., by abstaining from all acts of hostility.

28. Postea quam aedificasset; G. 518, 1, note.

29. Quibuscumque ex gentibus posset, from whatever races he could.

30. Et simularet, and all the while was pretending. Observe the force of the Imperfect, denoting the continuance of the action. - Bosporanis, the Bosporani, a people dwelling on the Cimmerian Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Azof.

32. Ad eos duces; i. e., to Sertorius and his associates, then commanding in Spain in the interest of the Marian faction.

33. Duobus in locis; i. e., in Asia and in Spain. - Disjunctissimis maximeque diversis, most widely separated and in directly opposite parts of the world; i. e., in the East and in the West. Maxime diversis, lit., most opposite; G. 170.

34. A binis copiis, by two armies (forces). Why not duabus instead of binis? G. 174, 2, 3). - Terra marique; G. 425, 2.

35. De imperio, for the very existence of the empire.

1. Alterius partis .

Hispaniensis, the danger in the one direc

tion, that of Sertorius and Spain.

3. Pompeii. The war was prosecuted by Pompey for four years with varying success, but the assassination of Sertorius brought it to a sudden conclusion.

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