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20. Hunc; i. e., Mithridates. — Tigranes. Mithridates.

21. Rebus suis; G. 385, II.

The son-in-law of

23. Plures gentes. Among these were the Medes, the Albanians, the Arabians, and the Iberians.

26. Neque lacessendas... tentandas, should be either provoked by attack (war) or disturbed. G. 553, 2.

27. Gravis atque vehemens, painful and exciting.

28. Gentium barbararum; i. e., in Asia. - Fani. Mommsen, the historian, thinks that Cicero refers to the rich and magnificent temple of the Persian goddess Nanaea, in Elmais.

30. Multae atque magnae; G. 440, 1, note. - Novo quodam terrore. Fears are now excited upon a religious subject.

32. Urbem, a city; i. e., Tigranocerta, the Armenian capital.

34. Desiderio suorum, by the desire to see their friends. See note on desiderio sui, p. 15, line 21.

35. Fuit enim illud extremum, for the result (last thing) was. Illud merely represents the clause, ut ex iis locis . . . quaereretur.

2. Eorum, consisting of those; Gen. of Specification after manum. 4. Fere, almost invariably.

5. Ut alliciant; G. 501, III.

7. Ut...videatur; the Result of qui aut reges sunt. so that. Nomen regale, the name of king.

9. Incolumis; i. e., before his defeat.

...

regno.- Ut,

10. Eo, quod, with that which; explained by ut illam... attingeret. 11. Acciderat; Lat. Comp. 624.

12. In exercitum. . . fecit. In the year 68 B. C., while Lucullus was occupied in Mesopotamia, Mithridates, who had returned to Pontus, defeated the Roman forces under M. Fabius, and in the following year under C. Triarius.

...

14. Hoc loco; G. 425, 2.-Poetae, qui . . . scribunt. Cn. Naevius, who wrote on the first Punic War, and Q. Ennius, who wrote the Roman Annals, are doubtless meant.

15. Calamitatem; e., the defeat of Triarius.

16. Imperatoris; i. e., of Lucullus.

17. Ex sermone rumor, the common talk, lit., rumor from conversation.Hic, here. In malo; G. 429, 1.

18. Offensione, disaster.

19. Incommodis; G. 385, note 3.-Potuisset; Potential Subjunctive.

20. Modum statuendum, that a limit should be set.

21. Vetere exemplo; G. 416. The true reason for the recall of

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Lucullus, the disaffection in his army and the intrigues of his enemies, is 68 purposely omitted. - Stipendiis confectis erant, had completed their term of service; lit., were with completed services. G. 419, 2, 4).

22. Glabrioni. See Introduction, p. 233.

23. Ea, them, referring to multa, but explained by quantum illud... putetis.- Conjectura, by inference, i. e., from what he has said, they must infer the rest.

24. Factum, has become. Supply esse. - Putetisputare debeatis. — Quod conjungant...renovent... suscipiant... accipiat. Recapitulation of the points, showing the greatness and importance of the war.- Conjungant, wage conjointly.

25. Integrae gentes, fresh races; i. e., those not previously engaged.

26. Novus imperator; i. e., Glabrio.

27. Quare, why; i. e., to show why.

28. Esset, is; G. 495, I.

30. Rebus; Ind. Obj. of praeficiendo. - Dicendum esse videatur dicendum sit; a somewhat favorite pleonasm with Cicero. G. 636, III.

=

X. The Appointment of a Commander.

Qualifications

of Pompey. His Knowledge of Military Affairs.

31. Utinam haberetis; G. 483; 483, 1 and 2.

36. Antiquitatis memoriam, the records of antiquity; i. e., the glory of the ancients.

2. Sic; G. 636, III., 7. — In summo imperatore, in a consummate 69 commander.

4. Quis igitur, who then? This question introduces the discussion of the first of the four topics just mentioned, scientiam rei militaris.

5. Hoc homine; i. e., Pompey. G. 417.-Scientior; i. e., rei militaris.

6. Acerrimis hostibus; Ablative Absolute.

7. Ad patris exercitum. Pompey commenced his military career under his father, Cn. Pompeius Strabo, in the Social War, 89 B. C. He was then seventeen years of age.

8. Extrema pueritia; G. 440, note 1.

9. Summi imperatoris; i. e., of his father.

10. Ipse imperator. At the age of twenty-three, Pompey raised three legions of volunteers in Picenum, and, at the head of this force, proffered his services to Sulla, who saluted him with the title of Imperator. - Hoste, inimico. See Syn. L. C. 344.

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12. Confecit, has subdued.

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13. Ad scientiam est erudita, has been trained to the knowledge. 14. Suis imperiis, by his experience in command.

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15. Triumphis. Pompey had already twice enjoyed the honor of a triumph in the year 81 B. C., at the age of twenty-five, for his victories in Africa, and, ten years later, for his victories in Spain.

17. Civile. The Civil War in Italy, waged by Sulla against the Marian faction. - Africanum. The African War in which Pompey conquered, in the year 81 B. C., a remnant of the Marian faction which had fled for protection to Hiarbas, King of Numidia. - Transalpinum. The war waged by Pompey against the Transalpine Gauls on his march into Spain, 76 B. C.

18. Hispaniense. The war in Spain against Sertorius. See notes on ad eos duces, p. 62, line 32, and on Pompeii, p. 63, line 3.- Mixtum nationibus, made-up of states, etc., i. e., one in which states, etc., were involved. These words are explanatory of Hispaniense bellum, but the text is doubtful.

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19. Servile. The war against Spartacus, aided by gladiators and slaves, 71 B. C.-Navale. The war against the pirates, 67 B. C., also called maritimum bellum, p. 64, line 4. See note on the same. 21. In usu ... militari, in the placed in.

range of military experience; lit.

XI., XII. Pompey's Second Qualification-Valor, as shown in the Various Wars in which he has commanded.

24. Virtuti, valor. G. 391, I. Virtus, in the discussion of this topic, with the leading idea of valor, is used in a very comprehensive sense, embracing the natural endowments which are essential in a great commander, the military gift, ability in war.

26. Cuiquam inauditum; G. 391. - Neque enim...solae virtutes, for those are not the only qualifications. The others are mentioned in Chap. XIII.

27. Quae... existimantur, which are usually so regarded.

30. Quae tanta sunt quanta non fuerunt, and these qualities are greater, lit., as great as they have not been.

33. Italia; i. e., in the Civil War. Sce note on civile, line 17, above.

35. Sicilia. In the year 82 B. C., Pompey was sent by Sulla into Sicily to subdue the remnant of the Marian faction which had taken refuge in that island.

36. Africa. See note on Africanum, line 17, above.

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1. Eorum ipsorum sanguine, with the blood of those very enemies. 70 Out of a force of 20,000, according to Plutarch, only 3,000 survived the battle.

2. Gallia. See note on Transalpinum, p. 69, line 17.

4. Hispania. See note on Hispaniense, p. 69, line 18.
5. Iterum et saepius, again and again.

6. Cum premeretur; G. 521, II., 2. — Taetro, disgraceful, because waged against gladiators and slaves.

7. Absente; i. e., in Spain.

9. Adventu... sepultum. This is extravagant and undeserved praise. Pompey, arriving from Spain just after Spartacus and his whole army had been defeated by Marcus Crassus, gained an easy victory over 5,000 fugitives who had escaped from the battle-field.

11. Maria omnia; i. e., the different seas composing the Mediterranean, or connected with it, as the Adriatic, the Aegean, etc. Cicero here refers to the war against the pirates. - Cum universa, tum, not only all the seas, but also.

12. Quis; G. 454, 1. — Toto mari; G. 425, 2.

16. Hieme, in winter, when there was less danger from pirates, but more from storm and shipwreck. - Referto mari; Abl. Absol. — Praedonum; G. 399, I., 3.

17. Tam vetus. The war against the pirates extended through a period of upwards of twenty years. -Tam late divisum, so widely extended.

18. Arbitraretur; G. 485, note 1.

22. Cui praesidio fuistis, whom have you protected? G. 390.

24. Quam multas captas urbes. The number is said to have reached four hundred. The pirates had at one time one thousand vessels under their command.

26. Fuit; G. 471, 1, 2).

27. Populi; G. 391, II., 4.

28. Propugnaculis imperii, with the bulwarks of their power, i. e., with their army and navy.-Sua, their own, referring to populi Romani. 31. Brundisio. A town on the eastern coast of Italy, the usual port of embarkation for the East. - Hieme summa, in midwinter.

32. Captos. Supply esse. The subject is eos, the omitted antecedent of qui.-Legati ... redempti sint. It is not known to what Cicero here refers.

34. Duodecim secures, two praetors, lit., twelve axes; the symbols of office, by metonymy for the officers. G. 637, III. In the provinces, each praetor was attended by six lictors with the fasces. Plutarch mentions these practors under the names of Sextilius and Bellinus.

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35. Cnidum. A city in Caria. - Colophonem. A city in Lydia. Samum. A city on the island of Samus, on the coast of Asia Minor. 36. Innumerabiles. See note on quam multas, etc., line 24.

2. Vitam... ducitis, you derive life and breath; i. e., the grain with which to support life.

3. Cajetae. A town and harbor on the coast of Latium, now Gaeta. - Celeberrimum, very much frequented.

4. Inspectante praetore. It is not known who this praetor was. 5. Miseno. A town and harbor on the coast of Campania. — Ejus ipsius liberos qui, the child of that very one who.

Plutarch says that

a daughter of Antonius was carried off by the pirates. This is undoubtedly the case to which Cicero refers, as liberos may mean either child or children. It is, however, uncertain whether this Antonius was M. Antonius, the orator, or his son M. Antonius, the father of the triumvir.

7. Ostiense, of or at Ostia, the port of Rome at the mouth of the Tiber. G. 395, note 2. The pirates are said even to have burnt the ships in the harbor of Ostia.

9. Cui consul praepositus esset. Relative clause denoting Re、 sult; a fleet so important as to be commanded by a consul. G. 503, I. Who the consul was is not known.

14. Oceani ostium, the Straits of Gibraltar, called Oceani Ostium, the mouth of the ocean, to harmonize with ostium Tiberinum.

18. Tam brevi tempore. About ninety days. See note on undequinquagesimo die, line 29, below; also Introduction, p. 232.

19. Quam celeriter, as speedily as.

20. Tanti belli impetus, the so vast military expedition, lit., the onset (impetuous movement) of so great a war; a figure at once bold and poetic, but difficult to reproduce in English. - Nondum tempestivo... mari; i. e., very early in the Spring. G. 431.

22. Sardiniam. The large island of Sardinia, west of Italy, was one of the principal granaries of Rome.

23. Frumentaria subsidia, granaries.

25. Duabus Hispaniis; i. e., Hispania citerior and Hispania ulterior, separated by the river Iberus, now the Ebro. With Hispaniis supply confirmatis.

26. Illyrici maris; i. e., the part of the Adriatic bordering upon Illyria. - Achaiam. Achaia here denotes the Peloponnesus.

27. Italiae duo maria; i. e., the Adriatic on the east, and the Tuscan on the west.

28. Adornavit, supplied.

29. Ut, after. - Brundisio; G. 412, II. - Undequinquagesimo die. According to Plutarch, the earlier operations of the war, prior to the

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