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11. Isti principes, those leaders; i. e., leaders though they are, they 81 must obey the Roman people. - Sibi, auctoritati; G. 388; 384.

13. Bello... regio. See notes on belli Asiatici, p. 65, line 35, and on bellum regium, p. 76, line 27.

15. Difficile est. Because of the great temptations to selfishness and avarice which those distant countries presented.

16. Asia. See note on Asiam, p. 61, line 15.- Cilicia. A district of Asia Minor, on the northern shores of the Mediterranean. Syria. A country on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean.

17. Ita versari, so to conduct himself. — Nihil aliud nisi, nothing except. G. 555, III., 1.

18. Pudore... moderatiores, of greater self-control (i. e., less lawless) from their regard for decency and moderation.

26. Jam requiruntur, are already becoming scarce; i. e., they have been already plundered.

27. Causa belli, a pretext for war.

junctive. G. 486, III.


-Inferatur. Potential Sub

28. Coram, face to face; render in private.

29. Noverunt; G. 297, I., 2.

32. Hostium simulatione, under the pretence of acting against the enemy.

33. Non modo, sed, not to say, but.

34. Tribuni militum. Each Roman legion had six military tribunes. - Animos. . . capere, to satisfy the desires and demands.

35. Collatis signis, in battle; lit., the standards having been brought together; i. e., in an engagement.

4. Qui mittatur; G. 503, II., 2.

6. Istis pacata esse videatur. If a city is wealthy, these avaricious generals will easily find a pretext for plundering it.

7. Ora maritima... requisivit: i. e., in the war against the pirates. Ora maritima, the sea-coast; i. e., its inhabitants.

9. Praetores, etc. Among others, M. Antonius Creticus, who was sent against the pirates 74 B. C., richly deserved the severe censure here pronounced against the Roman commanders.

10. Praeter paucos. Among the few noble exceptions, Cicero doubtless had P. Servilius Vatia especially in mind, as he was present, favored the proposed law, and had himself commanded with great success in the war against the pirates.

11. Classium nomine, with their so-called fleets, lit., with the name of fleets.

13. Quibus jacturis, with what expenditure of money; i. e., in bribery to secure an appointment. Quibus condicionibus, upon what



82 terms, referring doubtless to engagements made with those who aided them in securing the appointment.


14. Ignorant videlicet. Sarcastic and ironical. They pretend to be ignorant, or at least act as if they were.

15. Quasi videamus; G. 513, II.

17. Nolite dubitare; G. 489, 1).

18. Huic uni, to this one man (Pompey); i. e., instead of. dividing the command among several generals. — Qui unus, the only one who. G. 453, 5.-Inventus sit, gaudeant; Subjunctive of Result.

19. Quem venisse gaudeant, whom they rejoice to see come, lit., to

have come.

20. Auctoritatibus confirmandam. See note on tametsi cognoscetis... contrarias, p. 76, line 34.

21. Est vobis auctor, you have the authority of, or more lit., you have as an adviser.

22. P. Servilius. P. Servilius Vatia, surnamed Isauricus from his famous victory over the Isaurians. He had already spoken in favor of the Manilian law. He was consul 79 B. C., and commanded with great success against the pirates from 78 to 75 B. C.-Tantae exstiterunt, have been so great.

24. Est C. Curio.

Supply vobis auctor. C. Scribonius Curio, a Roman general and orator, consul 76 B. C. He commanded in Macedonia from 75 to 73 B. C., and triumphed over the Dardanians and Thracians, 71 B. C.

26. Praeditus.

With beneficiis and rebus, render distinguished.— Cn. Lentulus. Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus, consul 72 B. C., a lieutenant of Pompey in the war against the pirates.

27. Pro, in accordance with, or as shown by.

28. C. Cassius. C. Cassius Varus, consul 73 B. C., defeated by Spartacus in the Servile War, 72 B. C.

29. Videte, horumne, etc., observe whether, etc.

30. Illorum; i. e., of Catulus and Hortensius.

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32. C. Manili. Gaius Manilius, the tribune of the people and the author of the Manilian law. G. 51, 5.

34. Auctore populo Romano, with the support of the Roman people. G. 431.

35. Neve, and not. G. 497, 1, note.

2. Iterum, a second time. They had witnessed a similar scene during the discussion of the Gabinian law.


3. Quid est quod dubitemus, what reason is there why we should 83 doubt? G. 503, I., note 2.

4. De perficiendi facultate, in regard to our ability to accomplish it, i. e., to secure the appointment of Pompey.

5. Quidquid possum, whatever influence I possess. G. 378, 2.

6. Hoc beneficio, through (by) this favor, i. e., through his office as praetor, as explained by hac potestate praetoria.

9. Eos maxime, qui. Cicero refers, doubtless, to those gods whose temples were in the immediate vicinity of the Forum, as Jupiter, Castor, Venus, Concord, and others. Huic loco temploque, this consecrated place; i. e., the Rostra. Templum, which often means not a temple, but a consecrated place, is simply explanatory of loco.

10. Qui ad rem publicam adeunt, who apply themselves to public affairs.

12. Neque quo putem; G. 516, 2.

14. Praesidia periculis... honoribus, defence against perils and aid in securing honors. G. 392. The consulship was the only remaining object of Cicero's ambition.

16. Ut hominem... oportet, as far as it is proper for a man to promise this, implying that such security comes only from the gods. Repellemus; G. 446, note 2.

17. Eadem illa... vitae; i. e., from the practice of his profession at the bar.

19. Feret, shall permit.

20. Mihi; 388, 1.


22. Tantumque abest ut. videar, ut intelligam, and so far am I from appearing... that I know. G. 502, 3.- Ut... videar; Subject of abest.

25. Vobis non inutiles, not useless to you. By metonymy, the effect for the cause. Strictly, it is Cicero's course of action, not the enmities incurred thereby, which will be advantageous to the state. G. 637, III. — Hoc honore; i. e., the praetorship.

28. Rationibus, personal interests.




MARCUS CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS belonged to the ancient and illustrious Claudian gens, which had produced a long line of distinguished statesmen and generals. He was the intimate friend of Cicero, was an orator of some repute, was consul in the year 51 B. C., and, while in office, incurred the displeasure of Caesar, then commanding in Gaul, by proposing that he should be recalled from his province. At the opening of the Civil War, he betook himself to the camp of Pompey, but, after the battle of Pharsalia, he retired to Mitylene, where he devoted himself to the study of philosophy and oratory. Here he repeatedly received letters from his friend Cicero, urging him, both for his own sake and for the sake of his country, to return to Rome and receive pardon from Caesar. This, however, he persistently refused to do.

Thus the case stood when, in the summer of 46 B. C., Lucius Piso, Caesar's father-in-law, mentioned Marcellus in the senate as a suitable subject for clemency. Gaius Marcellus, the brother of the exile, instantly threw himself at Caesar's feet, while the whole senate attested their sympathy and interest by gathering about the Dictator in the attitude of suppliants. Caesar, whose policy to his opponents had from the first been marked by great clemency, said that he would not refuse the request of the senate, though he clearly foresaw the peril which would attend the recall of implacable opponents and foes. Cicero, who had for a long time been living in comparative seclusion, was so overjoyed at this announcement that he delivered upon the spot a spirited oration eulogizing in the strongest



p. 262.

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