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certo). The act of noticing; chastisement, punishment, iv. C. 6; P. 2. ǎnimadverto, ère, verti, versum, v. tr. (animus, ad, verto). To turn one's attention to, attend, take heed, notice, observe, perceive; to punish.

ǎnimus, i, m. The mind, soul, intellect; the attention; the thoughts, imagination, will, purpose, desire, design; animum inducere, to deter mine, i. C. 9; inclination, disposition; regard, affection; feeling, anger, courage, spirit.

an-ne, conj. Or, M. L. 19.

Antōnius, ii, m. M. Antonius, Mark Antony, the distinguished triumvir and enemy of Cicero; see the First Philippic.

ăpĕrio, ire, pèrui, pertum, v. tr. To open.

ǎperte, adv. (apertus). Openly, publicly.

ǎpertus, a, um, part. and adj. (ăpěrio). Open, exposed, uncovered, naked, undisguised.

Apollīnāris, e, adj. (Apollo). Apollinarian, in honor of Apollo. appărātus, a, um, part. and adj.

Annius, ii, m. The name of a (appăro). Prepared; magnificent,

Roman gens,

iii. C. 6; see Chilo.

annōna, ae, f. (annus). The produce of the year, corn, provisions. annuo, ère, nui, v. intr. (ad, nuo, to nod). To nod assent; to assent. annus, i, m. A year. ante. I. Prep. with accus. Before, BOTH OF SPACE AND TIME; ante diem, see note on p. 3, 1. 16. II. Adv. Before, in advance; previously, ago. antea, adv. (ante, is). Formerly, before.

antě-cello, ĕre, v. intr. (cello, to urge). To surpass, excel.

antĕ-fĕro, ferre, tuli, lātum, v. tr. To bear before, place before, prefer. antĕ-lūcānus, a, um, adj. (lux). Continued until daybreak, prolonged till morning, ii. C. 10.

antě-pōno, ĕre, pòsui, põsĭtum, v. tr. To place before, give the preference to, prefer.

sumptuous, ii. C. 9; P. 15.

appăro, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ad, paro). To prepare, make ready, put in order.

appello, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ad, pello). To accost, address; to name, call.

Appenninus,i, m. The Apennine range of mountains, the Apennines, ii. C. 10.

appetens, entis, adj. (ad-pěto). Desirous, eager for, M. L. 3. Appius, i, m. A Roman pracnomen, A. 5; P. 5.

Appius, a, um, adj. (Appius). Appian; Appia via, the Appian Way, extending from Rome to Brundisium, M. L. 18.

approbo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ad, probo). To approve, commend. appropinquo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. intr. (ad, propinquo, to approach).

ante-quam, conj. Sooner than, To approach, draw near.


aptus, a, um, adj. (obsol. apo, to

Antigonus, i, m. Antigonus, an seize). Fit for, suitable, adapted. ambassador of Deiotarus, D. 15.

Antiochia, ae, f. (Antiochus). Antioch, an important city of Syria. Antiochus, i, m. Antiochus, surnamed the Great, King of Syria, 223 to 187 B. C., M. L. 6; D. 13.

antiquitas, ātis, f. (antiquus). The past, antiquity, M. L. 10. antiquus, a, um, adj. (ante). Ancient, old, olden.

ǎpud, prep. with acc. At, by, ncar, before, in the presence of; with, among, at the house of.

Apūlia, ae, f. A country in Southern Italy.

ăqua, ae, f. Water.

ăquila, ae, f. The eagle, the standard of the Roman legion. āra, ae, f. An altar.

arbitror, āri, ātus sum, v. dep.

(arbiter, a judge). To judge, think, scribo). To enroll, A. 4; to assign, consider.

arceo, ère, cui, v. tr. To keep off; to hinder.

arcesso, ère, cessivi, cessitum, v. tr. To cause to approach; to call, send for, summon, invite.

Archias, ae, m. A. Licinias Archias; see Introduction to the Oration for Archias.

ardeo, ère, arsi, arsum, v. intr. To burn, be on fire; to be inflamed, be excited, burn.

ardor, ōris, m. (ardeo). A glowing, brightness, iii. C. 8; heat, excitement.

argenteus, a, um, adj. (argentum). Of silver, silver, i. C. 9.

ascribe, M. L. 19.

Asia, ae, f. Asia; Asia Minor; sometimes including Syria, A. 3; the Roman province in Asia, embracing the western part of Asia Minor.

Asiaticus, a, um, adj. (Asia). Asiatic; bellum Asiaticum, the Mithridatic War, M. L. 7.

aspectus, us, m. (aspicio). The sight; the appearance, looks, presence, countenance.

aspicio, ère, spexi, spectum, v. tr. (ad, spěcio, to look). To look upon, behold, look at.

assentio, ire, sensi, sensum, v.intr. assentior, iri, sensus sum, v. dep. (ad, sentio). To assent, give assent,

argentum, i, n. Silver; silver approve.


assequor, i, sěcútus sum, v. dep. To overtake, secure, attain; to accomplish.

argumentum, i, n. (arguo). An (ad, sequor). argument, proof.

arguo, ĕre, ui, utum, v. tr. Το accuse, charge.

Ariobarzānes, is, m. A king of Cappadocia, M. L. 2.

asservo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ad, servo). To keep, preserve.

assídeo, ère, sēdi, sessum, v. intr. (ad, sèdeo, to sit). To sit by or near,

arma, ōrum, n. pl. Arms, wea- sit, sit down, i. C. 7. pons; war.

Arměnius, ii, m. (Armenia). An Armenian, an inhabitant of Armenia in Asia, A. 9.

armo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. To arm, equip; of ships: to fit out, furnish.

arrĭpio, ère, rìpui, reptum, v. tr. (ad, răpio). To scize, lay hold of. arroganter, adv. (arrõgans, arrogant). Arrogantly, insolently.

assidue, adv. (assiduus, from assideo). Constantly, continually.

assiduitas, ātis, f. (assiduus, from assideo). Continuance, unremitted exertion, perseverance, M. L. 8; constant attendance, or attention, D. 15.

assuēfăcio, ère, feci, factum, v. tr. (assuesco, to accustom, facio). To accustom, inurc, habituate.

ǎt, conj. But, yet, still; but at least. Athenae, ārum, f. pl. Athens. Athenienses, ium, m. pl. (Athē

ars, artis, f. Skill, art, faculty; science, knowledge, method; qual-nae). ity, M. L. 13.

The Athenians, P. 1. atque or ac, conj. G. 554, I. 2.

artifex, icis, m. and f. (ars, fă- (ad, que). And, and also, and especio). An artist, A. 5.

arx, arcis, f. (arceo). A fortified height; a citadel, fortress, stronghold.

ascendo, ĕre, di, sum, v. intr. (ad, scando, to climb). To ascend, go up, mount.

cially; in comparisons: than, from, as; aliter ac, otherwise than.

ătrōcītas, ātis, f. (atrox). Fierceness, atrocity, cruelty, iv. C. 6. ǎtrox, ōcis, adj. Terrible, crucl, horrible, atrocious.

Attălus, i, m. Attalus III., King ascribo, ĕre, psi, ptum, v. tr. (ad, of Pergamus, D. 7.

attendo, ère, tendi, tentum, v. tr. | tr. (ab, fero). To carry off, sweep (ad, tendo). To attend to, observe, away, destroy.


attĕnuo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ad, tenuo, from tenuis). To reduce, lessen, diminish, M. L. 11.

attingo, ĕre, tīgi, tactum, v. tr. (ad, tango). To touch, come in contact with; to arrive at, reach, attain; to attempt..

Attius, ii, m. L. Attius, a Roman tragic poet, born 170 B. C., A. 11; P. Attius Varus, a praetor in Africa during the war between Caesar and Pompey, L. 1.

attribuo, ĕre, ui, ūtum, v. tr. (ad, tribuo). To attribute, assign, bestow; to give in charge, appoint over. attuli. See affero.

augeo, ere, auxi, auctum, v. tr. To increase, enlarge, augment; to enrich, advance, promote.

augur, ūris, m. and f. An augur, diviner, soothsayer, P. 13. Aulus, i, m. A Roman praenomen.

Aurēlius, a, um, adj. (Aurelius, name of a Roman gens). Aurelian; Aurelia via, the Aurelian Way, extending from Rome to Pisa, ii. C. 4; leges Aureliae, laws with reference to the judiciary, proposed by L. Aurelius Cotta, P. 8.

auris, is, f. The ear.
aurum, i, n. Gold, M. L. 9.
auspicium, ii, n. (auspex, a di-

auctio, ōnis, f. (augeo). A public viner). Auspice, sign, omen, i. C. 13.

sale, auction, D. 5.

auctiōnārius, a, um, adj. (auctio). Pertaining to an auction, of the auction, ii. C. 8.

auctiōnor, āri, ātus sum, v. dep. (auctio). To put up property at public sale, sell one's property at auction, D. 9.

auctor, ōris, m. (augeo). Creator, author, maker, producer, inventor, originator; leader, director; promoter, approver, adviser, counsellor.

auctōrĭtas, ātis, f. (auctor). Authority, power, influence; standing, reputation, dignity; authorization, command, order, will.

auctus, a, um, part. from augeo. audacia, ae, f. (audax). Boldness, daring; insolence, audacity, presumption.

auster, tri, m. The south wind. aut, conj. Or; aut... aut, either ...or. G. 554, II. 2.

autem, conj. But; moreover.

auxilium, ii, n. (augeo). Help, aid, assistance; remedy, resource, refuge, support; pl., auxiliary troops. ǎvārītia, ae, f. (arārus, avaricious). Avarice, covetousness.

āversus, a, um, part. and adj. (a-verto). Turned away; averse, disinclined.

ǎvidus, a, um, adj. (ăveo, to long for). Greedy, cager, desirous, M.L.3. ăvitus, a, um, adj. (ăvus). Of, belonging to, or derived from a grandfather, ancestral.

ā-voco, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. To call away, withdraw, remove, A. 6. ăvunculus, i, m. (ăvus). A moth

audax, ācis, adj. (audeo). Daring, er's brother, maternal uncle, uncle.

bold, audacious, ii. C. 5.


audeo, ere, ausus sum, dep. To dare, venture; to undertake, attempt.

audio, ire, ivi or ii, itum, v. tr. To hear, listen to, perceive; to hear of; to obey, give heed to; dicto audiens, obedient to.

ǎvus, i, m. A grandfather.


bacchor, āri, ātus sum, v. dep. (Bacchus). To revel, i. C. 10; iv.C.6. balneum, i, n., pl. balnea, ōrum,

aufĕro, ferre, abstüli, ablātum, v.│n., or balneae, ārum, f. A bath, D. 6.


barbăria, ae, f. (barbărus). foreign country; a savage, barbarous nation, iii. C. 10.

barbărus, a, um, adj. Foreign, strange; barbarous, wild, savage, uncivilized; barbārus, i, m., a for


Blesamius, ii, m. An ambassa dor of Deiotarus, D. 12.

Blucium, ii, n. The name of a castle of Deiotarus, D. 7.

bonitas, ātis, f. (bonus). Goodness, excellence.

bonum, i, n. (bõnus). A good

barbātus, a, um, adj. (barba, thing, benefit, advantage, good enbeard). Bearded, ii. C. 10.

beate, adv. (beātus). IIappily. beātus, a, um, adj. (beo, to bless). Happy; prosperous, opulent, wealthy, rich.

dowment; bona, ōrum, n. pl., property, goods.

bõnus, a, um, mělior, optimus, adj. Good, excellent, sound.

Bosporānus, i, m. (Bosporus).

bellicōsus, a, um, adj. (bellicus). A dweller on the Cimmerian BospoWarlike, fierce in war.

bellicus, a, um, adj. (bellum). Of or pertaining to war, warlike.

bello, āre, āvi, ātum, v. intr. (bellum). To wage or carry on war.

bellum, i, n. (duellum, from duo). War, warfare.

rus, between the Black Sea and the Azof, M. L. 4.

brĕvis, e, adj. Short, brief, of short duration.

breviter, adv. (brěvis). Shortly, briefly, with few words.

Brocchus, i, m. A Roman cognomen; T. Brocchus, uncle of Q.

běne, mělius, optĭme, adv. (bõnus). Well, rightly, favorably, happily, suc-Ligarius, L. 4. cessfully.

běněfícium, ¿i, n. (beneficus). Kindness, favor, good deed, benefit, service.

Brundisium, i, n. A town on the castern coast of Italy, now Brindisi.

Brutus, i, m. L. Junius Brutus, běně-fícus, a, um, adj. (făcio). the deliverer of Rome from regal doGenerous, liberal, beneficent, D. 9. minion, P. 6; D. Brutus, a distinběněvolentia, ae, f. (benevŏlens, guished general, consul 138 B. C., A. from bene, volo). Friendly disposi-11; M. Junius Brutus, an intimate tion, good will, inclination, friend-friend of Cicero, and the murderer ship, affection; gratitude. of Caesar, P. 3; P. 4; P. 15. bustum, i, n. (būro = uro, to burn). A tomb, monument, P. 2.

běnigne, adv. (benignus, kind). In a friendly manner, kindly, D. 13. benignitas, ātis, f. (benignus, kind). Kindness, benignity, iv. C. 9. bestia, ae, f. A beast, A. S. bibo, ĕre, bibi, v. tr. To drink. biennium, i, n. (bis, annus). The space of two years, two years. bīni, ae, a, num. distrib. (bis). Two by two, two cach, two.


C. Abbr. for Caius, or Gaius. cădo, ère, cĕcīdi, cāsum, v. intr. To fall; to occur to; to perish, dic. cădâcus, a, um, adj. (cădo). Fall

bipartito, adv. (bis, pars). In ing, frail, perishable; characteristic

two divisions, in two parties.

bis, num. adv. (duis, from duo). Twice.

Bithynia, ae, f. A district of Asia Minor south of the Euxinc.

of decay, P. 14.

Caecilius, ii, m. Q. Caecilius Bassus, a partisan of Pompey, D. 8.

caecus, a, um, adj. Bliul; blinded, ignorant, unreasonable, L. 1.

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Caesetius, i, m. a Roman gens, L. 11. Caius, better written Gaius, ii,


A Roman praenomen. Cajēta, ae, f. A town and harbor on the coast of Latium, now Gaëta. călămitas, atis, f. Calamity, misfortune, loss, disaster, damage. călămĭtōsus, a, um, adj. (calamttas). Unfortunate, unhappy, L. 5. callidus, a, um, adj. (calleo, to be wise). Skilful, shrewd, cunning.

campus, i, m. A plain; the Campus Martius, i. C. 5.

cārus, a, um, adj. Dear, beloved, highly prized.

Cassius, ii, m. L. Cassius, a senator, a confederate of Catiline, iii. C. 4; C. Cassius Varus, consul 73 B. C., M. L. 23; C. Cassius, one of the murderers of Caesar, P. 3.

caste, adv. (castus, pure). Honestly, uprightly, M. L. 1.

castellum, i, n. G. 315, 3. (castrum). A castle, fort, citadel, stronghold.

Castor, oris, m. A grandson of căno, ère, cècini, cantum, v. tr. Deiotarus and his accuser before and intr. To sing; to predict.

canto, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. and intr. freq., (cano). To sing, ii. C. 10. cantus, us, m. (căno). Singing, song, A. 8.

căpillus, i, m. (căput). The hair. căpio, ère, cēpi, captum, v. tr. To take, receive, contain, lay hold of, grasp, comprehend, seize, capture; to occupy, gain, reach; consilium capere, to form the design, i. C. 1; mente captus, bereft of reason, iii.C.9. căpitālis, e, adj. (căput). Capital, destructive, dangerous, deadly.

Căpītōlium, ¿, n. (cáput). The Capitol, the Temple of Jupiter at Rome on the Capitoline Hill, iii. C. 4.

Cappădăcia, ae, f. Cappadocia, a country in the eastern part of Asia Minor, M. L. 3.

căput, itis, n. The head; a capital charge or question; life, civil or political life, including liberty and citizenship, iv. C. 5.

Caesar, D. 1.

castrensis, e, adj. (castra). Pertaining to a camp; organized, open, iii. C. 7.

castrum, i, n. A fortified place, a fort; castra, ōrum, n. pl., a camp, encampment.

cāsus, us, m. (cado). That which comes to pass, an event, occurrence; misfortune, calamity; chance, accident.

Cătălina, ae, m. L. Sergius Catiline; see Introduction to the Orations against Catiline.

Căto, ōnis, m. M. Porcius Cato, the famous Censor, A. 7; A. 9; M. Porcius Cato, grandson of the Censor, A. 3.

Cătŭlus, i, m. Q. Lutatius Catulus, consul 102 B. C., A. 3; Q. Lutatius Catulus, son of the above, consul 78 B. C., iii. C. 10; A. 3.

causa, ae, f. Reason, ground, motive, cause; causa, for the sake

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