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felves little about, and condemned the criminal to lose his head. He was conducted on a platform to the fcaffold, by means of a gallery raised to the height of the window of the armoury in the arsenal, which looks towards the little fquare at the end of the rue des Tournelles. He was beheaded on November 27th, 1674. His trial is in the Royal library. See alfo Memoires du Marquis de Beauveau, Colog. 1688. p. 407.'
The famous Baftille prifoner, known by the name of the Man in the iron mask, was lodged in the chamber called the Third Bertaudiere. Nothing was refufed him that he asked for he had the choiceft food; and the Governor never fat down in his prefence. He was obliged always to wear an iron mafk; and was forbidden on pain of death to make himself known. Thefe circumftances have given rife to various conjectures. The author of the Memoires fecrets pour fervir à l'Hiftoire de Perfe pretends that the Count de Vermandois, natural fon of Louis XIV. and Mademoiselle de la Valiere, and greatly beloved by his father; nearly of the fame age with the Dauphin, but of a character very oppofite to his; had forgot himself so far one day, as to give the Dauphin a box on the ear-that this action becoming public, the King had fent him to the army, and given orders to a confidant foon after his arrival to spread a report that he was feized with the plague, in order to keep people from him, and afterwards to report him as dead; and, while a splendid funeral was made for him in the fight of the whole army, to conduct him with the utmoft fecrecy to the citadel of the ifle Sainte Marguerite; which was done that the Count de Vermandois was releafed from this citadel only to be removed to the Bastille (in 1700) when Louis XIV. gave the government of this caftle to St. Mars, Commandant of the ifle, as a return for his fidelity. The fame author adds, that the Count de Vermandois one day engraved his name on the bottom of a plate with the point of a knife-that a domeftic having discovered it, thought to make his court and obtain a reward by carrying the plate to the Commandant-but that the poor wretch was deceived; for they got rid of him immediately, in order to prevent the secret from being divulged. Although thefe Secret Memoirs had been published nine years before the first edition of L'Hiftoire du Siecle de Louis XIV. as M. Clément remarks, yet M. de Voltaire has advanced that all the hiftorians who wrote before him were ignorant of this fact. He relates it somewhat differently, without naming the Count de Vermandois. He fays, that the Marquis de Louvois, paying a vifit to this unknown prifoner at the ifle Sainte Marguerite, fpoke to him standing, and in a manner demonstrative of refpect-that he died at the Baftille in 1704, and was interred at night in the parish of St. Paul.
The author of the Philippics (M. de la Grange-Chancel) in his Lettre à M. Fréron, pretends that this prifoner was the Duke of Beaufort, who was faid to have been killed at the fiege of Candy, and whose body could not be found. The caufe of the Duke's imprifonment, he fuppofes to have been his reftlefs fpirit, the part he took in the tumults at Paris in the time of the Fronde, and his oppofition, as Admiral, to the defigns of the Minister Colbert in the marine department.
M. Poullain-de Saintfoy combats all thefe opinions refpecting the man in the iron mask. He places ftill later the time of the confinement of this prifoner to the citadel of the ifle Sainte Marguerite, which M. de Voltaire has fixed at 1661, M. de la Grange-Chancel at 1669, and the author of the Mémoires Secrets at the end of 1683. M. de Saintfoy affures us, that this unknown prifoner was the Duke of Monmouth, fon of Charles II. King of England, and Lucy Walters; who, after forming a party in Dorfetshire, where he was proclaimed King, and attacking the royal army, was defeated, taken, and brought to London, where he was confined in the Tower, and condemned to be beheaded on July 15, 1685. This, writer adds, that a report was current at the time, that an officer in the Duke of Monmouth's army, extremely like him in perfon, who was made prifoner along with him, had the courage to fuffer in his ftead. He cites Mr. Hume, and the Amours of Charles II. and James II. Kings of England; and remarks, in order to give credit to his opinion, that James II. having reafon to fear fome revolution which might restore the Duke of Monmouth to liberty, thought that though he fhould grant him his life, he might do it without hazard, by fending him into France.
The Jefuit, Henry Griffet, who was a long time confeffor to the prifoners in the Baftile, who had turned over all the moft fecret papers of the archives of this caftle, and had doubtless feen the mortuary register which is kept in this depofitary, has written a very folid Differtation on this hiftorical problem. This Jefuit does not affert, that the man in the iron mask was the Count de Vermandois, but he collects many probable reafons in favour of this opinion; and his fuffrage in this matter appears of great weight.'
A ground plan of the Baftille accompanies this tranflation.
ART. IV. Eight Sermons preached before the University of Oxford, in 1780, at the Lecture founded by the late Rev. and pious John Bampton, M. A. Canon of Salisbury. To which is added, A Vindication of St. Paul from the Charge of withing himself accurfed, a Sermon preached likewife before the University. By James Bandinell, D. D. of Jefus College, and public Orator of the University. 8vo. 4 s. Boards. Rivington, &c. 1780.
HESE difcourfes manifeft confiderable abilities in their Author. Their ftyle and language are generally cafy, accurate, and expreffive. They difcover fenfe and ingenuity, learning and criticifm. The fubjects of them are chiefly the truth of Christianity and its peculiar doctrines; and they often with juftice attack fome erroneous principles of Popery. They are rather of an orthodox, perhaps fometimes an high church strain. Unconditional election and reprobation Dr. Bandinell rejects with great, and, we apprehend, with juft abhorrence: a doctrine, fays he, fo' abfurd, that one may well wonder how it could find reception among philofophers; fo impious, that a fincere Chriftian can with difficulty conceive how it ever could REV. Feb. 1781. prevail
prevail among divines; a doctrine deftructive of the principles of our reasonable nature, and of at leaft the moral part of divinity, and contradictory to every covenant which the wisdom and goodness of God has been pleafed to make with fallen
Again, he fays, in another place, St. Auftin firft broached the doctrine;-but when the ftudy of the Holy Scriptures, and the more ancient fathers, came into repute and ufe, the authority of St. Auftin gave way to the uniform opinion of the Catholic church in early ages, to the reason of man, to the word of God. The doctrines would in all probability have died, had it not been for their fubferviency to the defigns of artful fectaries, who have of late years not only embraced but improved upon them, in fpite of their anti-fcriptural principle, and the horrid confequences with which they are juftly chargeable.'
The latter part of this paffage is fomewhat ungenerous, as there have been and are many members of the church of England who hold, we fuppofe, these tenets; and we beg leave to refer our Author to the 17th of the 39 Articles, as establishing predeftination and election, if not reprobation.
We shall finish our Article by a criticism or two from these difcourfes. The text of one of them is, 2 Pet. i. 19. We have alfo a more fure word of prophecy; which text, it is obferved, might perhaps be better rendered, But we hold, or esteem, the word of prophecy to be furer; by the word of prophecy he underftands thofe extraordinary gifts of the Spirit (gifts of knowledge, prophefying, or inftructing), which for edifying the church fome perfons in that age were favoured with; and therefore, to these inspired perfons, and to the Scriptures written by fuch perfons, St. Peter refers his converts; and these he recommends as likely to produce a clearer and stronger persuasion than even his own atteftation of Chrift's glorious transfiguration.'
On Rev. xxii. 14. Bleffed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life; he obferves, that the Greek word here rendered right fignifies not an abfolute inherent right, a right of merit (as the church of Rome infolently teaches), but only a right of permiffion and therefore the paffage ought to have been rendered, that they may have liberty, may be permitted, to come to the tree of life."
That famous text in which, according to our verfion, St. Paul appears to wish himself accurfed, that he might be ferviceable to his brethren the Jews, Dr. Bandinell thus tranflates in connection with what precedes and follows: Rom. ix. 2, 3. I have great heaviness and continual forrow in my heart (for 1 myself likewife once was an excommunicate outcast from Christ) on account of my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh; who are Ifraelites ;
to whom pertaineth the adoption, &c. &c.'-The criticifms and obfervations by which this alteration of the text is fupported, would carry us beyond the limits of our work; we leave it therefore for the confideration of the learned Reader.
ART. V. Sermons I. On the Efficacy of Prayer and Interceffion. II. On the Articles of the Chriftian Faith. III. On the Ten Commandments. To which are now first added, Sermons, IV. On the Lord's Supper. By Samuel Ogden, D. D. late Woodwardian Profeffor in the University of Cambridge. To which is prefixed, an Account of the Author's Life, together with a Vindication of his Writings against fomë late Objections. Small 8vo. 2 Vols. 10s. bound. Rivington. 1780.
Tis unneceffary to repeat our fentiments of this ingenious divine. They are already before the Public. All the fermons here collected, except thofe on the Lord's Supper, have been reviewed as they were originally published in the Author's lifetime. The additional difcourfes are much in the fame ftrain, though by no means equal to many of them, for that liveliness of fancy, and originality of fentiment and expreffion, for which the Author became fo popular and diftinguifhed. They are in some respects animated with a fine glow of a devotional and fublime imagination; but they are more hafty, than correct; more flighty, than folid.
The account of Dr. Ogden's life, prefixed to this collection, is a deferved tribute of respect paid to his memory by his learned friend Dr. Samuel Hallifax. The account is fhort, and confined to a few of the more capital events of his life; but the life of a college divine is in general too uniform to admit of many incidents that are worth recording.
From this account we learn, that Dr. Ogden was born at Manchester, in 1716; and, was educated at the Free-fchool there. That, in 1733, he was admitted in King's College, Cambridge; and removed to St. John's in 1736; where, in the following year, he took the degree of B. A.; and in 1739, was elected Fellow. He was ordained Deacon at Chefter in 1740; and in the following year, he took his degree of A. M. and was ordained Prieft by the Bishop of Lincoln. In 1744 he was elected Mafter of the Free-fchool at Halifax in Yorkfhire. In 1753, he refigned his school, and went to refide at Cambridge; and at the enfuing, Commencement, he took the degree of D. D. The late Duke of Newcastle, who was Chancellor of the Univerfity, having been prefent at the exercife he performed for the degree, was fo much fatisfied with it, that he foon after prefented him with the vicarage of Damerham in Wiltshire, which was tenable with his fellowship. In 1764,
1764, Dr. Ogden was appointed Woodwardian Profeffor. He died in March 1778, in the 62d year of his age.
Dr. Hallifax bears this teftimony to the excellence of his friend's character, in the following brief account of it: In common life there was a real or apparent rufticity attending his addrefs, which difgufted thofe who were ftrangers to his character. But this prejudice foon wore off, as the intimacy. with him increased; and, notwithstanding the fternness, and even ferocity, he would fometimes throw into his countenance, he was, in truth, one of the most humane and tender-hearted men I have known.
To his relations, who wanted his affiftance, he was remarkably kind in his life, and in the legacies he left them at his death. His father and mother, who both lived to an extreme old age, owed almost their whole fupport to his piety.
During the latter part of Dr. Ogden's life he laboured under much ill health. About a year before he died, he was feized with a paralytic fit as he was stepping into his chariot, and was judged to be in immediate and extreme danger. The cheerfulnefs with which he fuftained this fhock, and the indifference with which he gave the neceffary orders on the event of his diffolution, which feemed to be then fo near, were fuch as could only be afcribed to a mind properly refigned to the difpofals of Providence, and full of the hopes of happiness in a future ftate.'
To the account of Dr. Ogden's life and character, Dr. Hallifax hath fubjoined a Poftfcript, written with a view to vindicate the fermons now collected from the cenfures paffed on them by Mr. Mainwaring, in the learned Differtation, of which we have already given fo particular an account*. Dr. Ogden's Sermons were charged by this gentleman with a want of perfpicuity; and reprefented" as unconnected and defultory." In anfwer to this reflection, Dr. H. acknowledges, they are not ftaked out indeed into divifions and fubdivifions, all regularly marked by I. II. III. &c. 1. 2. 3. &c.—they are not, as is faid of fome difcourfes of the old Puritans, fplit into four equal fhares, in honour of the four Evangelifts, nor into twelve, in honour of the twelve Apoftles; but in every one an intelligent perfon will be at no lofs to difcern both a unity of defign, and a confiftency of difpofition.' Whether Dr. H. is right in his juftification of Dr. Ogden in the article of a perfpicuous arrangement, is a point we fhall leave to the determination of others : but we cannot avoid remarking, that he is, in our opinion, palpably wrong in the inftance he pretends to draw from the conduct of the Puritans. They would have confidered it as fymbo
* Vid. our last Appendix (juft published), p. 540.