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felves little about, and condemned the criminal to lose his head. He was conducted on a platform to the scaffold, by means of a gallery raised to the height of the window of the armoury in the arsenal, which looks towards the little square at the end of the ruë des Tournelles. He was beheaded on November 27th, 1674. His trial is in the Royal library. See also Memoires du Marquis de Beauveau, Co. log. 1688. p. 407.'

The famous Bastille prisoner, known by the name of the Man in the iron mask, was lodged in the chamber called the Third Bertaudiere. Nothing was refused him that he aked for: he had the choicest food; and the Governor never sat down in his presence. He was obliged always to wear an iron mask ; and was forbidden on pain of death to make himself known. These circumstances have given rise to various conjectures. The author of the Memoires secrets pour servir à l'Histoire de Perse pretends that the Count de Vermandois, natural son of Louis XIV. and Mademoiselle de la Valiere, and greatly beloved by his father; nearly of the same age with the Dauphin, but of a character very opposite to his; had forgot himself so far one day, as to give the Dauphin a box on the ear-that this action becoming public, the King had sent him to the army, and given orders to a confidant soon after his arrival to spread a report that he was seized with the plague, in order to keep people from him, and afterwards to report him as dead ; and, while a splendid funeral was made for him in the fight of the whole army, to conduct him with the utmost fecrecy to the citadel of the isle Sainte Marguerite ; which was donéothat the Count de Vermandois was released from this citadel only to be removed to the Baltille (in 1700) when Louis XIV. gave the government of this castle to St. Mars, Commandant of the ille, as a return for his fidelity. The same author adds, that the Count de Vermandois one day engraved his name on the bottom of a plate with the point of a knife-that a domestic having discovered it, thought to make his court and obtain a reward by carrying the plate to the Commandant-but that the poor wretch was deceived; for they got rid of him immediately, in order to prevent the secret from being divulged. Although these Secret Niemoirs had been published nine years before the first edition of L'Histoire du Siecle de Louis XIV. as M. Clément remarks, yet M. de Voltaire has advanced that all the historians who wrote before him were ignorant of this fact. He relates it somewhat differently, without naming the Count de Vermandois. He says, that the Marquis de Louvois, paying a visit to this unknown prisoner at the ille Sainte Marguerite, spoke to him ftanding, and in a manner demonstrative of respect-that he died at the Bastille in 1704, and was interred at night in the parish of St. Paul.

The author of the Philippics (M. de la Grange-Chancel) in his Lettre à M. Fréron, pretends that this prisoner was the Duke of Beaufort, who was said to have been killed at the siege of Candy, and whose body could not be found. The cause of the Duke's imprisonment, he fupposes to have been his restless fpirit, the part he took in the tumults at Paris in the time of the Fronde, and his oppo. fition, as Admiral, to the designs of the Minister Colbert in the marine department.

M. Poul.

M. Poullain-de Saintfoy combats all these opinions respecting the man in the iron inak. He places still later the time of the confinement of this prisoner to the citadel of the ille Sainte Marguerite, which M. de Voltaire has fixed at 1661, M. de la Grange-Chancel at 1669, and the author of the Mémoires Secrets at the end of 1683. M. de Saintfoy assures us, that this unknown prisoner was the Duke of Monmouth, fon of Charles II. King of England, and Lucy Walters ; who, after forming a party in Dorsetshire, where he was proclaimed King, and attacking the royal army, was defeated, taken, and brought to London, where he was confined in the Tower, and condemned to be beheaded on July 15, 1685. This, writer adds, that a report was current at the time, that an officer in the Duke of Monmouth's army, extremely like him in person, who was made prisoner along with him, had the courage to suffer in his stead. He cites Mr. Hume, and the Amours of Charles II, and James II. King's af England ; and remarks, in order to give credit to his opinion, that James II. having reason to fear some revolution which might restore the Duke of Monmouth to liberty, thought that though he should grant him his life, he might do it without hazard, by sending him into France.

The Jesuit, Henry Griffet, who was a long time confessor to the prisoners in the Baftile, who had turned over all the most secret papers of the archives of this castle, and had doubtless seen the mortuary register which is kept in this depofitary, has written a very solid Dijfertation on this historical problem. This lefuit does not affert, that the man in the iron mask was the Count de Vermandois, but he col. lects many probable reasons in favour of this opinion; and his suffrage in this matter appears of great weight.'

A ground plan of the Bastille accompanies this translation.

Art, IV. Eight Sermons preached belore the University of Oxford,

in 1780, at the Lecture founded by the late Rev. and pious John Bampton, M. A. Canon of Salisbury. To which is added, A Vindication of St. Paul from the Charge of wishing himself accursed, a Sermon preached likewise before the University. By James Bandinell, D.D. of Jesus College, and public Orator of the University. 8vo.

8vo. 4 s. Boards. Rivington, &c. 1780. HESE discourses manifeft confiderable abilities in their

Thuther.ifcoheitstyles and language are generally cafy;

accurate, and exprellive. They discover sense and ingenuity, learning and criticism. The subjects of them are chiefly the truth of Christianity and its peculiar doctrines; and they often with justice attack fome erroneous principles of Popery. They are rather of an orthodox, perhaps sometimes an high church strain. Unconditional election and reprobation Dr. Bandinell rejects with great, and, we apprehend, with just abhorrence : 6a doctrine, fays he, soʻ absurd, that one may well wonder how it could find reception among philosophers; so impious, that a fincere Christian can with difficulty conceive how it ever could Rev. Feb. 1781.


prevail among divines; a doctrine destructive of the principles of our reasonable nature, and of at least the moral part of die vinity, and contradictory to every covenant which the wisdom and goodness of God has been pleased to make with fallen mán.

Again, he says, in another place, St. Auftin firft broached the doctrine ;--but when the study of the Holy Scriptures, and the more ancient fathers, came into repute and use, the authority of St. Austin gave way to the uniform opinion of the Catholic church in early ages, to the reason of man, to the word of God. The doctrines would in all probability have died, had it not been for their subserviency to the designs of artful sectaries, who have of late years not only embraced but improved upon them, in spite of their anti-scriptural principle, and the horrid consequences with which they are justly chargeable.'

The latter part of this paffage is somewhat ungenerous, as there have been and are many members of the church of England who hold, we suppose, these tenets; and we beg leave to refer our Author to the 17th of the 39 Articles, as establishing predestination and election, if not reprobation.

We shall finish our Article by a criticism or two from these discourses. The text of one of them is, 2 Pet. i. 19. We have also a more fure word of prophecy; which text, it is observed, might perhaps be better rendered, But we hold, or esteem, the word of prophecy to be surer; by the word of prophecy he understands those extraordinary gifts of the Spirit (gifts of knowledge, prophesying, or instructing), which for edifying the church some persons in that age were favoured with; and therefore, to these inspired persons, and to the Scriptures written by such persons, St. Peter resers his converts; and these he recommends as likely to produce a clearer and stronger persuasion than even his own attestation of Christ's glorious transfiguration.'

On Rev. xxii. 14. Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life; he observes, that the Greek word here rendered right signifies not an absolute inherent right, a right of merit (as the church of Rome insolently teaches), but only a right of permission : and therefore the passage ought to have been rendered, that they may have liberty, may be permitted, to come to the tree of life.'

That famous text in which, according to our version, St. Paul appears to wish himself accurfed, that he might be serviceable to his brethren the Jews, Dr. Bandinell thus translates in connection with what precedes and follows: Rom. ix. 2, 3. I have great heaviness and continual forrow in my heart (for I myself likewise once was an excommunicate outcast from Christ) on account of my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh; who are Ifraelites;



Ogden's Sermanis.

99 to whom pertaineth the adoption, &c. &c.'-The criticisms and observations by which this alteration of the text is supported, would carry us beyond the limits of our work; we leave it therefore for the confideration of the learned Reader.


Art. V. Sermons : I. On the Efficacy of Prayer and Interceffioni.

Í[. On the Articles of the Christian Faith. III. On the Ten Com. mandments To which are now first added, Sermons, IV, On the Lord's Supper. By Samuel Ogden, D.D. late Woodwardian Profeffor in the University of Cambridge. To which is prefixed) an Account of the Author's Life, together with a Vindication of his Writings against fomë late Objections. Small 8vo. 2 Vols. 10 s. bound. Rivington. 1780.

is unnecessary to repeat our sentiments of this ingenious

divine. They are already before the Public. All the fermons here collected, except those on the Lord's Supper, have been reviewed as they were originally published in the Author's lifetime. The additional discourses are much in the same ftrain, though by no means equal to many of them, for that liveliness of fancy, and originality of sentiment and expression, for which the Author became so popular, and distinguished. They are in some respects animated with a fine glow of a devotional and sublime imagination ; but they are more hafty, than correct; more flighty, than solid.

The account of Dr. Ogden's life, prefixed to this collection, is a deferved tribute of respect paid to his memory by his learned friend Dr. Samuel Hallifax. The account is short, and confined tô a few of the more capital events of his life ; but the life of a college divine is in general too uniform to admit of many incidents that are worth recording.

From this account we learn, that Dr. Ogden was born at Manchester, in 1716; and, was educated at the Free-school there. That, in 1733, he was admitted in King's College, Cambridge ; and removed to St. John's in 1730; where; in the following year, he took the degree of B. A.; and in 1739, was elected Fellow. He was ordained Deacon at Chester in 1740; and in the following year, he took his degree of A. M. and was ordained Priest by the Bishop of Lincoln. In 1744, he was elected Master of the Free-school at Halifax in Yorkshire. In 1753, he refigned his school, and went to refide ac Cambridge, and at the ensuing, Commencement, he took the degree of D. D. The late Duke of Newcastle, who was Chancellor of the University, having been present at the exercise he performed for the degree, was so much satisfied with it, that he soon after presented him with the vicarage of Damerham in Wiltshire, which was tenable with his fellowship. In

H 2




Ogden's Sermonsa 1764, Dr. Ogden was appointed Woodwardian Professor. He died in March 1778, in the 62d year of his age.

Dr. Hallifax bears this testimony to the excellence of his friend's character, in the following brief account of it: “ In common life there was a real or apparent rufticity attending his address, which disgusted those who were strangers to his character. But this prejudice foon wore off, as the intimacy. with him increased; and, notwithstanding the fternness, and even ferocity, he would fometimes throw into his countenance, he was, in truth, one of the most humane and tender-hearted men I have known.

"To his relations, who wanted his allistance, he was remarkably kind in his life, and in the legacies he left them at his death. His father and mother, who both lived to an extreme old age, owed almost their whole support to his piety.

. During the latter part of Dr. Ogden's life he laboured under much ill health. About a year before he died, he was fcized with a paralytic fic as he was stepping into his chariot, and was judged to be in immediate and extreme danger. The cheerfulness with which he sustained this shock, and the indifference with which he gave the necessary orders on the event of his disolution, which seemed to be then so near, were such as could only be ascribed to a mind properly resigned to the dispofals of Providence, and full of the hopes of happiness in a future ftate.'

To the account of Dr. Ogden's life and character, Dr. Hallifax hath subjoined a Postscript, written with a view to vindicate the sermons now collected from the censures passed on them by Mr. Mainwaring, in the learned Dissertation, of which we have already given fo particular an account*. Dr. Ogden's Sermons were charged by this gentleman with a want of perspicuity; and represented “as unconnected and desultory.” in answer to this reflection, Dr. H. acknowledges, they are not staked out indeed into divifions and fubdivifions, all regularly marked by I. II. III. &c. 1. 2. 3. &c.—they are not, as is said of some discourses of the old Puritans, split into four equal shares, in honour of the four Evangelists, nor into twelve, in honour of the twelve Apostles ; but in every one an intelligent person will be at no loss to discern both a unity of design, and a consistency of disposition. Whether Dr. H. is right in his juftification of Dr. Ogden in the article of a perspicuous arrangement, is a point we shall leave to the determination of others : but we cannot avoid remarking, that he is, in our opinion, palpably wrong in the instance he pretends to draw from the conduct of the Puritans. They would have considered it as symbo

* Vid. our lalt Appendix (just published), p. 540.



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