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Aconitum, poison prepared from it, 82.

Acquetta di Napoli, poisonous drops so called, 84.
Acts, public, formerly stamped, 378.

Adulteration of wine, 396. Effects of lead on wine, 397. Ef-
fects of gypsum on wine, 402. Ancients accustomed to

clarify their wine with gypsum, 406. Potters-earth used for
clarifying wine, 407. Prohibitions against the adulteration
of wine, in Germany, when first issued, 408. Prohibitions
in Holland and France, 409. Adulteration of wine much
practised in the duchy of Würtemberg, 412. Jacob Elirni
beheaded there for that practice, 413. Arsenical liver of
sulphur used for detecting metal in wine, 414. Fumigating
wine with sulphur, 415. Adulteration of wine with milk,

Erugo of the ancients, what it was, 272.

Agrippina poisoned the emperor Claudius, 79.
Alexander the Great, his speaking-trumpet, 153.
Alexander VI, Pope, died of poison, 75.
Alexanders, common, a plant once eaten, 351.
Algebra, who first introduced it into Italy, 2.

Alum, 288. Alum of the ancients was vitriol, ibid. Places
where they procured it, 289. Derivation of the word Alumen,
293. Use of the ancient alum to secure buildings from fire,
294. Invention of the modern alum, 296. Alumen roccæ,
298. The oldest alum-works in the Levant, 299. The oldest
alum-work in Europe on the island of Ænaria, 302. Origin
of the alum-works at Tolfa or Civita Vecchia, 305. Alum-
work at Volterra, 311. Popes carried on an exclusive trade
in alum, 313. Oldest alum-work in Germany, 316. The
first alum-work in England, 316, 317.

Amalgam employed for refining gold, 24. When first used in
Peru, 27.

Amber, whether it was the lyncurium of the ancients, 142.
Anacharsis, his inventions, 104.

Ananas, 166. First account of it, by Oviedo, ibid. by Ben-
zono, 167; by Theret and Lery, ibid by Hernandes and
Acosta, 168. When first cultivated in German gardens, 169;
in Holland and England, 171. Invention of forcing-beds,


Antipater, his pretty epigram on the invention of water-mills,

Antirrhinum cymbalaria employed for making secret poison, 98.
Aplysia depilans, a poisonous fish, 83.

Aquafortis, whether used for secret poison, 97.
Aqua Tophania, a kind of poison, 84.
Aquimola, 245.

Arcera, kind of Roman carriage, 111.

Argol, 58. Lichen roccella described, ibid. Argol known to the
ancients, 60. Art of dyeing with argol brought, in 1300,
from the Levant, 62. Account of the family of the Oricel-
larii or Rucellai, who made that art known in Italy, 63.
Trade of the Canary islands with argol, 66-of the Cape de
Verde islands, 67. Orseille en pâte, 68. Invention of Lac-
mus, 69; Tournesol en drapeau, 70; Orseille de terre, 71.
Aristotle, work falsely ascribed to him, 154.
Arsenic, used in mixtures for secret poison, 99.
Artichoke, 339. Cinara of the ancients the same with the
carduus, 345. Scolymus described, 347. Not our artichoke,
349. Cactus, what parts of it were eaten, 355. Our arti-
choke made known in the 15th century, 356. Origin of the
name, 357. Opinions respecting the country from which
it was first brought, 359.

Ashes-drawer, turmalin so called by the Dutch, 146.
Assecurances en confiance explained, 389.

Atlas vitriol, who first used that term, 295.

Auris Dionysii, description of it, 159.


Bakers at Rome all Germans, 260.
Barclay, John, fond of flowers, 51.
Barley-mills, invention of them, 266.

Belemnites not the lyncurium of the ancients, 141.

Bellows, wooden, 103. Whether the first bellows were in-
vented by Anacharsis, 104. Bellows at the oldest melting-
houses were driven by men, 105. Leather and wooden
bellows compared, ibid. Description of the latter, 106.

Advantages of them, 107. Were invented in Germany,
108. The inventor supposed to be Hans Lobsinger, Shell-
horn a miller, or a bishop of Bamberg, 108, 109, 110. In-
troduction of these bellows at the mines of the Harz forest,

Berline, sort of carriage, by whom invented, 130.

De Bethancourt, one of the first who settled in the Canary
islands, 65.

Bibliography of the History of Inventions, 475.

Birds of prey, their names among the ancients, 321.
Biringoccio Vanucci his Pyrotechnia, 463. Long used by those
engaged in metallurgic operations, ibid. Some account.
of Biringoccio, 464, 465. First edition of the Pyrotechny,
ibid Other editions, 466. Oldest French translations,
470. Contents of that work, 472.

Bismuth, hurtful to wine, 416.

Bitinus, an unknown writer, 156.

Bolting-cloth, where manufactured, 256.

mills known in the sixteenth century, 254.

Book-keeping, Italian, history of it, 1. Whether it was known.
to the Romans, 7. Employed in public accompts, 8.
Book scarce, account of, 463.

Boring-mills known in the sixteenth century, 374.
Botany of the ancients, how to be studied, 350.
Bottomry known to the ancients, 385.

Boxhorn, his account of the invention of stamped paper, 380.
Bran, attempts made in France to procure meal from it, 263.
Bread, how much may be obtained from a certain quantity of
flour, 260.

Bremen, painting there of an old carriage, 120.

Brinvilliers, Marchioness de, used secret poison; her his-
tory, 88.

Bromelius, short account of him, 172.

Brouette, carriage used at Paris, 132.

Buckingham, Duke of, the first person in England who used
six horses to his carriage, 125.

Bulfinches, trade carried on with them, 55.
Butterfield invented a pedometer, 13.


Cactus, what plant it was, 355.

Caffa, Tulips brought from it to Constantinople, 38.
Campana urinatoria, diving-bell, 179.

Canary-birds, 52. When made known in Europe, ibid. Flew
from a ship wrecked on the coast of Italy to the island of
Elba, where they multiplied, 53. Trade carried on with

them, 55. Canary seed, where first cultivated, 56. Use

of this seed might be extended, 57.

Canary Islands, when discovered, 65.

Canary weed, 58.

Cape de Verde Islands produce argol, 67.

Carbuncle of the ancients, 144.

Cardoons, 341. 356.

Carduus, what plant it was, 345.
Caretta, sort of carriage, 125.
Caranum, kind of ancient wine, 398.
Carosses de remise, 132.

Carpentum, Roman carriage, 111.

Carriages, covered, account of various kinds, 117.

Carruca, an ancient carriage, 111.

Cassius, his gold calx, 201.

Castro, John and Paul di, 305.

Catalogo dell' inventori delle cose &c. account of, 514.
Catillus, lower mill-stone, 230.

Cavala, 38.

Celtes, Conrade, some account of him, 410.

Celery, when it became known, 351.

Cento, his gold-varnish, 34.

Ceres, the inventress of mills, 234.

Chambre ardente, chambre de poison, when established, 94.

Charles XI, king of Sweden, poisoned, 96.

Crystal, how coloured, 198.

De Chiese, account of him, 130.

Cinara, whether our artichoke, 341.

Cinnabar, prepared in Holland, 69.

Circus, kind of falcon, 324.

Cire d' Espagne, why so called, 218.

Civita Vecchia, alum works there, 305.

Carlencas, Essais sur l'Histoire des Belles Lettres, des Sciences,
et des Arts, 508.

Clepsydra, 136.

Clocks and watches, history of them, 419. Clocks known in
the eleventh century, 429. First public clock at Padua,
436. When clocks began to be in use among private per-
sons, 439. First mention of watches, 440. History of
clocks and watches, by Mr. Barrington, 443. Letter on
the watch said to have belonged to King Robert Bruce,'457.
Coaches, 111. Covered carriages at Rome, ibid. Formerly
more honourable in Germany to ride on horseback than in
carriages, 112. Women only rode in carriages at the be-
ginning of the 16th century, 114. Use of covered car-
riages forbidden, 115. Order of Julius Duke of Bruns-
wick, forbidding his vassals to ride in carriages, 118.
French monarchs rode on horseback in the 14th, 15th,

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