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and 16th centuries, 121. Citizens' wives at Paris for-
bidden to use carriages, 122. Henry IV had only one
coach for himself and his queen, 123. Whirlicotes, the
oldest carriages used by the English ladies, 124. Coaches
first known in England, 125. When introduced into Italy,
ibid. The first coaches in Spain, Sweden, and Russia,
126, 127. Origin of the word coach, 128. Berline, in-
vention of it, 130. First coaches let out for hire at Paris,
131. Brouettes, roulettes, 132. Hackney-coaches first
established in London, 133. Number of coaches in some

of the principal cities of Europe, 134.

Cobalt produces sympathetic ink, 178.
Cochineal sifted by the Dutch, 69.

Colouring glass, art of 199.

Columbo, in the island of Ceylon, turmalin found near it, 150.
Commotau, alum-works there, 316.

Contarini de gl' Inventori di tutte le Scienze et Arti, 480.
Corn-mills, 227. Earliest methods of grinding corn, ibid.
The oldest hand-mills, 228. Cattle-mills, 229. Repre-
sentation of an ancient mill on an antique gem, 231.
vention of water-mills, 234. Mills constructed at Rome by
Belisarius, 241. Invention of floating-mills, 245; of wind-
mills, 248. Difference between German and Dutch wind-
mills, 252. Bolting-machinery, when invented, 254. Ma-
nufacturing of bolting-cloth, 255. Mouture économique,
258. Italians little acquainted with the arts of grinding
and baking, 260. Invention of barley-mills, 266. Water-
mills included among regalia, 268. Anecdote of a feudal
lord, who pretended that the wind belonged to him, 269.
Creed proposed a machine for noting down music, 20.
Creta of the ancients, 212.

Crocus was our saffron, 278.

Croton tinctorium, 70.

Crusades tended to spread useful knowledge, 249.

Cryptography, when invented, 173.

Curieuse Nachricht von Erfindungen, account of, 491.

Cypsella, Chypsilar, a place in Thrace, 299.


Dædalus, inventor of the saw, 362.

Daucus, said to have invented falconry, 327.

Daumius, his description of the effects of the turmalin, 146.
Dauphin and Dauphiness poisoned, 101.

Deal tythe introduced by Christian III, occasioned by the
invention of saw-mills, 372.

Demetrius, one of the oldest writers on falconry, bids sports-

men say their prayers before they go out to the field, 332.

Diamond powder, whether used as a secret poison, 97.
Diana de Poictiers had a carriage in the year 1550, 123. ·
Dictionnaire des Origines, account of, 490.

Dionysius, Ear of, grotto in Sicily so called, 159.
Diplomas, how the seals of them were forged, 219.
Divers, how long they can remain under water, 182.
Diving-bell, 179. Ancient divers, account of, 180. Princi-
ples of the diving-bell explained, 183. Oldest mention of
it in Aristotle, ibid. Earliest account of its use in Eu-
rope, 184. Described in the works of Lord Bacon, 185.
Cannon fished up by it from the wreck of some of the Spa-
nish Armada, 186. William Phipps, his success with it,
187. Old inventions of the like kind, 189, 190. Dr.
Halley's diving-bell, 191. Triewald's improvement, 194.
Apparatus invented by an Englishman for walking at the
bottom of the sea, 195.

Doppia Scrittura, Book-keeping so called by the Italians, 1.
Dry gilding, how performed, 31.

Ear-picks, magnetic, 74.


Ecclesiastics employed grinding formerly as an amusement,


Ehrni, Jacob, beheaded for adulterating wine, 413.
Emeralds, artificial, mentioned by Seneca, 198.

Enamel, branch of the art of colouring glass, 207.

Erasmus, said to have discovered the use of turf for fuel, 337.
Eunostus, the god of mills, 231.

Evelyn, his gold-varnish, 33.

Exili, employed in poisoning; some account of him, 89.

Falcon, how tamed, 332.


Falconry, 319. Not a modern invention, as some suppose,
320. Birds of prey used in India and Thrace for catching
game, 321. Employed also in Italy for the same purpose,
325. Falconry mentioned in the Roman laws, ibid. For-
bidden to the clergy in the 6th century, 327. Ancients
bred to hunting other rapacious animals besides hawks,
328. Falconry so called, common in the 12th century,
ibid. The emperor Frederick II wrote a book upon it,
Ladies formerly fond of falconry, 331. Oldest
writers on this art, ibid.


Favilla, explanation of that word, 174.

Ferramentum, mill-irons so called in ancient laws, 243.

Feudal lords forbidden to ride in coaches, 118.

Fiacres, coaches let out for hire, by whom first established,


Finance accounts, improvement made in them, 8.

Fire-office at Paris, when established, 393.

Fire-offices established in other countries, ibid.

Floating-mills, their advantages, 253.

Foramen ovale, whether those who have it open can dive
longer than others, 181.

Forcing-beds, when invented, 171.

Frederick I, Barbarossa, introduced falconry into Europe, 329.

Gætulian purple, 68.


Garces, a Portuguese author, account of him, 26.
Gazaria, name given to the Crimea, 38.

Germans fond of making researches in regard to the arts and
sciences, 510.

Gesner, Conrade, first gave a description of the tulip, 39.
Geusen, his saw-mills, 373.

Gilding of the ancients, 33. Dry-gilding, when invented, 32.
Glaser, chemist at Paris, suspected of preparing poison, 93.
Glass, colouring of it, 195.

Glass-houses of the ancients, 197.

Gold-calx of Cassius, 201.

Gold colours glass red, 200.

Gold-ore, method of purifying it by quicksilver, 25.
Greeks, modern, utility of their language in natural history,


Guancabelica, mines there when discovered, 26.

Gypsum, its effects on wine, 402. Experiments on its solu-
bility in vinegar, 404.


Haliotrichum, 295.

Halley, his diving-bell, 191.

Hand-mills, their antiquity, 228.

Hanover, coaches there at an early period, 118.

Hanseatic maritime laws, 388.

Heliogabalus, whimsical manner in which he treated para-
sites, 237.

Helix of the ear discovered by Alcmæon, 159.

Helmback invented a kind of artificial rubies, 208.

Hellot made sympathetic ink first known, 177.

Herdicius practised falconry, 326.

Hermann, account of that botanist, 148.
Herwart, his garden at Augsburg, 39.

History of the principal discoveries, account of, 488.

Hohlfield, an ingenious German mechanic, anecdotes of his
life, 15.

Holly, indication of alum being near the place where it
grows, 310.

Horses, number of them in Holland, 135.

I, J.

Jews, whether they were the inventors of insurance, 387.
Ilex aquifolium, an indication of alum, 310.

Ink, sympathetic, history of it, 174.


Insurance, 382. Not known to the Romans, ibid. Puffen-
dorf, Barbeyrac, Loccenius, and Kulpis suppose that an
instance of it is to be found in Livy, 383. Passage in that
author on which they ground their assertion, ibid.
sage of Suetonius thought by Kulpis to afford an instance
of the like kind, 384. Passage in Cicero, ibid. No ac-
count of it in the maritime laws of the isle of Oleron, 386.
Not mentioned in the maritime laws of the city of Wisby,
in the island of Gothland, 387. Does not occur in the
Hanseatic maritime laws, nor in Consolato del mare, 388.
Oldest form of policies drawn up in 1523, still used at
Leghorn, 389. Insurance laws of the 16th century, 390;
of the 17th century, 391, 392. Invention of insurance
against fire, 393 Plan for this purpose proposed to
Count Anthony Gunther von Oldenburg, in the beginning
of the 17th century, 394. The Count's reflections on it,

Iris, Florentine, its use, 70.

Italian book-keeping, 1.


Kircher, whether he was the inventor of the speaking-
trumpet, 158. Read the litany through one to a congre-
gation assembled at the distance of from two to five Italian
miles, 162.

Krüger invented artificial rubies, 207.

Kunkel, anecdotes of him, 204; made artificial rubies, 205.
Kurze Geschichte der Erfindungen, account of, and of the au-
thor, 489, 490.


Lacmus, history of it, 69; method of preparing it, 70.
Lando, Hortensius, account of a book written by him, 514.
Another work by him, 515. Some particulars respecting
him, 516. His writings inserted in the Index librorum
prohibitorum, 517.

Langeloti, inventor of the philosophical mill, 233.
Lapis obsidianus explained, 196.

De Laval, René, account of him, 123.

Lead, sugar of, when invented, 407; whether used for secret
poison, 98.

Leegwater, some account of him, 253.

Legendary tales, wonders rela ted in them, 246.

Lepus marinus, whether poisonous, 82.

Lichen parellus, 71; roccella, 58; fuciformis, 61; mixed with

the roccella, ibid.

Limpi, native cinnabar, 27.

Lipsius, his tulipomania, 50.

Liquor probatorius Wurtembergicus, 414.

Liquor silicum, liquor of flint, by whom first made known,


Litharge known to the ancients, 407; when it began to be
used for adulterating wine, 408.

Lobsinger, his wooden bellows, 108.

Locusta, a female poisoner at Rome, 79.

Louvois, his cruelty, 95.

Lucas von Burgo published the first work on algebra, 2.
Account of him, ibid.

Lyncurium, supposed by the ancients to be the crystallised
urine of the lynx, 141.


Machine for noting down music, 20. Proposal for making
one, printed in the Philosophical Transactions, ibid. One
invented in Germany in 1745, by John Frederic Unger,
21: another, constructed by Hohlfeld, ibid. Dr. Burney,
in his Musical Travels, ascribes this invention to the Eng-
lish, 22. Unger's refutation of this falsehood, ibid.
Madeira, island of, when discovered, 371.
Magnetic cures, 72. External use of the magnet in curing
the tooth-ache, known to Aetius in the sixth century, ibid.
This virtue of it mentioned by writers in the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries, 73. Magnetic tooth-picks and ear-
pickers much extolled about the end of the seventeenth

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