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inhabitants were eight hundred, between the ages of seven and of seventy. Round numbers are seldom exact. But in this case the authority is good, and the errour likely to be little. If to the eight hundred be added what the laws of computation require, they will be increased to at least a thousand; and if the dimensions of the country have been accurately related, every mile maintains more than twenty-five.
This proportion of habitation is greater than the appearance of the country seems to admit: for wherever the eye wanders, it sees much waste and little cultivation. I am more inclined to extend the land, of which no measure has ever been taken, than to diminish the people, who have been really numbered. Let it be supposed, that a computed mile contains a mile and a half, as was commonly found true in the mensuration of the English roads, and we shall then allot nearly twelve to a mile, which agrees much better with ocular observation.
Here, as in Sky, and other islands, are the laird, the tacksmen, and the under-tenants.
Mr. Maclean, the laird, has very extensive possessions, being proprietor, not only of far the greater part of Col, but of the extensive island of Rum, and a very considerable territory in Mull.
Rum is one of the larger islands, almost square, and therefore of great capacity in proportion to its sides. By the usual method of estimating computed extent, it may contain more than a hundred and twenty square miles.
It originally belonged to Clanronald, and was purchased by Col; who, in some dispute about the bargain, made Clanronald prisoner, and kept him nine months in confinement. Its owner represents it as mountainous, rugged, and barren. In the hills there are red deer. The horses are very small, but of a breed eminent for beauty. Col, not long ago, bought one of them from a tenant; who told him, that as he was of a shape uncommonly elegant, he could not sell him but at a high price; and that whoever had him should pay a guinea and a half.
These at Sud La Bans a mee a borses pemic, winch she mees is a short thirty-six inches
The e hum is a great. M. Maciean duela thimi be shared be vet och, i he emaid ser bis bead at Fence batzems at acre. The innattants are fiityegin ismids who carinaed parish ít some time afta She mad became a peasant Their wherence to their (ud eo. *35 cang pened to the countenance of the ends sester, a szinus Lamamist, one Sunday, as they ve gang i mass mies the endings of their patrones, Macizat mas a co the way, gare ce of them a blow on the bead with a great stact, I ser pose a cane, fur viach the Ease baad De name, and drove thea to the kirk, fra sách they have never since departed Since the use of this method of Orrersica, the inhabitants of Ess and Canns, who eoinde papists, call the protestantis of Ran, the religion of the yeke sit.
The only popish islands are Egg and Canna. Egg is the principal island of a parish, in which, though he has no congregation, the protestant minister resides. I have heard of Dothing curious in it, but the care in which a former generation of the islanders were smotherd by Macleod.
If we had travelled with more leisure, it had not been fit to have neglected the popish islands. Popery is favourable to æremony; and, among ignorant nations, ceremony is the only preservative of tradition. Since protestantism was extended to the savage parts of Seotland, it has, perhaps, been one of the chief labours of the ministers to abolish stated observances, because they continued the remembrance of the former religion. We, therefore, who came to hear old traditions, and see antiquated manners, should, probably, have found them amongst the papists.
Canna, the other popish island, belongs to Clanyonald. It is said not to comprise more than twelve miles of land, and yet maintains as many inhabitants as Rum,
We were at Col under the protection of the young laird, without any of the distresses which Mr. Pennant, in a
it of simple credulity, seems to think almost worthy of a elegs by Ossian. Wherever we roved, we were pleased o see the reverence with which his subjects regarded
He did not endeavour to dazzle them by any magnificence of dress; his only distinction was a feather in his bonnet ; but as soon as he appeared, they forsook their work and clustered about him: he took them by the hand, and they seemed mutually delighted. He has the proper disposition of a chieftain, and seems desirous to continue the customs of his house. The bagpiper played regularly, when dinner was served, whose person and dress made a good appearance; and he brought no disgrace upon the family of Rankin, which has long supplied the lairds of Col with hereditary musick.
The tacksmen of Col seem to live with less dignity and convenience than those of Sky; where they had good houses, and tables, not only plentiful, but delicate. In Col only two houses pay the window tax; for only two have six windows, which, I suppose, are the laird's and Mr. Macsweyn's.
The renats have, till within seven years, been paid in kind, but the tenants finding that cattle and corn varied in their price, desired for the future, to give their landlord money; which, not having yet arrived at the philosophy of commerce, they consider as being every year of the same value.
We were told of a particular mode of undertenure. The tacksman admits some of his inferiour neighbours to the cultivation of his grounds, on condition that, performing all the work, and giving a third part of the seed, they shall keep a certain number of cows, sheep, and goats, and reap a third part of the harvest. Thus by less than the tillage of two acres they pay the rent of
There are tenants below the rank of tacksmen, that have got smaller tenants under them; for in every place, where money is not the general equivalent, there must be some whose labour is immediately paid by daily food.
Jous su 11 TUST MIT ** L S 1 TE I IZREZ DESS e Erra . I trum K. PASSAT 12 ang man par 1 ofe tien in kuru, u z ryze it is a mi s Muay kecseserim se Ti Seni si from the da; i E met je suis matopeita ka v tre EVI: ira 39904 in the bass res sme verting from a boca. 4) the antes de is gone, Tuir para brossed BEDDE: when they are di nuod, they are so eat
may be thungtit that they are bascia totechuz; Inut they are not happy as a nation, for they are a suon no longer. As they contribute not to the prosperity of a community, they must want that security, that tanist, that happiness, whatever it be, which a prosperous community throww back upon individuals.
"The inhabitants of Col have not yet learned to be wears of their hoath and rocks, but attend their agriculture and their dairion, without listening to American seduce
Thorp are nome, however, who think that this emigrathrom home ruined terrour disproportionate to its real eril; w that it is only a new mode of doing what was always done. The Highlands, they sny, never maintained their
atural inhabitants; but the people, when they found hemselves too numerous, instead of extending cultivation, rovided for themselves by a more compendious method, und sought better fortune in other countries. They did not, indeed, go away in collective bodies, but withdrew invisibly, a few at a time; but the whole number of fugitives was not less, and the difference between other times and this, is only the same as between evaporation and effusion.
This is plausible, but I am afraid it is not true. Those who went before, if they were not sensibly missed, as the argument supposes, must have gone either in less number, or in a manner less detrimental, than at present; because formerly there was no complaint. Those who then left the country were generally the idle dependants on overburdened families, or men who had no property; and, therefore, carried away only themselves. In the present eagerness of emigration, families, and almost communities, go away together. Those who were considered as prosperous and wealthy sell their stock, and carry away the money. Once none went away but the useless and poor; in some parts there is now reason to fear, that none will stay bat those who are too poor to remove themselves, and too useless to be removed at the cost of others.
Of antiquity there is not more knowledge in Col than in other places ; but every where something may be gleaned.
How ladies were portioned, when there was no money, it would be difficult for an Englishman to guess. In 1649, Maclean of Dronart in Mull married his sister Fingala to Maclean of Col, with a hundred and eighty kine; and stipulated, that if she became a widow, her jointure should be three hundred and sixty. I suppose some proportionate tract of land was appropriated to their pasturage.
The disposition to pompous and expensive funerals, which has, at one time or other, prevailed in most parts of the civilized world, is not yet suppressed in the islands, though some of the ancient solemnities are worn away,