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may be s prenesi ise if she resisers of elegant learning bien de tuini Pas he was acquainted with Erisms VW tervis are him a publiek testimoes oe bus stem. 3 Kong o im 3 catalogue of has wucts. Tie i Brechts hezit. perhaps, not alwars rret pere. Sirnes with great diligence upon ancient mais 2 mited with monastick barbarity. Eis TV is a viti elegance and rizu. babies. Lai crestent are justy blamed. His tibakestess it be visse stor of the betions, is a fault for which pigu een be made: bas his credulity may be escusan R. W ai men were credulous. Learrinz Fis teen az a the world: but ages so long acrostumei to dari were to much dazzled with its light to see any timg östinety. The first race of scholars in the firteenth century, aed some time after, were, for the most part, learning to speal, rather than to think, and were, therefore, Dre stabous of elegance than of truth. The contemporaries of Beethius thought it sufficient to know what the ancients had deüraed. The examination of tenets and of facts wis reserved for another generation.
Boethius, as president of the university, enjoyed a revenue of forty Scottish marks about two pounds four shillings and sixpence of sterling money. In the present age of trade and taxes, it is difficult even for the imagination so to raise the value of money, or so to diminish the demands of life, as to suppose four-and-forty shillings a year an honourable stipend; yet it was, probably, equal, not only to the needs, but to the rank of Boethius. The wealth of England was, undoubtedly, to that of Scotland more than five to one, and it is known that Henry the eighth, among whose faults avarice was never reckoned, granted to Roger Ascham, as a reward of his learning, a pension of ten pounds a year.
The other, called the Marischal college, is in the new town. The hall is large and well lighted. One of its ornaments is the picture of Arthur Johnston, who was prin
cipal of the college, and who holds, among the Latin poets of Scotland, the next place to the elegant Buchanan.
In the library I was shown some curiosities; a Hebrew manuscript of exquisite penmanship, and a Latin translation of Aristotle's Politicks by Leonardus Aretinus, written in the Roman character with nicety and beauty, which, as the art of printing has made them no longer necessary, are not now to be found. This was one of the latest performances of the transcribers, for Aretinus died but about twenty years before typography was invented. This version has been printed, and may be found in libraries, but is little read; for the same books have been since translated both by Victorius and Lambinus, who lived in an age more cultivated, but, perhaps, owed in part to Aretinus that they were able to excel him. Much is due to those who first broke the way to knowledge, and left only to their successours the task of smoothing it.
In both these colleges the methods of instruction are nearly the same; the lectures differing only by the accidental difference of diligence, or ability in the professors. The students wear scarlet gowns, and the professors black, which is, I believe, the academical dress in all the Scottish universities, except that of Edinburgh, where the scholars are not distinguished by any particular habit. In the King's college there is kept a publick table, but the scholars of the Marischal college are boarded in the town. The expense of living is here, according to the information that I could obtain, somewhat more than at St. Andrews.
The course of education is extended to four years, at the end of which those who take a degree, who are not many, become masters of arts; and whoever is a master
if he pleases, immediately commence doctor. The title of doctor, however, was, for a considerable time, bestowed only on physicians. The advocates are examined, and approved by their own body; the ministers were not ambitious titles, or were afraid of being censured for ambition; and the doctorate in every faculty was commonly
giren os sold into other countries. The ministers are now reconciled to distinction, and, as it must always happen that syme will excel others, have thought graduation & proper testimony of unoommon abilities or acquisitions.
The indiscriminate collation of degrees has justly taken away that respect which they originally claimed, as stamps by which the literary value of men so distinguished was authoritatively denoted. That academical honours, or any others, should be conferred with exact proportion to merit, is more than human judgment or human integrity have given reason to expect. Perhaps degrees in universities cannot be better adjusted by any general rule than by the length of time passed in the publick profession of learning. An English or Irish doctorate cannot be obtained by a very young man, and it is reasonable to suppose, what is likewise by experience commonly found true, that he who is by age qualified to be a doctor, has in so much time gained learning sufficient not to disgrace the title, or wit sufficient not to desire it.
The Scotch universities hold but one term or session in the year. That of St. Andrews continues eight months, that of Aberdeen only five, from the first of November to the first of April.
In Aberdeen there is an English chapel, in which the congregation was numerous and splendid. The form of publick worship used by the church of England, is in Scotland legally practised in licensed chapels, served by clorgymen of English or Irish ordination, and, by tacit connivance, quietly permitted in separate congregations, mupplied with ministers by the successours of the bishops who were deprived at the revolution.
Wo onmo to Aberdeen on Saturday, August 21. On Monday we were invited into the town-hall, where I had the frondom of the city given me by the lord provost. The honour conferred land all the decorations that politeness poule alil, and what, I am afraid, I should not have had 10 may of any city south of the Tweed, I found no petty attoo bowing for a fee.
The parchment containing the record of admission is, with the seal appending, fastened to a riband, and worn for one day by the new citizen in his hat.
By a lady who saw us at the chapel, the earl of Errol was informed of our arrival, and we had the honour of an . invitation to his seat, called Slanes castle, as I am told, improperly, from the castle of that name, which once stood at a place not far distant.
The road beyond Aberdeen grew more stony, and continued equally naked of all vegetable decoration. We travelled over a tract of ground near the sea, which, not long ago, suffered a very uncommon and unexpected calamity. The sand of the shore was raised by a tempest in such quantities, and carried to such a distance, that an estate was overwhelmed and lost. Such and so hopeless was the barrenness superinduced, that the owner, when he was required to pay the usual tax, desired rather to resign the ground.
We came, in the afternoon, to Slanes castle, built upon the margin of the sea, so that the walls of one of the towers seem only a continuation of a perpendicular rock, the foot of which is beaten by the waves. To walk round the house seemed impracticable. From the windows the eye wanders over the sea that separates Scotland from Norway, and, when the winds beat with violence, must enjoy all the terrifick grandeur of the tempestuous ocean. I would not, for my amusement, wish for a storm ; but, as storms, whether wished or not, will sometimes happen, I may say, without violation of humanity, that I should willingly look out upon them from Slanes castle.
When we were about to take our leave, our departure was prohibited by the countess, till we should have seen two places upon the coast, which she rightly considered as worthy of curiosity, Dun Buy, and the Buller of Buchan, to which Mr. Boyd very kindly conducted us.
Dun Buy, which in Erse is said to signify the yellow rock, is a double protuberance of stone, open to the mainsea on one side, and parted from the land by a very
narrow channel on the other. It has its name and its colour from the dung of innumerable seafowls, which, in the spring, choose this place, as convenient for incubation, and have their eggs and their young taken in great abundance. One of the birds that frequent this rock has, as we were told, its body not larger than a duck's, and yet lays eggs as large as those of a goose. This bird is by the inhabitants named a coot. That which is called coot in England is here a cooter.
Upon these rocks there was nothing that could long detain attention, and we soon turned our eyes to the Buller, or Bouilloir of Buchan, which no man can see with indifference, who has either sense of danger, or delight in rarity. It is a rock perpendicularly tubulated, united on one side with a high shore, and on the other rising steep to a great height above the mainsea. The top is open, from which may be seen a dark gulf of water which flows into the cavity, through a breach made in the lower part of the enclosing rock. It has the appearance of a vast well bordered with a wall. The edge of the Buller is not wide, and to those that walk round, appears very narrow. He that ventures to look downward sees, that if his foot nhould slip, he must fall from his dreadful elevation upon Ntones on one side, or into the water on the other. We, however, went round, and were glad when the circuit was completed.
When we came down to the sea, we saw some boats, and rowers, and resolved to explore the Buller, at the bot
We entered the arch, which the water had made, and found ourselves in a place, which, though we could not think ourselves in danger, we could scarcely survey without some vervil of the mind. The basin, in which we llocated an teuls circular, perhaps, thirty yards in diame
We enclosed by a natural wall, rising steep on
Niilo to height which provinced the idea of insurwmtable continement. The interption of all lateral Tog heimal gloom. Romd ins was a perpendicult will be in the linfant skr, and below an un