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definite plan for the reorganization of the school commissioner system. Our interest in this report lies chiefly in the method of election, term of office, qualifications and salary, and therefore we quote only the sections bearing on those topics:

On the third Tuesday in August, 1908, and on the same day and month of every fifth year thereafter the Trustee or Trustees from every common school district and the members of the board of education from every union free school district of the supervisory district shall meet at a place in said district designated by the county clerk and vote by ballot for a district superintendent of schools. In the election of said district superintendent each common school district employing three or more teachers, and each union free school district shall have three votes, and every other district one vote. The candidate receiving a majority of the votes cast at such meeting shall be declared elected. A certified copy of the minutes of the meeting shall be filed with the county clerk, who shall notify the successful candidate of his election. Every person elected to the office of district superintendent of schools must take the oath of office prescribed by the constitution.

The term of office of district superintendent of schools shall begin the first day of January next after his election, and shall be for five years and until his successor shall be elected.

City and village superintendents of schools, school commissioners and high school principals of the state, and such other persons whose qualifications may be approved by the state commissioner of education, shall be eligible to the office of district superintendent of schools. No person shall be ineligible on account of sex.

The district superintendent of schools shall receive an annual salary of twelve hundred dollars, payable monthly by the commissioner of education, from the appropriation for that purpose, and not less than three hundred dollars additional from the county, the same to be paid in quarterly installments by the county treasurer, and levied and assessed by the board of supervisors upon the towns composing such supervisory district. But the supervisors of any supervisory district may by resolution increase the additional amount, and their action shall be made effective by the board of supervisors.

The state commissioner of education shall annually audit and allow the actual sworn expense incurred by the district superintendents of the state in performance of their duties, but such annual expense shall not be allowed in excess of three hundred dollars.

The work of the committee, in general, is to be commended. Their plan appears to be an elaboration of the ideas embodied in that of the Principals’ Legislative Council, differing in only two particulars, but in those decidedly. We prefer the eligibility clause in the paper of Mr. Carris to the elastic proposition offered by the commissioners. The qualifications should be stated definitely, and those suggested by Mr. Carris may well be taken as the minimum. To grant the commissioner of education power to approve the qualifications of persons announcing themselves as candidates would be ridiculous.

We take it that the thing greatly to be desired in any system that may be considered, is to get the office out of politics. Neither plan offers a solution, and the one reported by the commissioners is worse than the present method of election, because it is more complicated and creates an unnecessary expense. On business principles alone the plan is not feasible. How many trustees will care to take a day off to journey to some place designated by a county clerk solely for the purpose of voting for a county superintendent? The selection might better be given to the board of supervisors, the members of which would be just as competent as school trustees to vote on such a question. But that shift would not eliminate politics.

We propose that the office be placed under the State Civil Service, and that examinations be held in every commissioner district to secure an eligible list; the appointment to be made by the county judge from the three candidates of highest standing. The tenure of office would then be secure; the rules of the civil service fully safeguarding the officer and office. The appointing power may well be vested in the county judge, as he is in many respects the county

executive, and because the judiciary is the farthest removed from politics. Under this system the present commissioners who possess the minimum qualifications and have served with credit would have some advantage over other candidates. In fact, discrimination might be made in favor of the present incumbents, provided they were among the three candidates of highest standing. Certainly the details of the appointment could be arranged to their entire satisfaction under the plan here outlined, so that all aspirants for the position would receive a square deal.

* * *

Schoolroom Ideals No SMALL part of a teacher's work is the inculcation of ideals of the right sort in the minds of his pupils. The pupils come to the teacher with all kinds of views of life and duty. Some are selfish, some are proud, some are hateful; others are generous, kind and loving; some are careless and lazy, others are thoughtful and ambitious. The teacher must take them all and make them a working community, must give them all the saine treatment and the same ideas, and must displace their low views with higher and nobler ones.

Without any attempt to moralize or dogmatize the strong teacher will find it easy to instil ideals that will be of the greatest service in building up the character of his pupils.

The ideal of discipline will come first. All pupils have more respect for order than for disorder, but, left to themselves, are seldom in order. They lack selfhood, the mastery of themselves, and cannot restrain their lower propensities. The teacher will arouse a community feeling among them, will make the sentiment for good order a common one throughout the room. This class feeling, when once aroused, becomes a powerful inspiration on the one hand and a powerful restraint on the other. The child finds it easy to do what his companions expect of him and hard to do what they disapprove. Under skillful management the class will gradually attain selfhood and will recognize it as the ideal of discipline. Then the happy teacher will need to think no more of order, but will be free to lead and instruct.

The ideal of work is closely related to that of discipline, but is more positive and far reaching. The best work springs from two motives—that of desiring to accomplish something for self and that of desiring to accomplish something for others. When the two motives are brought together, as they may be by pupils under proper guidance, the ideal of work—that of diligently working with others for the good of all—may be attained. The teacher, in order to reach this ideal with her class, must appeal to every legitimate interest and secure the full approval of the class at every step. When the ideal of work has become a living inspiration in a class, teaching becomes a joy, and the higher ideals of justice, faith and good will may be approached with confidence. Gently, almost unconsciously, the strong, noble personality of the teacher will raise the standards of the class until every member will scorn to do an act of injustice or of ill will.

If the influence continues until the ideals become firmly fixed in the minds of the pupils the spirit of the school will reach the home, and a great moral uplift will be given the community.

Studies in English Masterpieces ELMER JAMES BAILEY, ITHACA, N. Y.

Browning's Poems

I. CAVALIER TUNES. 1. Review briefly the condition of the English

government from 1642 to 1646. 2. What is the meaning of the words Cava

lier, cropheaded, loyalist, roundhead, as

political terms? 3. Who, according to the supposed singer of

these songs, are the honest folks; and

who, the rogues ? 4. Give brief historic and biographical notes

on the following proper names: King Charles, Pym, Hampden, Hazelrig,

Fiennes, Young Harry, Rupert, Noll. 5. Locate Kent and Nottingham and give

their historic significance as here used. 6. Discover the meaning of the words, press

ing, fifty-score, carles, parles, pasty, obsequies, rouse, quaff, gallants, lay, roe

buck, array, fay. 7. What is the grammatical construction of

“ ' em.” and “parles” (line 8) and what

is the meaning of line 16? 8. In Boots and Saddlewhat is the sub- .

ject of the verb “ brightens" (3) and what is the subject and what the object

of “fouts” (10)? 9. Explain the use of the quotation marks

in the last stanza of these three poems. 10. Assuming that one person sings all these

songs, show why we may conclude that they all sung before a crowd, but that the first shows the singer as the leader of a troup, the second as a father, the

third as a husband. 11. Discuss the singer's loyalty to his king.

III. EVELYN HOPE. 19. From the whole poem draw conclusions

with reference to the relative ages of

the supposed speaker and Evelyn Hope. 20. Describe the interior of the room where

Evelyn is lying. 21. From the second stanza draw material for

a brief sketch of Evelyn's life. 22. In what way does the speaker hope that

his love for Evelyn will be returned? 23. What ideas has the speaker with reference

to his existence after his present life is

ended ? 24. During this existence what is to be his

guiding thought? 25. What is the meaning of the words,

“houscope, traverse, amber, ransacked, climes, scope?"

IV. Good News From GHENT.'" 26. What was the “ Pacification of Ghent" of

which this poem is supposed to be an

incident? 27. Locate the various towns mentioned as

being upon the road from Ghent to

Aix-la-Chapelle. 28. Define the following words, 'postern, 20. De

girths, pique, holster, jack-boots, peer,

burgesses." 29. Retell the story in accordance with the

following outline:
I. From midnight to dawn.

1. The start. (1-6.)
2. Roland and his rider. (7-12.)

3. The dawn. (13-18.) II. The early morning.

1. Ronald's intelligence. (19-30.)

2. The exhausted Roos. (31-36.) III. The two companions.

1. Joris and his friend. (37-43.)
2. The roan's death. (43-44.)
The trustworthy Ronald.
1. His responsibility. (45-48.)
2. His rider. (49-54.)
3. His reward. (55-60.)



12. Locate Cape Saint Vincent, Cadiz Bay,

Trafalgar, Gibraltar. Give their histori

cal significance to England. 13. What is the sea picture presented in lines

1-4, and what does it make the observer

say? 14. Explain the reference in the expression

“ Jove's planet." 15. What is the meaning of the word “una

ware” in Home Thoughts from Abroad?of “brushwood sheaf, bole

chaffinch, white-throat, hoary, dower?” 16. What is the object of the verb “wakes,"

line 16? 17. Commit to memory lines 9-14, thought by

many to be the finest passage in Brown

ing. 18. Comment on the poems as expressions of


V. INCIDENT OF THE FRENCH Camp. 30. Locate Ratisbone and describe the siege

which took place there. 31. Who were Napoleon and Lannes; and

what were some of the chief battles in

which the latter was Marshal? 32. What is the meaning of the words, “prone,

battery-smoke, flag-bird, vans, eaglet?" 33. Show how the idea of the eagle is con

stantly kept before the reader's mind. 34. Show why in reading this poem aloud, the

sense would be obscured, if a pause should be made after every line.

51. What is the force of the words, Breton,

Croisickese, Malouins, Malo Roads,

Louvre. 52. Explain the expressions, "the blue, bore

the bell." 53. Develop the story by expanding the follow

ing topics into paragraphs :
a. The fight of Damfreville.
b. The pilots and the council.
c. The Breton sailor.

d. The reward. 54. Compare Hervé Riel and Pheidippides as

men and heroes.

VIII. The Lost LEADER. 55. Why is it that this poem is sometimes said

to refer to Wordsworth? 56. What gain has the leader earned by aban

doning the liberal party? What has he

lost? 57. Why does the speaker of the poem feel

that the leader has lost more than he

has gained ? 58. Who were Shakespeare, Milton, Burns and

Shelley; and what does the speaker

mean by saying they were “ for us?” 59. What double loss has befallen the leader? 60. How does the last stanza show that the

speaker feels pity and hope rather than hatred and condemnation for the leader?

35. What part of speech is the word “beside"

(39) and what relationship does it bear

to “chief” and to “ fell?» 36. Relate the incident of the poem.

VI. PHEIDIPPIDES. 37. Give the contents of the poem as formu

lated in the following outline: I. Introduction: The triple salutation.

II. Pheidippides' story.
1. The journey to Sparta.

(1.) The race. (0-16.)
(2.) The message. (17-24.)

(3.) The attitude of Sparta. (25-39.)
2. The return to Athens.
(1.) The indignant runner. (40-51.)

The experience in Parnes.
a. The rugged mountains. (52-64.)
b. The God Pan.

(a.) The faithful duty. (65-75.)
(b.) His message to Athens.

(76-88.) III. The expected reward. (89-104.) IV. Conclusion: The true reward.

1. The last race. (105-112.).

2. The reward interpreted. (113-120.) 38. What is the meaning of the Greek words

at the head of this poem. 39. How much of the story is historical, and

what additions have been made by

Browning? 40. Give brief notes to the following myth

ological terms, "Zeus the defender, Her of the aegis and spear, Ye of the bow and buskin, Pan, Phoibus, Artemis,

Olumpos, Erebos." 41. Give notes on the following geographical

terms, “ Athens, Persia, Sparta, Eretria,

Hellas, Parnes, Marathon, Akropolis." 42. Give an historical survey of the struggle

between Greece and Persia in 490 B.C. 43. Explain the following words: “daemons,

patron, aegis, buskin, peer, potent, patron, archons, tettrix, filleted victim, liba

tion, fosse, greaved-thigh, guerdon, 44. Give a biographical note on Miltiades. 45. Make a list of the plants mentioned in the

poem, and point out the significance of

their being mentioned. 46. What is the force of the expressions:

“slaves, tribute, water and earth; the razor's edge?"

VII. HERVỀ RIEL. 47. Give the causes and events which led up

to the battle of La Hogue, and show

the important results of that struggle. 48. Locate St. Malo, La Hogue, the Rance,

Plymouth Scund, the Grève, Solidor,

Croisic Point. 49. Give biographical notes on Damfreville and

Tourville. 50. Define the foliowing words as used in the

poem: "porpoises, shoal (1. 4), squadron, starboard, port, pressed, shoal (1. 47), soundings, offing, disembogues, rake, rampired, wrack."

IX. THE BOY AND THE ANGEL. 61. Develop the story in accordance with the

following outline: 1. Theocrite the boy.

1. His praise.
2. His work.
3. The monk's comment.
4. The boy's ambition.
The changed song.
1. The angel as craftsman.

2. The unsatisfying hymn of praise. II. Theocrite the Pope.

1. The new Pope's memories.

2. The angel's message. IV. Theocrite's old age.


62. Explain the words, “craftsman, stripling,

hue, tiring-room, vestments, dight, plied,

cell.” 63. What is the meaning of the monk's com

ment, stanzas 6-9? How is his thought

enforced by stanzas 12, 20-23, 34-38? 64. What is the meaning of stanzas II, 19, 20,

21, 22, 34?

X. ONE WORD MORE. 65. To whom did Browning address this poem,

and of what volume was it the dedica

tion? 66. Reproduce the main thoughts of the poem

in accordance with the following outline: I. Introduction: The dedication proper.

(1-4.) II. The painter turned poet. 1. Raphael's Sonnets and their inspiration.


2. The interest they would inspire. (18

25.) 3. Their disappearance. (26-31.) III. The poet turned painter. 1. Dante's picture and its inspiration.

(32-48.) 2. The interest it would inspire. (50-52.) 3. The interrupted painter. (53-57.) The explanation of Raphael's and Dante's

desires. 1. The wish of love to express itself in

an unusual way. (58-72.) The bitterness that leavens an artist's

success. (73-95.) 3. The prophet and his observers. (1.) The attitude of the crowd. 196

98.) (2.) The prophet's concern before her

whom he loves. (100-108.) V. Br-wning's desire.

1. His limitations. (109-116.)
2. His unusual expression of himself.
(1.) The special method of this poem.

(2.) The general method of his book.

(129-143.) 3. The similitude of the moon. (1.) The moon in Italy and in England.

(144-156.) (2.) The moon and her lover. (157

179.) (3.) The double soul of the true lover.


(4.) The double soul of the woman

inspired this poem. (187-197.) VI. Conclusion: Exclamatory ending. (198

201.) 67. Give biographical notes on Raphael. Guido

Reni, Dante, Beatrice, Zoroaster, Galileo,

Homer, Keats. 68. Give geographical notes on Florence,

Bologna, Sinai, London, Fiesole, Sam

mimato. 60. Give literary notes on lines 35-40, on the

Inferno, on lines 136-139, on “my moon

of poets." 70. Explain the bibical references in Sections

ix, x, XI, XVI. 71. Explain the expressions, "a century of

sonnets," "Her, San Sisto names, and Her, Foligno,” “the Louvre” “proper dowry," "Heaven's gift takes earth's abatement,” “Desecrates the deed in

doing." 72. Explain the words, “peradventure, stigma,

parchment, alien, phalanxed, prelude, flesh-pots, fiat, fresco, missal-marge, imbued, lamping, mythos, turret, impover

ished, dubious." What is the meaning of lines 42-43, 63-64,

76-77? 74. Explain the reference to the camel, stanza

XI. 75. Compare the thought of stanza XII. and

of “Evelyn Hope” with reference to Browning's ideas of immortality.

Regents Examinations

For Teachers' Elementary and Academic Certificates

June 11-15, 1906


Questions 1. Tell what is meant by (1) the equator, (2)

the relief of a country, (3) a metropolis,

(4) a capital. 2. Name three countries in America that are

in nearly the same latitude as the Philippine Islands. If Chicago is about 12° north of New Orleans, how far apart

are they in miles ? 3. Describe the trade winds, touching on the

regions where they prevail, the directions in which they blow and their importance

to navigation. 4. Give an account of the salt industry in

New York State. Name two other

states that produce salt extensively. 5. Name two railroads that connect New

York city with Buffalo. Describe the route of one of these railroads and name two cities and three villages located on it.

6. Where in the United States is sugar cane

extensively grown? Describe a sugar plantation. Mention two sources of sugar other than sugar cane. Mention two groups of islands where sugar is

extensively produced. 7. Draw a map of Lake Michigan 'and indi

cate by name the position of each of two important cities on it. Name the states bordering on this lake and show on the map the positions of their boundary lines where these lines touch the

lake. 8. Give the name and the location of a city

or a section of country where each of the following is extensively produced : (1) shoes, (2) wood pulp. (3) watches,

(4) linen goods, (5) canned salmon. 9. Give the name and the location of each of

five important seaports of Europe. Mention an important export from each of the ports named.

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