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is the unit of electrical pressure. Joule is the electrical unit of work.
18. The tangent galvanometer consists of a very short magnetic needle suspended so as to turn in a horizontal plane and with its point of support at the center of a vertical coil or hoop of copper wire through which the current to be measured is passed. The diameter of the coil or hoop is ten or twelve times the length of the needle.
It is used to determine the strength of an electric current by observing the amount of deflection of the magnetic needle when the current is flowing, through the surrounding coil.
19. The hammer of the electric bell is attached to the armature of an electro-magnet. When the electric circuit is closed by pressing down the button the armature of the electromagnet is attracted and the attached hammer strikes the bell, but the attracting of the armature to the magnet causes it to break the circuit. When this happens the magnet no longer attracts the armature, and the spring carries it back and it again makes the circuit. This causes the bell to ring automatically as long as the button is pushed.
20. The middle cell should have its carbon attached to the zinc rod of one cell and its zinc rod attached to the carbon of the other cell. This is called grouping in series.
boiling point is divided into 180 equal parts called degrees. The scale may be extended beyond either fixed point as far as necessary.
9. Conduction is the process of heating by the passage of heat from molecule to molecule. Ex. Heating a poker by putting one end in the fire. Convection is the process of heating by circulation of heated fluids. Ex. Heating by hot air furnace.
10. 400X70=28,000 calories to raise the water to 100°; 400 X 537=214,800 calories to vaporize it; 400X15=6,000 calories to raise the steam to 130°. 28000+214800+6000=248800 calories, ans.
11. Change of intensity (loudness) and change in pitch.
Intensity of sound is inversely as the square of the distance, hence the change is produced by the locomotive approaching and then receding.
The pitch rises when the locomotive is approaching because the number of sound waves that strike the ear in a given time is greater than that sent out by the vibrating body; the reverse is true when the locomotive is receding.
12. When the fundamental note of a stopped pipe is sounded the node is at the closed end and the length of the pipe is one-fourth the wave-length, while in case of an open pipe under the same condition, the node is in the middle and the length of the pipe is half the wave-length.
13. Since the length of an open pipe is half the wave-length of the fundamental note, the wave-length equals 4 feet. 1120; 4=280, number of vibrations per second.
14. The image is real when the light really comes from the image to the eye.
Virtual images are optical illusions. They have no real existence and can not be caught on the screen. When the object is placed in front of a convex lens outside of its principal focus, a real image is formed. When the object is placed between the lens and its principal focus, a virtual image is formed.
15. The angle of incidence of a ray of light passing from one medium to another of different density may be increased until the angle of refraction is 90°. A further increase in the angle of incidence will cause the ray to be totally reflected at the point of incidence back into the former medium. The angle of incidence at which this change from refraction to total internal reflection takes place is called the critical angle.
16. Fill the rectangular glass tank nearly full of water and add a few drops of milk to the water. By means of a hand mirror direct a beam of sunlight obliquely to the surface of the liquid. It will be observed that the rays of light bend down just at the point where they strike the liquid.
17. The space surrounding a magnetized body and through which the magnetic force acts is called a magnetic field. The ampere is the unit of rate of flow of electricity, or current strength. Electrolysis is the decomposition of a compound by a voltaic current. Watt is the unit of electrical activity, or power. Ohm is the unit of electrical resistance. Volt
What's in the December Magazines
Autumn Leaves for Christmas Decoration, Country Life; Home-made Christmas Candy Boxes, Delineator; Christmas Decorations, Harper's Bazaar; Songs for Christmas, Etude; Travel Books as Christmas Gifts, Travel; The British Education Bill, Review of Reviews; Woman's Share in the New Child Labor Program, Woman's Home Companion; The Panama Canal: Why the Lock System was Chosen, Century; Fair Play for Wayward Children, Century; Kipling Before He was Famous, Book News; Charles Duncan McIver: A Leader of the People, World's Work; The Child's Mind, Harpers; Human Traits in Animals, by John Burroughs, Outing; The Intelligence of Flowers, Harpers; How to Keep Plants Healthy in the House, Garden; San Francisco and the Japanese, World ToDay; Moral Effects of Athletics, Outing; Concern ng American Parents, Appleton; Judge Lindsey and His Juvenile Court Work, McClure's; Uses of Post Cards, Suburban Life: Man's Growth in Rest, World's Work; Physical Training in Japan, World ToDay; Child Labor, Arena; Teaching Children the Dignity of Detail, Musician; Education by Absorption, Success; The Child's Mind, Success; Potted Plants for Home Decoration, House Beautiful; Last Things to Do in the Garden, Suburban Life; A Home-made Japanese Garden, Garden; Wireless Telegraphy Secret, Technical World.
increase of ten per cent. in the salaries of all teachers below the principals of Grammar A.
President David Starr Jordan, of Leland Stanford University, thinks that the Carnegie Simplified Spelling board is afflicted with too much "Matthews," and has tendered his resignation as a member of the advisory board, because he has improperly been made to appear as approving all of the board's famous " 300" changes, when, as a matter of fact, he regards several of the new spellings as inconsistent.
The officers of the Merchant Marine League of the United States announce that the closing of the contests for prizes of $400, $300, $200, and $100, for the four best essays on " How to Build Up Our Shipping in the Foreign Trade," limited to students in high schools, technological schools, colleges, and universities, originally fixed for November 15, has been postponed until January 5. This action is in deference to suggestions from Harvard, Wesleyan, and other institutions and from high schools, the assertion being that the time for preparation was too short, and to the exhaustion of the supply of important Congressional documents bearing upon the subject.
School Superintendent Elson, of Cleveland, O., has introduced into the elementary schools teaching relating to the duties of city officers, the mayor, city council, police, board of health, etc. At which grade this instruction begins does not appear; but there are several grades below the high school where it may be made useful to pupils who end their school course early. The superintendent says that such instruction is “particularly valuable in cities like Cleveland, where there is a large foreign element.” In cities where the native element largely predominates there is abundant lack of definite knowledge of such things among school children.
The State Council of Education and a gathering of South Jersey school teachers have decided that they are opposed to the methods so long in vogue of holding teachers' institutes in that State. It was the recommendation of State Superintendent of Public Instruction Baxter that hereafter institutes be held on Saturdays instead of during school days, and that attendance upon the gatherings be voluntary rather than compulsory, as at present.
Manual training will be introduced in the high school of Grand Rapids, Mich. It will be done by way of experiment and the time given over to the work will be on Saturday mornings. It is the opinion of Superintendent Greeson that if the pupils are anxious for the system they will be willing to sacrifice a small portion of their time on Saturdays.
AMONG THE COLLEGES.
A full professor of lumbering will be ap pointed at Yale as soon as an endowment fund of $150,000 is raised by the National Lumber Manufacturers' Association for a chair of practical lumbering at the Forest School of the university.
There is considerable promise that the pub The University of Pennsylvania is about to lic school teachers of Pennsylvania will re- begin a number of special courses, practically ceive at the next session of the legislature the constituting a new department, by which beneficial legislation which their friends have school teachers, both men and women, will long been contending for. Two bills have be able to obtain the regular college degree of been drafted by the State Educational Asso Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. ciation's committee appointed for the purpose While not a part of the college, this new and they will be strongly urged when the leg- school will practically duplicate the lectures islature meets next January. One provides given in the regular curriculum. It will be that the State shall appropriate and control the first time in its history of 156 years that a direct "retirement fund." The other pro- the University of Pennsylvania has opened the vides that the separate school districts college degree to women. The new school throughout the State shall be authorized and will open immediately after the Christmas empowered to create a “retirement fund.” holidays. The teachers who will be cared for must have taught not less than 30 years, the last 20 of The University of Wisconsin has estabwhich shall have been in the State. The re- lished a department of correspondence instructirement annuity shall be equal to one-half the tion, designed to offer to the mechanic and average salary paid during the five years im- tradesman the same advantages that have long mediately preceding the date of retirement. , been offered to the farmer through short If any teacher shall be re-employed as a regu- course winter schools of agriculture, and to lar teacher, then the annuity shall cease, but other classes by means of summer vacation after such employment ceases the annuity may schools. be restored. The bills are not to apply in the city of Philadelphia.
The athletic governing board of Syracuse
University has adopted a resolution recomThe teachers' committee of the Scranton, mending to the University senate that beginPa., board of education has recommended an ning with the next college year all first year
regular and special students be debarred from membership in any athletic team other than those composed exclusively of first year students.
NEW YORK STATE
The Convocation The 44th annual convocation of the University of the State of New York, held at Albany, October 25-27, was well attended by principals and superintendents from all parts of the State, who must have returned to their schools with new light on the purposes of the Education Department. The program was of exceptional interest, relating to The Practical Administration of School Affairs in this
The proposed new six-year course for engineers at Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., leading to the degrees of B. E and Ph. B., is meeting with a great deal of comment mostly favorable. It is proposed to give the students a broad general culture in conjunction with the engineering training. Dr. Olin H. Landreth, professor of civil engineering and father of the plan, holds that young men entering other learned professions are now spending six years in preparation, and that the profession of engineering, on account of the many and increasing demands, requires no less time. This plan is certainly novel and should be successful. Union would receive credit for being its originator.
The dedication of the new Eastman Laboratory at the University of Rochester, marks the entrance of that institution into the broader field of scientific research and practical application, after sixty years of existence solely as a college of liberal arts. This step was made possible two years ago, when George Eastman gave $60,000 to the cause. This sum was increased by $40,000 from other contributors. The new structure is devoted exclusively to the departments of physics and biology, with model lecture rooms and laboratories. It is regarded by authorities as the finest building of its type in any institution in the country in Rochester's class..
The day when a Columbia student can take extra courses at the university without paying for them is almost past. The trustees have announced that, beginning with the university year 1907-08, a new system of tuition will prevail, by which a student will be obliged to pay $5 for each point's credit that he hopes to obtain, instead of a lump sum of $75 a term, as in the past. Under the old system, after a student's tuition was paid, he took as many courses as he desired. Some took as many as twenty-five hours a week. In this way a student could graduate in three years. Under the new system twenty-five hours a week will cost $250 a year, while a student will be unable to get the 124 points necessary for graduation for much less than a full $600, unless he has a scholarship. The avowed object of this change is to make it costly for a man to fail in his work. If a man flunks a course he will hereafter not only take it over again, but he will also pay for it over again. The authorities further expect that the change will put a premium on hard work, because at Columbia if a man attains a certain standing he receives one or two points extra credit.
In the opening address Vice-Chancellor McKelway showed the trend of the educational forces which have been at work by predicting that free university education will ultimately prevail in New York State. In referring to the matter he said:
“From the kindergarten all the way through the university the line is straight, plain and strong. The scheme which the parent has in view for the child from when it lisps in numbers to when, again gowned, it marches to graduation, is the scheme which the State has at last enacted. The first lien on all taxation is held by our common school system. That system is broad enough in many of our States to comprehend the education of the child from the beginning to the end of his scholastic life. I have no objection to the State of New York making its system as broad, as long and as thorough as that. I can conceive of no department of instruction, saving theology, which P any new State could not well take in charge, and to which any older State, such as New York, could not safely adjust its educational economy.
“We may not expedite it, but we can anticipate it. We would not antagonize private foundations, but we can look forward to the provision of State foundations as broad as those laid in younger commonwealths, and we can confidently expect not a few private foundations of which the conductors are embarrassed and in debt willingly to seek State absorption in the years to come. This would absorption in the vears do no violence to specialism or to private initiative. The State is so strong that it can tax all private wealth at will, and so rich that private wealth can provide nothing for its representatives or their children which the State cannot itself provide for the people as a whole. The free school, the free academy. the free college, the latter in parts of our commonwealth, we already have. The free university, with a full complement of professional schools, younger States have and have long had, and this State will eventually have beyond doubt. We may not live to see it, but none of us can live long enough to prevent it, and not a few of us, I hope, will live long enough heartily to welcome it.
“The trend of our State toward professional education is a surety and prophecy of this. We allow private institutions to prepare for us law students, but only by State examiners and by State courts can they be admitted to the bar. We allow private institutions to send up to us students in dentistry, in pharmacy, in accountancy, and what not. But
to put the system into operation was a compelling force in causing those who were at all agitated, to sit still and be good. Probably anticipating the public protests of Buffalo, Rochester, etc., the speaker had prepared the following:
“When argument in this matter is about over, and the attempt to organize an opposing propaganda has failed, the broad allegation is made that unification in this State has been accompanied by narrowness, autocracy, bureaucracy, inconsistency and some other possible ailments. As between initiating movements which the few will call overreaching, and the insipidity which kills all energy, and the nervelessness which destroys all op portunity, the present administration will elect the former. And just now I, for one, and for once, welcome the charge that has been made, because it provides a substantial reason for pointing to steps in the direction of democracy, local educational freedom and liberalized State policies, which have been taken in our State educational affairs since the reorganization of the State administration.
only by examinations under State auspices can they be licensed for the practice of their callings. Students of medicine and surgery are similarly educated under private auspices or under chartered institutions allowed by the State, but the medical boards, before which they must finally appear, and by which alone they can be qualified to practice, are provided by State law through our State Board of Regents, as you all well know. All this final State action is a moral justification and a logical prophecy of State initiative in every one of these fields."
Dr. McKelway was followed by the new United States Commissioner of Education, who spoke on "A National View of Education.”
The State and Its Colleges. Greek letter fraternities were severely scored by President George E. Merrill, of Colgate, in his address on “ The State and Its Colleges," because they were a hindrance to matrimony. The normal college student becomes so accustomed to the luxury and ease of the college fraternity house that he is unwilling to undertake the responsibilities and cares of married life. Furthermore, the fraternities were doing much to create classes and ruin "democracy."
He suggested that the Regents draw up a tabulated classification of the high schools which will show their respective qualifications and standards.
Commissioner Draper and President Taylor of Vassar College participated in an interesting discussion of the characteristics of the eastern and western college president. Dr. Draper expressed the belief that the eastern men were too theoretical and were afraid to mingle with “ the crowd," while President Taylor declared that he did not believe in stamping on theory. The suggestion had been made that a course in domestic science be inaugurated at Vassar, but he was bitterly opposed to it. Vassar was turning out as good housewives as any cooking school in the country. The trouble was that too much stress was being laid on method and too little on the necessity for a liberal education. Incidentally he urged upon the Regents the necessity of creating a commission which shall have in charge the money grants to the various colleges, to the end that college presidents should not be put in the position of begging or electioneering for funds from the State.
“We have absolutely withdrawn all state directions about, or responsibility for, examinations in the elementary schools.
"We have given complete responsibility for admission to the secondary schools to the local authorities.
"We are excluding mere academic work from the normal schools and giving it over to local high schools and academies.
“We have been making the elementary syllabus less directory, less minute in its prescriptions, and less difficult in accomplishment.
“We have given over the whole foundation of teachers certificates to the local academic schools.
“We have commenced to give all college graduates, even though they have no teaching experience, teachers certificates without examinations
"We are now excusing all high schools from requiring their pupils to take any examination whatever before the pupils are half way through the high school course; we are leaving it to local principals to say whether any pupil of any age is unfit to take an examination, for physical or mental reasons; and if there are any people in New York who possess a school which they think ought not to have any exact standards or respond to any known tests, and if they will relinquish their claim upon the state's money we will have to let them go their own sweet way until their experiences bring them to their senses.
"We are now turning over the whole matter of giving trend and setting limitations to the work of the schools. and of determining the examinations to be held in the schools, to leading teachers of the state, in the state examinations board.
"Instructions have been given to department officials and employees to travel no more than is required by the clear demands of the service and to refrain completely from all attempts to influence the elections in, or the declarations of, the voluntary associations, beyond the open and public discussion of questions of general educational concern.
“We have demanded that all political or partisan hands shall be taken off of the department and off of the schools, and that unselfish friends of the schools, particularly the officers and teachers of the schools, shall be unhampered in their free opportunity to compound their experiences and their opinions and give trend and buoyancy to the educational activities of the commonwealth."
Examinations and Academic Funds.
Chief interest was centered on what Commissioner Draper said on the subject, “Examinations and Academic Funds," for this matter has stirred up more animosity throughout the State than any edict promulgated by the Board of Regents in years. It was expected that a hot discussion would follow Dr. Draper's address, but his clear-cut explanation of the plan and purpose of the Department put the opposition to rout. The expressed determination of the Department
“School Room Declaration," was discussed by W. R. Eastman, Chief of the Division of Educational Extension, in which a plan was explained showing how pictures can be obtained from the Education Department at an annual rental of 50 cents each.
President Nicholas Murray Butler, of Columbia University, gave an address on " Problems of Administration in Public Education," in which he said that educational administration, to be genuinely efficient, must seek the highest aims; to be representative and to gain support, must reflect public opinion. In his view the first and chief problem, whether of a school system or of a single institution, is to seize intelligent hold of the conception of education as a phase of spiritual evolution of the individual and of the race, and to labor earnestly and unceasingly for the support, the extension, and the effective working out of this conception.
Principal George K. Hawkins, of the Plattsburg Normal School, discussed in an ably prepared paper, "The Problems of State Normal School Education."
“Cooperative Forces in Education," was the subject of the address delivered by Rt. Rev. Monsignor M. G. Lavelle, V. G., of New York. Speaking of parochial schools, he declared that no man wished to pay twice for the same thing; that he paid his taxes, and then, if he desired to have his children educated at a parochial school, he paid again. He said the Catholics of the country were not lying awake nights, however, thinking about the matter, nor were they taking any advantage by reason of any political movement to bring it about. The Catholics were not indulging in any bitterness. Mgr. Lavelle expressed the hope that in the years to come the justice of the position of Catholics would appeal to all.
Pertinent Paragraphs. “Stimulus rather than solidity, the trivial rather than the nutritive beset our students and harass their growing periods. It is an appetite of impotent veracity, and so long as the Bible, which is the mother of all excellency, the fountain of acquisition and of dissemination for the truths which wake to perish never, is not placed in every school and college to be read and obeyed, there will be a hiatus here. Surely ecclesiastics and educationalists can ponder the fact that today non-Christian lands admit the Bible to their schools, and some of us exclude it."Dr. Cadman.
“To lead from ignorance to knowledge, from helplessness to helpfulness, from darkness to light, from intellectual bondage to freedom, is not a task small or unimportant. To take the hand of a trusting child and lead him gently, aye, affectionately, through the gardens of learning and make him acquainted with the wonders of God's great-out-of-doors, to unlock for him the treasures of knowledge as they are found in books, to help him discover his God-given powers and train him to use these aright, is the work of an angel, even if he be only a schoolmaster. The very greatness of the work clothes it with dignity. The unique importance of child-training gives the teacher a commanding position in community life second only to that of the minister of the gospel. Happy the teacher who takes no low nor contracted view of his calling, but recognizes and realizes its true dignity, who can say from his own experience with Carlyle, ‘Blessed is he who has found his work. Let him ask no blessedness. He has a purpose-a life work, he has found it, he will follow it.'"-Principal Felter.
On Friday evening occurred the semiannual dinner of the Hudson River Schoolmasters' Club, to which the members of the Convocation were invited. A feature of the occasion was the enthusiastic singing of college songs. Nearly 300 attended. The guests of the club were: Rev. S. Parks Cadman, D. D., of Brooklyn; President Butler, of Columbia University, and Principal William L. Felter, Girls' High School, Brooklyn. Dr. Cadman inspired his audience with his impassioned eloquence, in which he praised the work of the teacher.
The Convocation program was continued Saturday morning by an address on “The Commercial Progress in Secondary Education," by James J. Sheppard, Principal of the High School of Commerce, New York City. He was followed by Charles D. Larkins, Principal of the Normal Training High School, New York City, who spoke on “The Relation of Industrial Exercises to Other Educational Factors." The concluding address was given by Milton J. Fletcher, Principal of the Jamestown High School, on “The Individual Student in Our High Schools," in which the speaker discussed the loss of the personal influence of the teacher in large city schools, normal schools and colleges. In pointing out a remedy he explained a plan that has been used successfully in the Jamestown high school, for the last six years, by which the pupils are grouped into sections and assigned to teachers who supervise the work of the individual and render personal aid,
“The readjustment which must surely come before there can be any really important increase in teachers' salaries generally, will, in my judgment, come more quickly if we fix our attention on a wider and better preparation for the work of teaching rather than agitate for larger salaries regardless of standards of professional preparation. To be worth more is the easiest way to get more. In every other branch of professional activity, more adequate preparation and demonstrated success are almost a guarantee of increased compensation. Why should teaching be a permanent exception to this rule."-President Butler,
"Any good high school, classical, manual or commercial, ought to give general efficiency. In other words, any good high school ought to send out pupils with trained intelligence, pupils who know how to put brains into their work, who can see relations, who can organize their knowledge, who have a degree of initiative, who can assume responsibility. These are things of primary importance. So far as any high school gives them so far does it give genuine preparation for the activities of business. But the business man wants also in his recruits a special efficiency. He wants the newcomer to have some special