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in their students intellectual enthusiasm above all other considerations in college administration.
It would be absurd to assert that good teaching is not to be found in the col. leges of the nation, but it is nevertheless entirely within the truth to say that there is altogether too much lifeless and uninspiring teaching in these institutions. Scholarship must be insisted upon as an essential element in the equipment of the college teacher, but scholarship apart from the power to foster intellectual enthusiasm falls short of achieving the purpose of the college classroom. Unless students are really stirred and stimulated in a scholarly direction, the colleges do little for their intellectual life. In the struggle with ignorance, materialism, and superficiality the colleges can succeed in the development of the intellectual life only by having vigorous, alert, and enthusiastic teachers who know that their first business is to make their students intellectually keen about things worth while.
As a whole, there has been too little emphasis placed in our colleges upon the importance of teaching-skill as a basic factor in enabling higher education to make its largest possible contribution to the enlargement and enrichment of our national life.
NE of the sessions of the University Convocation this year furnished a good illustration of the all too frequent
disposition to criticise Unfounded educational practice Criticism without a sufficient basis of fact on which to base criticism. In discussing the topic of
state appropriations for education as an investment a speaker connected with the state Board of Estimate and Control made the assertion that more attention should be given in the public schools to
physical education, and held that the school authorities of New York state are open to criticism for what he thought neglect of one of the most important phases of public school training. It is hardly necessary to say that this assertion displayed an almost total ignorance of what is actually being done in all the schools of the state to promote health education. This speaker, although holding a state position of importance, seemed never to have heard of the physical training program carried out in the schools of the entire state. This program, designed to carry out the provisions of the physical training law passed five years ago, is looked upon as the best now in practice anywhere in the United States. Other states have taken the general plan and syllabus for physical training in the elementary and secondary schools of the state of New York as a model, and have been trying to secure legislation that would make pos. sible at least an approach to the New York standard of health education. In scope and in effectiveness as a means of securing better health education, the New York syllabus leaves little to be desired. Already the school children of the state are beginning to show the salutary effects of the progressive and thoroughgoing physical training now carried out under state control. The only criticism brought against the state system of physical education has been to the effect that it is too comprehensive, and exacts demands that ean not be met. The Convocation speaker who thought the schools of the state remiss in physical education had evidently not heard of the attempts in the last legislature to modify the present physical training law in such a way as to leave to each school system the option of carrying out the state program of physical education. Fortunately the good sense of the legislature prevailed against this attack upon the law, and as a result of this failure to destroy the effectiveness of the present physical training program required by the Regents, the schools of this state are still giving more attention to health education than any other schools of the country.
It would be well for state officials and others who feel called upon to pass judgment on the school system of the state to ascertain the facts before pointing out what they believe shortcomings. If the speaker at the recent Convocation had spent five minutes in trying to find out just what the status of physical training in the public schools of New York is, he would have saved himself from the error of holding the schools up to criticism for a shortcoming which was most adequately met by the physical training law of 1916.
have enacted compulsory education laws and an incomparable system of free public school education has been established throughout the United States. School expenditures, like other expenditures for public purposes, during the past few years have steadily increased, and some people are wondering where they are to stop. There is obvious need for strict economy in the matter of school expenditures as well as expenditures for other public purposes. Taxpayers are usually not averse to the appropriation of money for educational purposes, provided they are sure that they will receive full value for all money expended. The question of financing public education is a problem confronting both the local and the state government. Thoughtful students of public school administration have long contended that since education is a state function, the ultimate control of public schools should be concentrated in the state departments of education. This view has been very generally opposed by local authorities and city officials. Whether ultimate control shall rest with local boards of education or with state departments of education is a question we will not here discuss. We wish simply to point out that our public schools should be adequately financed and that necded money should be forthcoming for their maintenance and progressive development. Let no false economy be attempted in this field. On the other hand, school authoritics should see that all money appropriated for school purpos s is carefully and wisely used. Education is the best kind of an investment both for the individual and the community, and the best interests of our future citizens demand that the public schools be maintained on a high plane of officiency and supported liberally both by the local and State authorities.
The Teaching Personality Quotient
By A. R. BRUBACHER, Ph.D., President of the New York State College for Teachers
It is merely stating the obvious to say that profound scholarship is not even presumptive evidence of teaching power. The converse is equally true, that teaching power does not necessarily betoken great scholarship. Our colleges have great teachers whose scholarship is mediocre and both colleges and schools have suffered from men of deep, broad and sound scholarship whose teaching was and is a travesty on their high profession.
In training teachers, persons are discovered who develop an intellectual acumen out of all proportion to their social and volitional power. These persons come to the end of their course with high ratings for scholarship, with a thorough and broad knowledge of professional technique, but when they attempt the teaching process they fail utterly to project either themselves or their subject into the class before them. We say of them that they are immature, that they lack social experience, that they lack personality. This judgment is temperord by our knowledge of numerous cases of a like sort, where great maturity, wider contact with life, have developed a dynamic personality. And for this reason we are properly cautious in our judgment of all minus or merely colorless personalities among teacher recruits. We hesitate to declare that any specified person will never develop this teaching power; but in this hesitation lies the source of the continual stream of poor teachers, teacher failures, the derelicts of the profession.
This personal power is the unknown quantity in higher education but particularly in teacher training. The school of education addresses itself to the task
of developing scholarship and to the inculcation of special methods in a restricted field. The college entrance requirements are defined wholly in terms of scholarship, the test being a test of the intellect, and that largely a test of retentive memory. That memory is a very small element in teaching power has not disturbed our equanimity; that intellect is only a fraction of the teacher's dynamics, has not affected our plans. We have made the humble confession that personality is a vague term, difficult of definition, a complex resultant of heredity, of environment, experience and training, and this humility covers a host of professional sins. We have made no consistent effort to analyze the teaching personality, either for the purpose of eliminating from the ranks of teachers in training, those who have it not; nor yet for the purpose of developing and increasing and improving those phases of personality which are present at the outset in a small degree. The intelligence test, so called, is the first hopeful sign that there is a way out. It gives promise that there is a means of testing personal power, of discovering personal qualities which rest in the emotions and the will either in whole or in part. And tests of the motives which lie behind human behavior, if they can be made, will shed bright light on personality and will bring into high relief the elements which are the bases of the teaching personality in particular. The ‘‘intelligence quotient” is, true to its name, primarily a test of the intellect. Its superiority to the conventional educational tests lies in the fact that it tests not only memory, but the power of perception, the association of ideas, reason, the power of judgment, comprehension, ingenuity, etc. That is, while the conventional examination may call for any or all of the intellectual qualities enumerated, it is difficult and even impossible to say how much of the student’s reaction is a pure memory product; but in the intelligence tests, the other qualities are momentarily in focus and memory is not. This is in itself a great gain. But for the analysis and the discovery of the teaching personality still other qualities must be brought into focus, qualities that are wholly absent from or are present only by implication in the intelligence test. For the sake of conformity to familiar terminology, I propose to derive a “Teaching Personality Quotient.” Our study at the New York State College for Teachers divides the matter into four phases, comparable roughly with, and including the Intelligence Quotient. These phases are as follows: A Personal History Quotient; an Intelligence Quotient; a Behavior Quotient; and a Special Information Quotient.
The Personal History Quotient
The personal history of the prospective teacher is the first phase in point of time. It has many elements. Environment shapes personal characteristics. Nationality and the occupational history of the family are to be recorded. The cultural background of the family states the educational opportunities of parents and grandparents and indicates the character of the student’s home life. The high school record continues to record the student’s scholastic achievements as in the past. A physical examination throws light on the student’s physical and mental condition. There will be a careful record regarding the vocational, avocational and recreational interests so far as such interests have be
come definite. And the student's achievements will be tabulated—achievements in leadership, in organization, in carrying responsibility, in exhibiting courage, persistence, industry, etc. The personal history quotient will serve as the basis for professional guidance throughout the educating period. Merely to state the case for this quotient is to show its immense superiority over the present inadequate matriculation process, consisting as it does, almost exclusively of the scholastic record.
The Intelligence Quotient
The intelligence test will be first of all confirmatory of the personal history. It will illuminate the scholastic record as contained in the high school certificate or in the entrance examination. It will be invaluable in checking our conventional judgments on scholastic attainment. But the intelligence quotient will do much more. It will furnish an index of intellectual power, which, taken in conjunction with the student’s record of youthful achievement, will enable the college to understand shortcomings and to provide intelligent corrective measures for failures in specific things. For example, if the test discloses a relatively weak power of association, reason and judgment, the correct diagnosis may be followed by appropriate prescriptions. This fact gives greater importance to these elements in the intelligence quotient than to such elements as mental alertness and retentive memory which will probably not yield greatly to training and education. In this respect our use of the intelligence quotient differs radically from the use made by the army.
The Behavior Quotient
It is not unusual for students to make violent changes in their social habits when they pass from school to college. Leadership demonstrated in the school, may not be in evidence in the larger social group. A vocational interests may be changed. Even vocational interests may be affected by the new environment. The persistence exhibited in the school, the purposefulness of the earlier time may not be apparent. These changes in behavior are insignificant in our present scheme because we make no effort to build the college life in consistent fashion on the life habits developed in the pre-college period. Viewed merely as an intellectual process, the college career has only incidental relationship to this body of habit which accompanies the entering freshman. But in a larger scheme of personality cultivation it is extremely important to insure continuity of development for such fundamental characteristics as were noted above, persistence, purposefulness, leadership, vocational and avocational interests. Unfortunately the college has not yet sensed its responsibility here, and has no machinery for the discovery of personal characteristics, for the systematic and continued development of well defined qualities, for the strengthening of qualities that appear weak or only nascent as yet. I believe this is an unscientific procedure in all higher education. Teacher training surely cannot attack its problem intelligently without this systematic study and continuous development of these simpler phases of personality. The Behavior Quotient will set up this desirable basis of personality cultivation. It will rate the freshman on those points which determine character, those qualities which give color to his behavior in the class room, among his associates, in all social relations, everywhere. The rating for behavior must of course be restricted to those qualities which can either be tested under controlled conditions, or which can be observed and recorded with accuracy. The
freshman will readily suspect the pur
pose of the test and yield the expected result because he detects the desire of the tester. This will vitiate the results of the test. Consequently, it will be highly important to select those qualities of conduct, emotional and volitional and intellectual, which lend themselves best to the purposes of the test. In fact, it will require long and patient endeavor, with a study of hundreds of cases, to establish reliable results. But of this I feel certain at the outset. A small list of qualities may be tested under strict laboratory conditions, and other qualities may be observed and tabulated during the college course.
Behavior by Test I propose the following list of qualities for the determination of the behavior quotient by test. Some of these may later have to be eliminated, others may be brought in as more desirable. Each constitutes an important part of the teaching personality. (1) Sympathy with and understanding of children. The instinct of play is absent in some persons. The playful child annoys them. Naiveté is incomprehensible to these people. Fairy tales, childish imaginings are foolishness to them. The absence of this quality will be a veritable blindspot in the teaching personality. (2) Resourcefulness. The ability to use ways and means that are not superficial or readily apparent, constitutes an indispensable element of teaching personality. (3) Directive ability. The ability to determine the direction which a group of people or a class shall take in thought or action. (4) Self-control. The ability to reserve judgment, to resist seductive suggestion, to control the emotions, to maintain equanimity in spite of provocation. (5) Tact. This is a composite of