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Issued the tenth day of every month except July and August Owned and Published by THE NEW YORK EDUCATION CO., 50 State St., Albany, N. Y.

HORATIO M. POLLOCK

Edi GEORGE S. PAINTER Associate CHARLEs w. BLESSING (**** |

JOHN L. WARNER Editors

ADVISORY BOARD OF EDITORS

PRESIDENT A. R. BRUBACHER, PH. D., NEw York STATE College, FoR TEACHERs
PRESIDENT HENRY SUZZALO, PH. D., UNIVERSITY of WAs.IIINGTON
CHARLES ALLEN PROSSER, PH. D., DIRECTOR. DUNwoody INSTITUTE, MINNEAPolis
PROFESSOR EDWARD F. BUCHNER, PH. D., Johns Hopkins UNIVERSITY
WILLIAM PAXTON BURRIS. DEAN College For TEACHERS, UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
PRESIDENT LOUIS W. RAPEER, PH. D., RESEARCH UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D. C.
ALBERT LEONARD, PH. D., SUPT. of Schools, NEw Rochelle, N. Y.
H. B. WILSON, SUPT. of ScHools, BERKELEY, CALIFoRNIA
E. C. BROOME, PH. D., SUPT. of SCHOOLs, PHILADELPHIA PA.
JAMES WINGATE, Ass'T IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION, N. Y. STATE DEP'T OF EDUCATION
DR. A. C. HILL, NEw York STATE DEPARTMENT of EDUCATION
PROFESSOR: WILLIAM S. MORGAN, PH. D., BERKELEY, CALIFoRNIA
CLINTON P. McCORD, M. D. HEALTH DIRECTOR, Public Schools, ALBANY, N. Y.
PROFESSOR DANIEL E. PHILLIPS, PH. D., UNIVERSITY OF DENVER

VOL. XXV DECEMBER No. 4

CONTENTS FOR DECEMBER

153 Editorials
156 Inaugural Address of the President of Cornell University,

Dr. Livingston Farrand, October 20, 1921 164 Over-Age Pupils in Foreign Communities 166 Successful Educators: Livingston Farrand 167 Buffalo Meeting New York State Teachers’ Association 171 Pennsylvania’s Educational Congress 173 Educational News and Comment: General News, College Notes,

New York State Section 184 Regents’ Questions and Answers: Arithmetic 186 Book Notices

Frederick Houghton

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EACE on earth, good-will to men, the message of the first Christmas, which the nations have regarded as an impractical ideal down through the centuries, is the one message that is ringing clear today. It was the theme of President IIarding's admirable address at the opening of the Disarmament Congress and of the thousands of sermons that were preached on Disarmament Sunday. It is the burden of the fervent supplications of innumerable mothers and fathers throughout the world who are praying that their sons may never be sacrificed on the altar of War. The long neglected vision of the dreamer is now the hope of the world. That which an appeal to reason could not do has been accomplished by the sacrifice of blood and treasure. War has wrought its own destruction. The World War taught us that war is too dangerous to be continued; that the only safety lies in peace and good-will. The means of killing has been so perfected that another war might quickly raze our great cities and destroy half the population of the globe. In a few months of warfare the civilization we have built up at such great cost might take its place among the ruins of the ages, alongside of Babylon, Greece and Rome. How much the world might have saved

Christmas, 1921

during the past 1900 years had it heeded the first Christmas message . How much it will save in the years to come if it heeds the message that comes anew with such momentous force at this Christmas season

We must remember, however, that the significance of the Christmas message will be but half realized by the erection of all possible barriers to war. Only when love and good-will pervade the hearts of men throughout the world will the glorious message of the angels reach its full fruition.

RESIDENT HARDING issued a proclamation October 30 setting apart the week of December 4-10 as

Ameri American Education

mer1.can r -

Education Week, during which Week citizens of the United

States are urged to assist general efforts to reduce illiteracy and give thought to the aims, needs and defects in the nation's educational system. The president suggests the following ways and means in which this particular purpose may be realized : ‘‘It is particularly recommended that efforts be addressed to practical expres: sion of community interest in public education. To that end organizations for civic advancement and social betterment are earnestly requested, when it can be made practicable, to provide programs which will inform the people concerning the vital needs in this direction, instruct them regarding shortcomings and deficiencies in present facilities, and bring to their attention specific constructive methods by which in the respective communities these deficiencies may be supplied.”

It is generally conceded that in a democracy the education of the youth is the most important business of the state. The safety and welfare of a democratic form of government calls for an educated and intelligent citizenship. While it is generally admitted that the United States has the best system of public schools in the world, there are still many unsolved problems confronting educational leaders and public-spirited citizens. Illiteracy, financing of public education, including the problem of financial independence of school boards, Americanization, better qualified teachers, improvement of rural school conditions, the necessity and value of health education, the over-crowding of colleges and universities, and the fact, to which the president calls attention, that there are more than five million American youth who are not taking full advantage of our free public schools, are some of the major problems awaiting solution. It is especially fitting that these and similar questions should be fully discussed from the pulpit, in the press and at public gatherings. If Education Week results in a serious discussion of the vital needs and deficiencies in our public schools as at present organized and administered, it will be eminently worth while.

Efficiency and economy, which are the standards in our large and well managed industries, are equally applicable to the administration of our public schools, if we are to receive the maximum returns for the time, labor and

money expended. An obvious need of the hour is to have more science, skill and system displayed in the administration of all departments of education, from the kindergarten through the college and university.

Superintendents, principals and teachers should enter heartily into this campaign and do their full part in informing the taxpayers at community gatherings, by school exhibits, by inviting the public to visit and inspect the actual work that is now being carried on in public schools of every grade, and thus justify the large expenditures necessary for equipping and maintaining our public schools. While education may not be the panacea for all of the social ills of the present day, it is without doubt the most important factor in bringing about a stable social order and in developing an intelligent and loyal citizenship.

It is hoped that Education Week will result in a full realization of the problems to be solved, in pointing out how actual defects in our schools may be remedied and in giving a new impetus to the successful working out of an enlarged program of education which will fully meet present day needs and con

ditions.

N the public addresses Dr. Frank P. Graves has made in the past three months in different parts of New York state he has made it evi

* dent that in the new Address - of Commissioner of EducaWalue tion the educational

forces of the state are to have a leader who has a clear, exact, and comprehensive understanding of present-day educational problems that need consideration. It is too much the practice in educational meetings for speakers to confine themselves to vague gen

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