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Regents' Questions and Answers

Physical Geography Friday, June 17, 1921. * State (a) a commonly accepted theory as to the probable condition of the interior of the earth, (b) four evidences supporting the theory. Ans. The interior of the earth maintains a high temperature, independently of the influence of the sun on its sur. face. Evidences: Thermal springs, active volcanoes sending forth red hot lava, geysers and mines, which show an *rease of heat of about 1 degree Fahrenheit for every 55 feet of descent. .*. What and where is the international date line? What adjustment of date is made when crossing it (a) from €ast o West, (b) from west to east? y? 4ns. The international date line is that line where the day changes and it ls near the 180th meridian. A day is dropped from the calendar when crossing the date line from west to east and 4 day added when crossing from east to West. When one travels westward he loses one hour every 15 degrees traveled, 0" One whole day in going around the earth, hence one day must be added. In traveling eastward a day is gained and must be subtracted. 3. How are tides caused? What conditions produce (a) spring tides, (b) heap tides? Ans. Tides are caused by the action of the sun and moon on the earth. (a) Spring tides are produced at new and full moon, when the sun, carth and moon are all in a straight line, and the combined action of the sun and moon produce a greater rise and fall of water than usual. (b) Neap tides are those produced when the moon is at first or last quarter and, since the sun and moon act at right angles to each other, the high tides are lowest at these times.

4. State a method of determining (a) latitude, (b) longitude. Ams. (a) Find the altitude of the sun when it is on the meridian, add or subtract the sun's declination for the day of the observation as given in the mautical almanac, and subtract the result from 90° for the latitude. (b) Have a chronometer set for Greenwich time. Observe when the sun passes the meridian, then compute the difference of longitude from the difference in time with Greenwich. 5. State one effect on climate, with the reason for it, due to (a) altitude, (b) latitude, (c) neighboring bodies of water, (d) prevailing winds, (e) slope. Ams. (a) Cooler, because the rare air allows the heat to radiate rapidly into the air. (b) Cooler as we proceed from the equator because the Sun's rays generally strike less direct as we proceed towards the poles. (c) They modify the extremes of heat and cold on account of the high specific heat of water. (d) Winds may be hot, cold, moist or dry according to the direction or condition of the region from which they blow. (e) A southern or eastern slope may be warmer owing to its sheltered and sunny position. 6. Describe the general circulation of the atmosphere and account for the wind and calm belts. Ams. Two general currents of wind prevail. The cool polar winds blowing towards the equator and the warm, moist return trade-winds blowing towards the poles. Owing to the rotation of the earth from west to east, winds are deflected towards the right in the northern hemisphere and towards the loft in the southern. The wind bolts occur where the polar winds are pushing forward to replace the return tradewinds blowing towards the poles from the region of the equator. The calm belts occur where the return trade-winds descend from the upper air. 7. Make a labeled diagram of a low pressure area (cyclone) in the southern hemisphere, showing (a) pressures, (b) temperatures, (c) wind directions within the area, (d) direction of movement of area. Ams. Answers will vary. 8. Locate a region of heavy rainfall and a desert region in (a) North America, (b) South America, (c) Africa, (d) Asia, (e) Australia. Ams. (a) Puget Sound region in the State of Washington, Lower California; (b) Amazon valley, Desert of Atacama; (c) the equatorial region, Sahara in northern Africa; (d) northern India, plateau of Iran; (e) southeastern part, the western and central region. 9. Give effects of the topography of New York State on (a) agriculture, (b) commerce, (c) manufacturing. Ans. The plateau extending westward from the Mohawk valley to Lake Erie and along Lake Ontario has rich level soil adapted for grain and fruit, while the rougher portions of the state are adapted to dairying. The railroads and canals furnish transportation. The fine water power furnishes electric power for manufacturing. 10. Compare the eastern coast with the western coast of the United States as to (a) number and character of harbors, (b) extent and characteristics of the continental shelf, (c) width of coastal plain. Ams. The castern coast has (a) more and finer harbors, (b) a much wider continental sholf of more fortile soil and (c) a much wider coastal plain. 11. Give an example of ((1) water gap, (b) peneplain, (c) drowned valley, (d) flood plain, (e) rejuvenated stream. Ams. (a) Delaware water gap, (b) lower portion of the Mississippi valley,

(c) Hudson river valley, (d) Connecticut river valley, (e) Osage river, Missouri. 12. What is a glacier? Name and describe four surface features formed or modified by glacial action. Ams. A glacier is a vast stream of ice slowly moving to a lower level. An Alpine glacier flows down a valley and continental glaciers cover vast territory as in Greenland. Four surface features formed are lakes, water falls, deepened and widened valleys and drum-lines. 13. Name and describe five processes that help to break down rocks and form soils. Ams. Frost causes expansion of contained water that breaks down the rocks; heat expands and breaks rocks; wind blows sand against rocks and wears them away; running water causes rocks to grind against each other and chemical action also breaks down rocks. 14. Classify as to origin each of the

following: sandstone, marble, anthra

cite coal, limestone, basalt, granite,

syenite, clay shale, lava, slate. Ans. Sandstone, aqueous; marble,

metamorphic; anthracite coal, metamorphic; limestone, aqueous; basalt, igneous; granite, igneous; syenite, igneous; clay shale, aqueous; lava, igneous; slate, aqueous.

BOOK NOTICES

THE ANDERSON ARITHMETIC, Three 3ook Series, by Robert F. Anderson, Sc. D., professor of mathematics, State Normal School, West Chester, Pa. In the preparation of this series the author has utilized not only the conclusions reached by his own study and investigations and by his experience of many years in teaching and supervising the teaching of arithmetic, but also the results of modern school practice, experiments, and investigations contributed by

many who have labored in this field to discover the inherent difficulties of the subject itself, to improve methods of instruction, and to eliminate useless subject matter. Book One covers the work of the first four years. It provides carefully organized subject matter for these years, which, if properly taught, will lead to skill in the use of fundamental processes, simple measures, and easy fractions. At the same time, it is suited to the child’s capacity and will stimulate rather than inhibit his interest in the subject. The contents are arranged in three chapters, the first covering the work of the first two years, the second covers the third year, and the third is planned to meet the usual demands for the work of the fourth year. Ample review work is provided in addition, subtraction and multiplication, while long division, easy fractions and measures receive full treatment. A large variety of up-to-date problems suitable for the grade is provided. Book Two covers the work of the fifth and sixth year and in connection with Book One gives the pupils the elements of arithmetic. The subject matter of this book has been chosen and organized in harmony with modern educational thought and successful elementary school practice. The emphasis upon the fundamental operations begun in Book One is continued in this book with particular stress upon their more difficult phases. An excellent feature of this book it the fact that tests and accuracy and speed drills are included which will reveal the differences, the achievements, and the progress of the various pupils, and thereby enable the teacher to give the needed individual aid and encouragement. The treatment of fractions and decimals is unusually clear. In the case of decimals, stress has been placed on the practical aspects of this difficult and important subject. Decimals and

fractions are also closely correlated with percentage in its simplest phases and applications. Book Three is intended for the Seventh and eighth years. It reviews through use of many practical problems all topics previously presented, with especial emphasis on subjects involving percentage. It introduces algebraic notation and presents business topics in accordance with modern commercial practice. Mensuration is developed with emphasis on the underlying principles rather than on the memorization of rules, and geometrical ideas are developed in relation to the figures themselves, involving drawing, measurement, estimating, etc. The series are based on a sound application of the results secured through modern scientific methods; stress the difficult facts of arithmetic; follow the tested and approved methods of presentation; and contain subject matter and problems closely correlated to the interests and activities of children and the demands of present day life. Book One, grades 1-4, cloth, 288 pages, price 88 cents; Book Two, grades 5-6, 288 pages, price 92 cents; Book Three, grades 7-8, 320 pages, price 96 cents. Silver, Burdett and Company, Boston, New York, Chicago. PUBLIC EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES, a Study and Interpretation of American Educational History, by Ellwood P. Cubberley, professor of education, Leland Stanford Junior University. This text-book is an introductory treatise dealing with the larger problems of present-day education in the light of their historical development. The writer holds that it is of fundamental importance to the beginning student of education and the teacher in our schools to be familiar with recent developments, to be able to view presentday educational problems in the light of their historical evolution and their political and social bearings, and to see the educational service in its proper setting as a great national institution, evolved by democracy to help it solve its many perplexing problems. This book is the outgrowth of more than a score of years of work in introducing beginning students to a study of the subject of education. To make the volume of greater teaching value the author has appended to the chapters a series of questions for discussion, and to most of the chapters a short list of topics for investigation and report. To make the references given of greater value he has selected them carefully, prefixed an asterisk to the more important ones and tried to indicate their length and value to the student. The text of the volume as it is, with the questions for discussion and collateral reading selected from references given, makes a very satisfactory four or five-unit course for a period of twelve weeks. The author is an acknowledged authority in this special field and has told in a strikingly illuminating and interesting manner the entire story of the evolution of the free, tax-supported, state-controlled public schools of the United States. The book has already been widely introduced as the basal text in the training schools, normal schools, colleges and universities of the land. Cloth, 517 pages. illustrated, price $2.40. II oughton Misflin Company, Boston, New York, Chicago. DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY, by George Young, Jr., professor of architecture, Cornell University, and IIubert Eugene Baxter, assistant professor of architecture, Cornell University. In the preparation of this text the authors have not attempted to present any now abstract material nor oven to include all of the standard problems. They have likewise not aimed to stress the practical side of

the subject at the cost of failing to appeal to and develop the student's im: agination. The writers have aimed throughout to hold the student’s attention by means of introductory paragraphs and other explanatory matter intended to show the relation of the principles under discus. sion to structural Work. At the same time the treatment of the various subjects is kept purely abstract in order to avoid, in so far as is possible, the tend ency of the whole subject to degenerate into practical rules and formu Finally, there has been added a set of exercises designed to show the applica. tion of the abstract ideas to concrete, work-a-day problems. These applica. tions have been grouped apart from the abstract problems in order to make it possible to use them with more or less freedom as the case may require, and also to emphasize the secondary and dependent character of such problems. Some parts of the book, notably the chapters on Curves, Topography, and Other Methods of Projection, have been introduced mainly as reference matter, though they might be included as a part of the regular course where time permits. More than the usual amount of attention has been given to the el tary principles of projection, in order lay a very thorough foundation for work. Exorcises intended for class roo work or review are distributed thro the text, and a parallel set, intended for drafting-room work, is given in the ap: pendix. Cloth, 310 pages, price $3% The Macmillan Company, New York. ('hicago, London. ORAL AND WRITTEN ENGLISH, Primary Book, first of a three-book series, by Milton C. Potter, Litt. D., superintend. ent of schools, Milwaukee, H. Jesesik" M. A., former teacher of English, Cle" land Central high school, author of “B” ginner's Book in Language,” and Har"

. USIC is now generally recognized as a universal human need and no longer a luxury for the few. The need for the service of more and better music can be met only through the schools. The time has come when music must be made available to every child in the entire country, whether in city or rural schools.” This quotation from the Report of the Educational Council of the Music Supervisors' National Conference gives an insight into the growing importance of music and the methods of teaching it. For every 2 school the Conference

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recommends a “phonograph and records.” The twenty-four-page booklet pictured above will be sent free to any teacher. It fills a long-felt need everywhere for a concise, definite list of music on records for use in classroom study. Starting with the Kindergarten and continuing through the High School a practical, workable group of Columbia Records is suggested. Here the teacher will find tested materials involving best methods in teaching.

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Educational Department

COLUMBIA GRAPHOPHONE

Gotham National Bank Bldg., New York
Canadian Factory: Toronto

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|T.T.J., G R A P HO PHONE COMPANY
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Please send me the following literature:

heck subject desired.
Graded outline B “ ject )
Kindergarten Record List []
Selected Educational List D
Accompaniments for Singing D
Grafonola Catalog

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