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D. from Hanover College and from Oberlin College and L. H. D. from Tufts College. He has taken graduate work at Columbia, Harvard and Chicago. After teaching Greek in New York and at Columbia for a few years, Dr. Graves held the professorship of Greek at Tufts College, Massachusetts, for the ensuing five years. He then became president of the State University of Wyoming for two years and president of the State University of Washington for five years. This experience convinced him of the need of knowing more about education, and after taking the doctorate over again, this time in education, he became professor of the history of education and dean in the following universities: Missouri, 1904-07; Ohio, 190713; Pennsylvania, 1913-21. He has also been an acting professor in summer sessions at the universities of Wisconsin, Chicago and Columbia. In addition to his wide experience as teacher, lecturer and administrator, Dr. Graves has won an enviable reputation as an author and writer on educational topics. He has written more than one hundred articles which have been published in different educational journals and is the author of the following ten well-known books: Burial Customs of the Greeks, Edition of the Philoctetes of Sophocles, A Beginner’s Book in Greek (in conjunction with Dr. Edward S. Hawes), A History of Education before the Middle Ages, A History of Education During the Middle Ages, A History of Education in Modern Times, Great Educators of Three Centuries, Peter Ramus and the Educational Renaissance of the Sixteenth Century, A Student's History of Education, and What Did Jesus Teach * The last seven of the above mentioned publications are published by The Macmillan Company. Dr. Graves is an honorary member of the societies of Phi Beta Kappa and Phi

Delta Kappa. He has held the following offices: Vice-president of the TransMississippi and International Exposition, Omaha, 1898; president of the National Society of the College Teachers of Education, 1919-20; editor of the Educational Review, in succession to Nicholas Murray Butler, since 1920; . Alumni Trustee of Columbia, Teachers’ College group, 1920. Dean Graves is a man of broad, liberal education, and his environmental and parental influences have added to his culture. Few men have a broader acquaintance throughout the country and he has an exceptionally cordial relationship with all schools and departments of the University of Pennsylvania. His educational activities have gained for him a national reputation. His knowledge of educational problems is extensive and his administrative ability is unquestioned. Under his administration the universities of Wyoming and Washington quadrupled both their number of students and their financial income. While at the University of Pennsylvania Dr. Graves was offered the presidency of six colleges and universities. The remarkable growth of the School of Education of the University of Pennsylvania is due largely to his diplomacy and administration. Dr. Graves is the fortunate possessor of a pleasing personality and is a tireless worker. Scholarly, tactful, democratic in manner, energetic, a master in the field of educational theory and practice, he should prove a worthy successor to Dr. Finley and just the man to assume the educational leadership of the great Empire state. It may be confidently expected that under his guidance the well organized school system of New York state, noted for its officiency, achievement and progress, will continue to hold its commanding place among the state school systems of the nation.

Des Moines Meeting of the N. E. A.

The fifty-ninth annual meeting of the National Education Association, which met in Des Moines, Iowa, July 4-8, was the most significant meeting of the Association since its organization in 1857. It was the first meeting of the Representative Assembly of the reorganized ASsociation, and represented directly its seventy-five thousand active members. Both in form and spirit the Association

is a new organization. It is the fruit of .

a renaissance that has quickened every phase of educational activity and aroused new interest both without and within the professional ranks. The National Association was organized at Philadelphia in 1857 as the National Teachers’ Association. It divided the field with two other young national associations until 1870 when the three became one. Until the recent war the active membership of the association had not exceeded ten thousand. The war brought the educational shortcomings of the nation into bold relief and the government called upon the teachers for many kinds of aid which were given with remarkable effectiveness. The service rendered by the Commission on the Emergency in Education, of which Dr. George D. Strayer, of Columbia University, was chairman, is one of the outstanding services of the war period. The activities of this commission stimulated educational progress throughout the World. In consequence of these experiences the teachers saw their opportunities and obligations in a new lighf. The reorganized National Education, with a membership which has grown by thousands each month, is the result. The by-laws adopted by the Association at Salt Lake City in July, 1920, provided for a representative assembly to be composed of delegates from state and local

associations. Forty-four state associations, the Education Association of the District of Columbia, and several hundred local associations which had already become an integral part of the National Association through affiliation, sent delegates to the first meeting of the representative assembly, which in a very real sense represented the great majority of the seven hundred thousand teachers of the nation. The program which President Hunter, Secretary Crabtree and the officers of the various departments prepared for the meeting this year was at once significant and noteworthy. It was primarily a program of action. There were inspirational addresses by such national leaders outside the field of education as Judge Ben Lindsey and Bishop Homer C. Stuntz, but the chief interest centered in a full and careful discussion of the great issues in the national program of education by select leaders chosen to represent the various elements of the profession. Open session of the representative assembly to which all members of the Association were welcome discussed the American Program of Education as it is related to the work of the classroom teacher, the school principal, the activities of teacher-training institutions, and of colleges and universities. There were reports of committees which had made studies of salaries, tenure, pensions, the reorganization of elementary education and of secondary education, school revenues, visual education, health problems in education, illiteracy, and citizenship training. The legislative commission, which under the leadership of its chairman, Dr. George D. Strayer, of Columbia University, and Dr. Hugh S. Magill, field secretary of the National Education Association, has been conducting the campaign for a federal department of education, reported increasing public support for the association’s legislative program and gave assurance that ultimately education would receive primary recognition by the federal government of the United States as in the other great governments of the world. Hardly less significant than the main program were the programs of over a score of departments and allied associations, some of which considered comprehensive forms of work with goals to be achieved in their special fields. Thus there were meetings of rural teachers, librarians, leaders of teacher-training, and leaders in the various other fields of educational activity. The platforms adopted by the Library Department and the Department of Rural Education were especially well conceived. For example, the platform of the Library Department calls for full library service in every school in the United States, and for the development of a public library service that will reach every element in the population, rural as well as urban. The county library will largely be the basis of this comprehensive nation-wide service. The new president of the association, Miss Charl O. Williams, is superintendent of Shelby county schools, Memphis, Tennessee. She has applied to a county system of schools the same principles of organization, supervision, and efficiency which are observed in the best developed city school systems. She has also evolved a system of professional organization whereby teachers become members of the local, state and national education associations by the payment of a single fee. It is fortunate both for the teachers and the nation that the work of the Association has been kept upon a high plane. It is true there has been much emphasis on high salaries. Adequate

salaries are fundamental to the existence of teaching as a profession. But the great emphasis has been on the contribution that public education must make to the general welfare of the mation and its people. It would be difficult to find anywhere a more perfect platform of patriotic service than the following platform, around which the National Association is rallying the teachers of the nation : 1. A competent, well-trained teacher in hearty accord with American ideals, in every public school position in the United States. Increased facilities for the training of teachers, and such inducements to enter the teaching profession as will attract men and women of the highest character and ability to this important field of public service. 3. Such an awakening of the people to a realization of the importance and value of education as will elevate the profession of teaching to a higher plane in public esteem and insure just compensation, social recognition, and permanent tenure on the basis of efficient service. 4. Continued and thorough investigation of educational problems as the basis for revised educational standards and methods, to the end that the schools may attain greater efficiency and make the largest possible contribution to public welfare. 5. The establishment of a Department of Education with a secretary in the president's cabinet, and federal aid to encourage and assist the states in the promotion of education, with the expressed provision that the management of the public schools shall remain exclusively under state control. 6. The unification and federation of the educational force of the country in One great professional organization devoted to the advancement of the teaching profession, and, through education, the promotion of the highest welfare of the nation. To accomplish this purpose every teacher should be a member of a local teachers’ organization, a State Teachers’ Association, and the National Education Association. 7. Active assistance to state and local affiliated associations in securing needed legislation and in promoting the interests of such associations and the welfare of their members in accordance with the charter and by-laws of this association. 8. Equal salaries for equal service to all teachers of equivalent training, experience, and success; and the promotion of sympathetic co-operation between authorities and teachers by utilizing under recognized authority and responsible leadership suggestions and advice based upon classroom experience. 9. Co-operation with other organizations and with men and women of intelligence and vision everywhere who recognize that only through education can be solved many of the serious problems confronting our nation. 10. The National Education Association is committed to a program of service—service to the teachers, service to the profession, service to the nation. Its purpose is the welfare of the childhood of America.

Election of Officers

After a spirited primary contest, Miss Charl O. Williams, superintendent

of the Shelby County schools, Tennessee,

and said to be the highest paid county superintendent in the United States, was nominated and elected president of the Association. The officers and executive committee for the year 1921-22 are as follows: Charl O. Williams, President, Memphis, Tenn. J. W. Crabtree, Secretary, Washington, D. C. Cornelia S. Adair, Treasurer, Richmond, Va.

Eacecutive Committee

Charl O. Williams, President, Memphis, Tenn. Fred M. Hunter, Vice-President, Oakland, Calif. Carroll G. Pearse, Chairman Board of Trustees, Milwaukee, Wis. Cornelia S. Adair, Treasurer, Richmond, Va. Thomas E. Finegan, Member of Election, Harrisburg, Pa.

The Correlation of Music With Literature

The Victrola in Correlation with English and American literature is the title of a new booklet recently published by the Victor Talking Machine Company. What is music and its function, are topics discussed in the introduction. Music is more than an art; it is an expression of life, of life's joys and sorrows, of man's longings and imaginings Music is closely related to literature in that it is a vehicle of poetic thought and feeling. Many standard selections can be best interpreted and appreciated by the aid of musical accompaniment which reveals the thought and spirit of the poem, lyric or story. The major part of this booklet consists of a list of victor records suitable for correlation with English literature, arranged alphabetically according to authors. The Victrola and Victor records are now being used with splendid results daily in the teaching of English in thousands of schools all over the United States. It is a booklet that should be in the hands of every high school principal and teacher of English in every high school, normal school, college and university in the country. This booklet may be secured without charge by writing to the Educational Department, Victor Talking Machine Company, Camden, N. J.

Educational News and Comment


—A six months’ study of Christian education in China, in its relation to Chinese government education, is the plan of the United Mission Boards of Canada, England and the United States, which has appointed representatives to make a survey of China’s mission schools. American members of the commission sailed from Vancouver August 18 on the Empress of Asia. In China they will be joined by American and Chinese missionaries, representing all Protestant denominations, who for years have been planning and preparing for this work. Dr. Ernest De Witt Burton of the University of Chicago, is chairman of the American section of the commission. The other four members are Bishop F. J. McConnell, bishop of the Pittsburgh Area of the Methodist Episcopal church and former president of De Pauw University; Dr. Mary E. Woolley, president of Mount Holyoke College; Prof. Percy Roxby of the University of Liverpool, England, and Dr. W. F. Russell, dean of the College of Education, University of Iowa.

—The Institute of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University’s non-academic division of education, attracted an attendance the past year of 105,201, according to the eighth annual report of the institute recently made public by Dr. James C. Egbert, director of University Extension. These figures exceeded by 16,711 those of the previous year. Dr. Egbert says that a program for the ninth year is now being mapped out, ‘‘ with the assurance of the co-operation of lecturers of prominence and artists of established reputation.” The institute, the report explains, is a system of popular education. It is a part of university extension which is rapidly grow

ing and which through the new home study division is reaching out to all parts of the country with rich offerings in the fields of elementary, intermediate and university training. Night and day classes in extension at the university and elsewhere will next year attract many thousands of students, including business and professional workers, both men and women.

—“Educate the Whole Man,” was the slogan of the vocational conference of directors and teachers in the Wisconsin Vocational schools held in August at Stout Institute, Menomonie. The keynote was struck by George Hambrecht, formerly with the Industrial Commission and now secretary of the Wisconsin Board of Vocational Schools. Mr. Hambrecht's fine impartiality, broad humanity and long experience, through the Industrial Commission, with the problems of the young people whom the continuation schools serve, make him an ideas leader in this work.

—The Michigan legislature consummated a distinguished educational program during the last session. The consolidation of rural schools was simplified, state aid to these schools will be made on the basis of $1,000 per school and $400 per vehicle: school officers are given the right to raise money by taxation to place school houses in a safe and sanitary condition; the minimum school year will be nine months, and by 1925, teachers entering the profession in Michigan must have had one year of professional training beyond the high school.

—John A. Stewart, the oldest financier still active in Wall street, quietly celebrated his 99th birthday August 26 at his country home near Morristown. N. J. Mr. Stewart is chairman of the

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