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sins, by suffering in his own person the penalty or curse and of the law, under which, by transgression, they had fallen; di so that finners might be pardoned and saved, consistent sent with the divine law, and without the least respect to that, igned or in any degree making it roid; but so as to establich Aicac and honour the law.
There is no truth in the Bible more clearly and abun-is, ar dantly revealed than this. This truth is evident from Cb what has been above observed from the scriptures; byt bis it is proper more particularly to attend to the scripture lister representation of this important subject.
The infitution of sacrifices of beasts and other animals, could after the apostacy of man, and the declaration, that re- ftpress demption should take place by the seed of the woman; karab and those more expressly appointed under the Mosaic at G dispensation, do all, more or less, illustrate and confirm fra fal this truth, and point out vicarious sufferings as necessary and effectual to make atonement for sin. The guilty ay pa person was ordered to bring the beast to the alter, and And lay his hands on the head of it, and confess his fin; and is to then it was put to death and sacrificed on the altar by fites i the priest, instead of the sinner, and he was forgiven, an isht, atonement being made for his fin by the death and blood 'Heu of the beast. These sacrifices were of various kinds, for
and are * The paschal lamb was an eminent type of Christ, with a principal relewi erence to 'which he is fo often called “ The Lamb, the Lamb of God."T" 1 Therefore he is called the christian's passover. “ For even Christ our palip of over, is sacrificed for us.". This lamb was lain, and roasted with fire, apa of an emblem of the sufferings and death of Chrift. There was a particulars direction and command respecting the blood of this lamb." And they ihall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts, and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. And the blood fall to you for a token upon the houses where you are : And when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy na you, when I smite the land of Egypt.”+ As the blood of this Nain lamb.cat when applied according to divine direction, secured the Iraelites from the tubes destruction which fell on the Egyptians; fo Christ wis Nain and sacrifice that they to whom his blood is applied by their believing in him, may have të their los forgiven, and be secured from that destruction which they delerra being delivered from the wrath to come. I . *Cur. v.7. +
Eph. i. 7. 7 Theil. i. ie.
and offered on different occasions, as types of Christ, and those things which related to him, and the atone. ment he was to make. For all these sacrifices were deligned types of Christ, and in this all their worth and efficacy confifted. The death and blood of a beast could not in any measure or degree, make atonement for sin, and was of no avail any farther than it had respect to Christ, and was a type and figure of his death, of his blood which he shed, which was the only real atonement, and which alone avails to take away lin. “ For it is impossible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.” It was therefore, in early times, expressly declared, that sacrifices and offerings were not desirable or of any wortb, in themselves considered, and that God did not institute and require them for their own sake, as making any real atonement for sin; but that this should be made by an incarnate Redeemer, to whom they pointed as types and shadows of him.*
And he is particularly pointed out by Isaiah, as maks ing atonement for him by suffering the evil which it deserves in the room of sinners, and for them, that they might escape punishment, and be pardoned. He says, “ He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruiled for our iniquities. The chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are healed. The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was cut off out of the land of the living : For the transgress fion of my people was he stricken. It pleased the Lord to bruise him. He hath put him to grief: When thou shalt make his soul an offering for fin, he shall see his feed. By his knowledge shall my righteous servant jufa tify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. He poured out his soul unțo death, and he bare the fin of many."'+ To bear fin, or iniquity, is to suffer the punishment of it, or the evil which it deseryes, and with which it is threat. Ff4
ened. • Psalm xl. 6, 7, 8. Heb. x.4-2. of Ifajah liji. Chap. throughout , ened. This appears not only from the plain, natural import of the phrases, but from the use of it in the Bin ble, of which there are many instances. The following are a few of them. “The holy garments shall be upon Aaron, and his sons, when they come near unto the ala. tar to minister in the holy place, that they bear not in¿quity, and die."* “ They shall therefore keep mine or dinance, left they bear fin for it, and die there for, if they profane it.”ť . Neither must the children of Israel henceforth come nigh the tabernacle of the congregation, left they bear Jin, and die.” The Apoltles express the import of the sufferings and death of Christ by the fame phrase. “So Christ was once offered to bare the fins of many."$ Who his own self bare our fins in his own body on the tree.'1 ?
In the epistle to the Hebrews, the typical meaning of facrifices of beasts is explained, and declared to be deligned to point out the sacrifice and atonement which Chril has made, when he offered himself once for all, as a sacrifice to put away fén, and bear the fins of many; the plain meaning of which is, that he, by his sufferings, took on him the penalty of sin, and bore the punishment of it, so as effectually to put it away from all who believe in him, that it may never be laid to their charge, to condemn them. He having made full atonement and reconciliation. In this sense he is said to be the propitiation for the fins of men.' And men are said to obtain redemption and forgiveness of sins by or through his blood, in alluson to the blood of the sacrifices under the law, which was the most essential thing in them, and is said to make the atonement.“ “ The life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar, to make an atonement for your souls : For it is the blood that maketh alonement for the foul."| Our Saviour says of the fa. cramental cup, when he instituted the Lord's supper,
. .. .. . ..« This * Exod. xxviij. 43, + Levit. xxii.g. Numb. xviii, 22. $ Heb. ix. 28.
(1 Pet. ii. 34.' # Levit. xvii. 11. ::.
“This is my blood of the New Testament, which is Thed for many, for the remission of fins.”+ Agreeable to this, St. Paul says, “We are justified by his blood.”I “In whom we have redemption through his blood; the forgiveness of fins.”'S And St. John says, The blood of Christ cleanseth us, [that is Christians] from all Gns.”l. St. Peter tells believers that they were “ redeemed by the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish, and without spot.” In heaven the saved adore the Ré. deemner, and say, “ Thou art worthy, &c. For thou wastflain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood."'*
There are a multitude of passages in the New Testament which set this point in this same light, and clearly import that what Christ suffered was in man's stead, and does avail to release all who believe in him, from suffer-, ing the penalty of the law; and that by this alone they are redeemed from the curse of the law, which is eternal destruction. These passages are too many to be particularly quoted. Only a few therefore will be mentioned. Christ says, “ The Son of man came not to be ministred unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ran fom for many.”He redeems or ransoms them by giving his life, his suffering unto death; this is the price, the ground of their deliverance. St. Paul says to believers, “ Ye are bought with a price.'I The word in the original, which is here translated bought, is the same with that in Rev. v. 9. which is translated redeemed. " Thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood.” The price by which men are bought, and redeemed from the curse of the law, from endless destruction, is the blood of Christ, which he shed for the remission of Gins, that is, his suffering unto death. The death of Christ, and the blood of Christ, mean the same thing. In shedding his blood and dying, he was made a curse, by which he has bought, redeemed, and delivered his people from the curse of the law. His life was the
ransom + Matth. xxvi. 28. I Rom. v.9. Eph. i. 7. || Jolio i. 7. $ 1 Pet. i. 19, . Rev. v.9. † Matth. XX. 28. I Cor. vi. 20. vii, 23.
guilty of crimes which are pardoned, and from which they are justified by the blood of Christ.
In order more fully to explain and establish the a. tonement of Christ, which he has made by his suffering unto death, as it has been represented from the holy scripture; and to obviate, as far as possible, every difficulty and objection which may arise in the minds of any, it is proper and necessary to consider the following ques. tions.
QUESTION I. Where is the justice of an innocent person suffering for the guilty, and, on that account, delivering the criminal from the sufferings which he deserves ? How can such a procedure honour the law, and support government ?
ANSWER I, The Scripture states the matter so, and abundantly asserts, that Christ, though perfectly innocent and holy himself, did die for'Ginners, and in their behalf; that he suffered, the just for the unjust; and that by this, all who believe in him are delivered from the evil, the suffering, which they deserve, and saved forever. Therefore every objection to this, is equally an objection to the Bible. Let Deifts object, and triumph in the imagination that it is unanswerable ; but let Christians believe, and with care and honest meekness consider, whether this supposed difficulty may not be easily removed.
Answer II, Can it be reasonably asserted; is it true, that an innocent, worthy person may not justly, and with the utmost propriety, suffer in the room of a criminal, in order to save the latter from suffering, in any cafe whatsoever ? Is not the contrary true, and agreea. ble to the cominon sense of mankind ? Benevolus sus. tained the best and most worthy character of any man