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versities. Here and there orientation drift about aimlessly in a sea of liberal courses and courses in “learning to subjects. The traditional appeal that think" are being introduced for fresh one should go to college to acquire culmen. These general courses are intended ture is far less potent than it once was. to give an overview of human knowl. The assumption that one is liberalized edge, to orient the students to the world only by studying the so-called liberal of nature, and to organized society, to subjects is being seriously questioned. give them an intelligent point of view Culture, it is maintained, is something with regard to the present day problems that cannot be acquired by aiming at it of society, and to furnish them with the directly; it is, on the contrary, the nost tools and the methods for solving the important by-product of any program question of their work in life and of of education, depending not merely their relationship and responsibilities to upon the aims and materials contained the present day social and industrial in the program but upon the way in organizations.

which the materials are presented. If In this connection attention should one be trained adequately in law, medialso be called to the movement which cine, nursing, teaching, or any other really began in the secondary schools for profession and as a result of his trainthe reorganization of the materials of ing is imbued with the ethics and spirit the various subjects of study. I have of his craft so that he dedicates his life reference to the introduction of courses primarily to service and citizenship in general science and general mathe rather than to personal gain and to the matics, and to new courses based upon accumulation of a fortune, he has, it is a reorganization of subject matter in maintained, all of the benefits of any the foreign languages and the social liberal program of education. If this sciences. These courses are not short aim appears somewhat ethical, I ask, “Is courses, such as were in existence a it more visionary than the aim of culture generation ago, nor are they survey based upon a knowledge of a number courses, such as are now in existence in of fragmentary 'liberal subjects'"'? many colleges and universities. They One of the facts that has been slowly represent a thorough reorganization and borne in upon those in administrative coördination of the materials in these positions in higher institutions of learnfields.

ing is that among the many factors that A second movement calculated to in are responsible for the failure of many sure a more systematic education is the students in college are the following: movement to organize definite programs (1) a sheer lack of intellectual ability; in terms of definite objectives. This (2) the absence of certain necessary situation has been forced by two setsmoral and character qualities; (3) the of factors: increasing pressure from the failure of realizing what it means to outside for training along specific lines work and how to work; (4) the lack of for definite forms of service, and the

a definite objective when they enter insistent demand on the part of an in- college. creasing number of students that there A knowledge of these factors, and be definite programs of study with particularly of the fourth, has condefinite objectives available for them. tributed to another movement equally The vast majority of students entering significant in the field of higher educacollege to-day know what they want tion and that is the movement to give training for. They are not willing to more individual attention to entering

students and to offer them intelligent depended upon ability in these respects, vocational advice. This movement has and it still does and should to a large not had easy sailing in all institutions, extent. Contributions in the way of renor has there been anything like unani search have gained early recognition for mous approval of it on the part of uni

the young scholar while the skillful versity men. There are those still on

teacher has usually had to wait until college faculties who quite sincerely be

late in life to receive the recognition he lieve that it is no part of the institu

deserves. Since the emphasis has not tion's business to look after the intel

been upon the instruction act, classroom lectual welfare of its students outside of class. They are willing that some

procedure and improved methods of

teaching have not received the considerattention be given to the social and moral welfare and to providing proper

ation or made the progress they should. living accommodations for students, but

Furthermore, many college instructors that so far as studentship is concerned

in the past have not welcomed, to say the student should be placed upon his

the least, supervision of their instruc"own" at once. These faculty repre

tion. There is much superior teaching sentatives look carefully after the pres- in college circles, but no one familiar ervation of the traditions and the integ

with the situation would for a moment rity of the institution. But to them the admit that further improvement is imstudent is entitled to little time or con

possible. Nothing can have a healthier sideration outside of class hours. For

reactionary effect upon instruction than tunately, this point of view is passing attention on the part of the instructor An attitude of self-complacency and of

to an improvement of the teaching act medievalism so far as instruction is itself. In the future more consideration concerned will no longer be accepted.

rather than less will be paid to it. Those who tolerate their students and The other type of readjustment dewho regard them as a necessary evil are serving consideration is the introduction gradually being displaced by those who of courses less than four years in length. have a more human point of view. Yale One of the fetishes in college life has has her all-university freshman year, been the four years' course. It has Princeton her tutorial system, Harvard been presumed that it is a sine qua non her upper classmen's advisory system, for a college education. And yet many Northwestern her personnel officer, and students of higher education have long many other institutions their advisory known that many courses should be less officers for the giving of vocational ad than four years in length. Çollege auvice, and the selection and placement of thorities have hesitated to introduce students.

them for several reasons. One is that it There are at least two other matters is not done; it is not good form; it deserving of attention that would im- violates tradition. But society is growprove the situation in higher education. ing more complex and the demands for One of these is the giving of more atten the training of groups not hitherto tion to the improvement of teaching served by colleges are more insistent. Not enough attention has been paid to The discoveries of modern psychology this matter in the past. Instructors have shown that all students should not have been selected on the basis of their be encouraged, because of differences in scholastic qualifications and their ability ability to attempt the longer courses. to carry on research. Promotion has Two forces, one social and the other

psychological, are forcing a considera dent, be equally open to all. The choice tion of the problem.

of election should always be determined The growth of the freshman and by the objectives of the students. sophomore registration has hastened If programs of study were mapped the matter. Some valiant advocates of out in terms of well-defined objectives the traditional conception of higher and students received intelligent guideducation maintain, as I have already ance in choosing their programs, and if indicated, that all the incompetent they were permitted to move forward should be eliminated. With this view I at their several rates of abilities, the most heartily agree. Where to draw mastery of one unit serving as the necesthe line of incompetency is the question. sary basis for attempting the next, it What ability constitutes the threshold would be found that there would be of college work remains undecided. But more enthusiasm in studentship, more wherever it is drawn, those who pass intelligent discussion in class, and less beyond should, after having received the artificiality in grading. Perhaps this is best advice available, be permitted to nothing but the idle dream of a schoolchoose a curriculum corresponding to master. That it is heresy, I admit. their abilities and desires. Some of That is will come true, I believe. The these curricula will be less than four fact that all students do not move foryears in length. Indeed, a few such ward at the same rate of speed is not curricula have already been introduced necessarily a sign of incompetency. in practically all universities.

Some will proceed along given lines or The development of junior colleges accomplish a given program of educahas stimulated a consideration of this tion more rapidly than others. matter. Many believe that the junior The efficiency of our higher institucollege should be not merely a prepara tions of learning in the future will not tory but also a finishing school. Where be determined by the number they elimjunior colleges exist as a part of the inate, important and necessary as that university system and plant it is con matter may be, but by the extent to ceivable that a number of departments which they guide students wisely, train may coöperate in providing a definite them in proper habits of thinking, beprogram serving the needs of a group of come interested in their individual abil. students, three years in length.

ities and welfare, reorganize the mateThe danger which inheres in pro rials of instruction, improve their methgrams less than four years in length is ods of teaching, introduce programs of that the college or university will be work adapted to modern society and to come essentially a trade school. This is the needs of students, and remain close a real danger and should be carefully to the people. The coming of large guarded against. On the other hand, no numbers of students to colleges and uniuniversity can escape the obligation of versities is not a thing to be deplored; providing vocational and professional it is a most fortunate sign. training. Indeed, every university pro We have, I fear, been too prone to vides such training now.

accept a European conception of schoShould greater flexibility in the mat lasticism as a basis for the organization ter of curricula be introduced, the newer of our colleges and universities. Cerand shorter curricula as well as the tainly we do not wish to, even if we older and longer curricula should, after could, long imitate European methods proper advice has been given to the stu of education. Our democracy is not


bound by social castes. Leadership in produce nearly the same effect, the steel this country is dependent, we believe, being necessary where large quantities upon differences in intellectual ability. are printed annually and the copper To discover and provide training for being sufficient for smaller numbers. this in every field, we maintain that the The majority of the college diplomas door of opportunity should never be are lithographed-printed from stone. shut in the face of any citizen. The The engraving is done right on the stone American creed is that every man should from sketches previously created, and receive such education as his circum then from this engraved stone a transfer stances and ability will permit him to print is made to make it possible to print profit by. He is entitled to life, liberty them on an offset press, while steel and and the pursuit of happiness, and the copper plate prints are each made by first business of our schools, elementary hand, a very slow process, and therefore and high, is to make life worth living, more expensive. liberty worth striving for, the pursuit The cheapest method is either photoof happiness something for which no lithograph or photo-engraved. Both of man need be ashamed.

In making a these processes require first a perfect man it is our business to make him a hand-made pen and ink copy of the good citizen and at the same time to complete diploma. This is where many make him good for something.

printers fail by not having proper origUpon no subject is there such uni- inal copies to photograph from. Then versal agreement as upon the efficacy of by a photographic manipulation it is higher education. There has been

transferred to either stone or metal. shift of emphasis of which many ap

These two methods do not cost so much parently are still unaware from educa as the straight stone-cut work, and tion as a personal privilege to the belief naturally do not produce the fine effect that education is a universal right and and delicate lines of the straight lithoits support a public duty, and this shift graph prints. is bringing in its train a whole series of Schools in general determine the charnew types of administrative adjust- acter of their diploma by the expense

Ames & Rollinson are prements, all of which will require in- involved. creased support, but all of which will pared to print them by any and every mean more sympathetic consideration process. The editor visited their studio for the needs of the individual and the

in January and the artistic display of demands of society.

hand-made designs of all character proves their ability to create diploma

designs that are a credit to all concerned. The Making of Diplomas Perhaps very few of our readers are

That All Depends familiar with the process by which

The teacher had been trying to indiplomas are produced. The diploma culcate the principles of the golden rule firm of Ames & Rollinson, 206 Broad

and turn-the-other cheek. way, New York City, has favored us “Now, Tommy', she said, “what with the following statement on this would you do supposing a boy struck subject :

The highest class diploma that can be “How big a boy are you supposing”? made is engraved on steel The next

demanded Tommy.-American Legion best is copper engraved. In fact, both Weekly.


Comparison of the 6-3-3 Plan and the

and the 6-4-2 Plan in the Organization of Elementary

and High Schools

By WILLIAM JOHN COOPER, City Superintendent of Schools, Fresno, California


Approximately one-third of all the porting that they had one more city superintendents who answered the junior high schools was 386, making a questionnaire of the Federal Bureau of gain of 70 cities having such schools for Education reported junior high school

the period of about two years; in 1919organizations of some sort in operation

20 the number of schools reported by in their cities during the school year

these 386 cities was 575, making a gain

of 158 junior high schools for the same ending June, 1922. To quote from City

period.'-Bureau of Education City School Leaflet No. 12:

School Leaflet No. 12, page 1. “The total number of junior high

Of these 733 schools, 523 offer suffischools reported by the superintendents

cient data on grades included in each of these 456 cities was 733."

junior high school to make possible In 1919-20 the number of cities re tabulation as follows:


TABLE 1 Junior High Schools in Cities Having Population of 2,500 or over Data from U. S. Bureau of Education City School Leaflet No. 12 (B. Y. Hebb]

Sept. 1923 Cities of Over 30,000 to 10,000 to Under Grades 100,000 100,000 30,000 10,000 Totals 1 yr. 2 yrs. 3 yrs. 4 yrs. Starting at 6-7 4





Grade 6 6-7-8-9 1



12 7-8

33 49

119 201 201 7-8-9 103 89 37 65 294


Grade 7 7-8-9-10

1 4


499 8 1

1 1



Grade 8 8-9-10 1



1 1


9 9-10


Grade 9

[blocks in formation]

It appears from this table (No. 1) of the total 523, or nearly 93 per cent that the popular types of junior high of all those reporting. Four year groupschool organization are the 6-2-4 and the ings of all sorts, on the other hand, 6-3-3 rather than the types I have been number only six, and of these six the asked to discuss since, it will be noted, 7-10 plan is used in only four cases, less these two types embrace 495 schools out than 1 per cent of all.

* Address delivered at the Chicago meeting N. E. A. Department of Superintendence, February 27, 1924.

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